interaction of lectins with yersinia pestis strains.the ability of lectins to interact with yersinia pestis strains isolated from rodent fleas and human biological fluids, obtained from different geographic areas, was examined. lectins of canavalia ensiformis, ulex europaeus, phaseolus vulgaris, and triticum vulgaris, as well as a new autochthonous lectin of swartzia pickellii of undefined specificity, were used. most of the y. pestis strains did not agglutinate with u. europaeus or c. ensiformis lectin. however, p. vulgaris lectin agglutinated s ...19902091525
the black death past and present. 1. plague in the 1980s.this paper considers firstly the epidemiology of plague in the 1980s. the largest number of cases occurred in tanzania. most cases were in children and young adults; in the usa the male:female ratio was about 2:1. plague had a seasonal distribution. almost all cases arose from bites of infected rodent fleas, and rattus spp. were the most important reservoir hosts. virulence is linked with the presence of a 45 mda plasmid. the predominant clinical form of plague is bubonic, followed by septicaemi ...19892617596
[the ability of fleas of synanthropic rodents and small gerbils to feed on human blood].experimental study of the ability of ceratophyllus (nosopsyllis) mokrzeckyi, c. (g.) laeviceps, x. conformis fleas, norway rats' parasites from the northern and northwestern caspian sea coasts, and the specific norway rats' flea c. (n.) fasciatus, to feed on human blood, demonstrated that all these species may be of epidemiological significance due to their active attacks on man and human blood sucking. the murine rodent fleas c. (n.) mokrzeckyi are, though, less active human blood suckers (29.9 ...19892628709
[serologic sutdy of rodent fleas for plague]. 19734780105
a technique for estimating the total number of rodent fleas in cane fields in hawaii. 19665904395
fleas (siphonaptera) infesting giant kangaroo rats (dipodomys ingens) on the elkhorn and carrizo plains, san luis obispo county, california.the giant kangaroo rat, dipodomys ingens (merriam), has a limited distribution in the san joaquin valley, ca. because of reductions in its geographic range, largely resulting from humans, the species was listed as an endangered species in 1980 by the california fish and game commission. as part of a study of the community ecology of southern california endangered species, including d. ingens, we were able to make flea collections from the rats when they were trapped and marked for population stu ...19938433341
prevalence of rat fleas in and around delhi (india) area and their susceptibility status to insecticides.a rapid survey in delhi and surrounding areas was undertaken in september 1994, during plague outbreak in district beed (maharashtra) and surat (gujarat) to monitor rodent/flea population and to determine susceptibility status of fleas to insecticides. the five rodent species in order of their prevalence were rattus rattus (86.06%), mus musculus (15.33%), suncus murinus (2.47%), bandicoota indica (0.48%) and b. bengalensis (0.48%). two flea species, xenopsylla cheopis and x. astia, were captured ...19968806038
laboratory techniques for rearing the fleas (siphonaptera: ceratophyllidae and pulicidae) of california ground squirrels (rodentia: sciuridae) using a novel nest box.three species of fleas, oropsylla montana (baker), hoplopsyllus anomalus (baker), and echidnophaga gallinacea (westwood), occur seasonally on the california ground squirrel, spermophilus beecheyi (richardson). few studies have focused on the biology and ecology of these fleas despite their importance in the epidemiology of sylvatic plague. to best duplicate a natural parasite-host relationship in the laboratory, a novel nest box was developed that facilitated housing wild-caught s. beecheyi, was ...200111372977
flea, rodent, and plague ecology at chuchupate campground, ventura county, california.chuchupate campground in ventura county, california, was closed to the public for 18 years (1982 to 2000) because of uncontrolled vector fleas and persistent plague antibody titers in rodents. the primary purpose of this study was to clarify the plague ecology of chuchupate campground by identifying involved rodents and their vector fleas and by determining many of their ecological parameters: abundance, flea and host preferences and diversities, and flea seasonality. rodents and fleas were iden ...200212125863
ecological studies of wild rodent plague in the san francisco bay area of california. ii. efficiency of bacterial culture compared to animal inoculation as methods for detecting pasteurella pestis in wild rodent fleas. 195813559593
flea-borne bartonella grahamii and bartonella taylorii in bank voles.bartonella species are increasingly associated with a range of human and animal diseases. despite this, we have a poor understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of many species, especially those circulating in wild populations. previous studies have demonstrated that a diverse range of bartonella species are abundant in wild rodent populations; little is known regarding their modes of transmission, although both direct and indirect routes have been suggested. in this study, with bank voles ( ...200415200860
molecular detection of bartonella quintana, b. elizabethae, b. koehlerae, b. doshiae, b. taylorii, and rickettsia felis in rodent fleas collected in kabul, afghanistan.the prevalences of bartonella spp. and rickettsia spp. were investigated using molecular methods in 77 rodent fleas collected in november 2002 by the french forces detachment in kabul, afghanistan. overall, bartonella dna was detected in 15.5% of gerbil fleas and 40.5% of rat fleas, whereas rickettsia felis was found in 9% of gerbil fleas. we described for the first time in this country bartonella quintana, b. koehlerae, b. taylorii, and rickettsia felis in fleas from the gerbil species meriones ...200616525103
effect of deletion of the lpxm gene on virulence and vaccine potential of yersinia pestis in mice.yersinia pestis undergoes an obligate flea-rodent-flea enzootic life cycle. the rapidly fatal properties of y. pestis are responsible for the organism's sustained survival in natural plague foci. lipopolysaccharide (lps) plays several roles in y. pestis pathogenesis, prominent among them being resistance to host immune effectors and induction of a septic-shock state during the terminal phases of infection. lps is acylated with 4-6 fatty acids, the number varying with growth temperature and affec ...200717374882
phylogenetic analysis of bartonella detected in rodent fleas in yunnan, china.previous studies have demonstrated a diversity of bartonella spp. in rodent populations in yunnan province, china. although bartonella spp. have been isolated from cat fleas and cattle ticks collected from their animal hosts, little is known about bartonella carried by rodent fleas. in this study, bartonella dna was detected by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) in two of five species of rodent fleas. these included xenopsylla cheopis and ctenophthalmus lushuiensis, which were collected from rattus ...200717984255
[relations of the causative agents of plague and listeriosis during their simultaneous stay in the flea citellophilus tesquorum at different environmental temperatures].experiments were carried out to determine the persistence of a plague microbe with varying praline labeling (isolated in the central caucasian mountain focus of plague in the fleas citellophilus tesquorum of a mountain subspecies) in the contamination of the mixed culture of the plague microbe and listeria. inoculation of fleas with a suspension of a plague microbe and listeriae demonstrates the manifest signs of antagonism between both species of microorganisms. this is evidenced by the reducti ...200818368716
rodent and flea abundance fail to predict a plague epizootic in black-tailed prairie dogs.small rodents are purported to be enzootic hosts of yersinia pestis and may serve as sources of infection to prairie dogs or other epizootic hosts by direct or flea-mediated transmission. recent research has shown that small rodent species composition and small rodent flea assemblages are influenced by the presence of prairie dogs, with higher relative abundance of both small rodents and fleas at prairie dog colony sites compared to grasslands without prairie dogs. however, it is unclear if incr ...201020158331
plague studies: 10. control and examining the control and prevention of plague, the author pays particular attention to the control of commensal rodents and their fleas.the various rat poisons in current use, their efficacy and practical application, and the dangers involved in their manipulation are described in great detail. the author also discusses other anti-rodent measures such as fumigation, rat-proofing, sanitation, protection of food, etc.the second part of the study deals with: vector control-the outstanding value ...195320603968
[rodent fleas (siphonaptera, insecta) in the terek-kuma interfluve].the fauna of rodent fleas comprises 19 species in the terek-kuma interfluve. most detected parasites settle together with their hosts within and outside this area. only gerbils and their parasites are limited to the spread in a semi-desert zone. the attribution of the fleas to various hosts, such as little sousliks, gerbils, jerboas, mice, and common voles, is not absolute and the parasites are, in addition to the principal hosts, encountered on the rodents of other species. exchange of the para ...201121476257
seasonal and among-site variation in the occurrence and abundance of fleas on california ground squirrels (otospermophilus beecheyi).an improved understanding of the ecology of fleas on california ground squirrels, otospermophilus beecheyi, is warranted given the role of fleas in the transmission, and perhaps persistence, of the plague-causing bacterium yersinia pestis. we sampled o. beecheyi on a seasonal basis from three study sites, each representing a different land use type (preserve, pasture, and agriculture) in the san joaquin valley, ca. overall, the abundance of fleas on squirrels was greatest in spring at the preser ...201121635649
the fleas (siphonaptera) in iran: diversity, host range, and medical importance.flea-borne diseases have a wide distribution in the world. studies on the identity, abundance, distribution and seasonality of the potential vectors of pathogenic agents (e.g. yersinia pestis, francisella tularensis, and rickettsia felis) are necessary tools for controlling and preventing such diseases outbreaks. the improvements of diagnostic tools are partly responsible for an easier detection of otherwise unnoticed agents in the ectoparasitic fauna and as such a good taxonomical knowledge of ...201728068343
molecular survey of bartonella species and yersinia pestis in rodent fleas (siphonaptera) from chihuahua, mexico.rodent fleas from northwestern chihuahua, mexico, were analyzed for the presence of bartonella and yersinia pestis. in total, 760 fleas belonging to 10 species were tested with multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis targeting the glta (338-bp) and pla genes (478-bp) of bartonella and y. pestis, respectively. although none was positive for y. pestis, 307 fleas were infected with bartonella spp., resulting in an overall prevalence of 40.4%. a logistic regression analysis indicated that the p ...201626576933
fast and simple detection of yersinia pestis applicable to field investigation of plague foci.yersinia pestis, the plague bacillus, has a rodent-flea-rodent life cycle but can also persist in the environment for various periods of time. there is now a convenient and effective test (f1-dipstick) for the rapid identification of y. pestis from human patient or rodent samples, but this test cannot be applied to environmental or flea materials because the f1 capsule is mostly produced at 37°c. the plasminogen activator (pla), a key virulence factor encoded by a y. pestis-specific plasmid, is ...201323383008
investigation of and response to 2 plague cases, yosemite national park, california, usa, august 2015, plague was diagnosed for 2 persons who had visited yosemite national park in california, usa. one case was septicemic and the other bubonic. subsequent environmental investigation identified probable locations of exposure for each patient and evidence of epizootic plague in other areas of the park. transmission of yersinia pestis was detected by testing rodent serum, fleas, and rodent carcasses. the environmental investigation and whole-genome multilocus sequence typing of y. pes ...201627870634
molecular history of plague.plague, a deadly zoonose caused by the bacterium yersinia pestis, has been firmly documented in 39 historical burial sites in eurasia that date from the bronze age to two historical pandemics spanning the 6th to 18th centuries. palaeomicrobiologic data, including gene and spacer sequences, whole genome sequences and protein data, confirmed that two historical pandemics swept over europe from probable asian sources and possible two-way-ticket journeys back from europe to asia. these investigation ...201627615720
physiology of yersinia pestis.this chapter outlines the physiology of yersinia pestis with emphasis on identifying unique functions required for tissue invasion and acute disease. these activities are opposed to often incompatible processes expressed by very closely related yersinia pseudotuberculosis, which causes localized gastrointestinal infection. gain of new information in y. pestis entailed lateral transfer of plasminogen activator and anti-phagocytic capsular antigen via the plasmids ppcp and pmt, respectively, and d ...201627722861
plague gives surprises in the first decade of the 21st century in the united states and worldwide.plague is an ancient disease caused by the bacterium yersinia pestis and transmitted by rodent flea bites that continues to surprise us with first-ever events. this review documents plague in human cases in the 1st decade of the 21st century and updates our knowledge of clinical manifestations, transmission during outbreaks, diagnostic testing, antimicrobial treatment, and vaccine development. in the united states, 57 persons were reported to have the disease, of which seven died. worldwide, 21, ...201324043686
sex-biased parasitism is not universal: evidence from rodent-flea associations from three biomes.the distribution of parasites among individual hosts is characterised by high variability that is believed to be a result of variations in host traits. to find general patterns of host traits affecting parasite abundance, we studied flea infestation of nine rodent species from three different biomes (temperate zone of central europe, desert of middle east and tropics of east africa). we tested for independent and interactive effects of host sex and body mass on the number of fleas harboured by a ...201323636459
serological and pcr investigation of yersinia pestis in potential reservoir hosts from a plague outbreak focus in zambia.plague is a bacterial zoonotic disease, caused by yersinia pestis. rodents are the natural hosts with fleas as the vehicle of disease transmission. domestic and wild dogs and cats have also been identified as possible disease hosts. in zambia, plague outbreaks have been reported in the southern and eastern regions in the last 20 years. based on these observations, y. pestis could possibly be endemically present in the area.201728754138
identification of risk factors associated with transmission of plague disease in eastern zambia.plague is a fatal, primarily rodent-flea-borne zoonotic disease caused by yersinia pestis. the identification of risk factors of plague was investigated through questionnaire interview and conducting focus group discussion (fgd) in sinda and nyimba of eastern zambia. a total of 104 questionnaires were administered to individual respondents and 20 groups consisting of 181 discussants, which comprised fgd team in this study. the study revealed that trapping, transportation, and preparation of rode ...201728722614
[test results on the insecticidal activity of oradelt and omait against rodent fleas].the paper presents the results of trials of the commercial agents oraldelt and omaita as an insecticide against rodent fleas. the agents were found to produce highly toxic effects on fleas. the field trials established the high poolecidal effectivity of oraldelt in the mountain suslik habitats. the commercial agent oraldelt containing 0.05% of decamethrin may be recommended for the control of fleas in the foci of suslik-type plague.20109182200
[the results of a trial of the insecticidal activity of oradelt and omait against rodent fleas].the paper provides the results of examining the insecticidal activity of the commercial agents oradelt and omait against rodent fleas. the two agents have been ascertained to have a high toxicity for fleas of various species and genera. the field trials have shown that oradelt has a dusticidal effect in the habitats of mountain suslik. the oradelt dust containing 0.05% of the active ingredient should be recommended for controlling fleas in the foci of the suslik-type plague.20107770015
comparative morphology of rodent flea eggs in china. 19938268496
[the insecticidal action of the synthetic pyrethroid decis on the rodent flea].a new aspect of insecticide action of synthetic pyrethroid "decis" as a system poison for wild rodent flea control is discussed. rapid decay of the insecticide gives an opportunity to use it in grain baits in the natural foci of plague.20121508074
temperature and humidity in the microhabitat of rodent fleas in hawaiian cane fields. 19655891043
sylvatic plague studies. x. survival of rodent fleas in the laboratory. 195313046890
[principles of predicting the density of rodent flea populations].the paper gives the indices of abundance of fleas of different species of rodents in their fur and in their burrows and lays emphasis on the general mechanisms by which the density of these blood-sucking insects is a species-specific (populational) sign and does not greatly differ from the mean many-year values. by using citellophylus tesquorum and other specias as an example, the authors present the results of a study of natural mortality in fleas, which suggest that the mean longevity of imago ...201012298169
contribution of land use to rodent flea load distribution in the plague endemic area of lushoto district, tanzania.fleas associated with different rodent species are considered as the major vectors of bubonic plague, which is still rampant in different parts of the world. the objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of land use to rodent flea load distribution at fine scale in the plague endemic area of north-eastern tanzania. data was collected in three case areas namely, shume, lukozi and mwangoi, differing in plague incidence levels. data collection was carried out during both wet and d ...201426867283
rodent-pika parasite spillover in western north america.competition during the cenozoic expansion of the rodentia may have contributed to ecological niche reduction of pikas, which are now increasingly under threat as their habitat degrades under global climate change, while some rodents expand their ranges and overlap with pikas. range overlap carries the possibility of disease spillover. contemporary north american pikas are cold-adapted and relegated primarily to alpine environments where they subsist on relatively low-quality herbaceous diet. yet ...201728419257
ranging of male oropsylla montana fleas via male california ground squirrel (spermophilus beecheyi) juveniles.we asked if fleas more frequently remain on those california ground squirrels (spermophilus beecheyi) that are likely to emigrate from their natal nest. in camp ohlone, alameda county, california, juvenile male squirrels were infested with more fleas (oropsylla montana) than were juvenile females, and juveniles of both sexes were infested with more fleas (o. montana and hoplopsyllus anomalus) than adults. there was no difference between the adult sexes in the number of fleas. the disproportionat ...19979379281
use of orally administered chitin inhibitor (lufenuron) to control flea vectors of plague on ground squirrels in california.the efficacy of orally administered lufenuron, a chitin inhibitor, to control fleas on california ground squirrels, spermophilus beecheyi (richardson), was evaluated during a 2-yr study in santa barbara county, ca. results demonstrated that use of a host-targeted feed cube containing lufenuron was effective in significantly reducing the burden of oropsylla montana (baker) and hoplopsyllus anomalus (baker) fleas on ground squirrels. a flea index that indicated a mean number of fleas per squirrel ...199910534949
field efficacy of deltamethrin for rodent flea control in san bernardino county, california, usa.a study was conducted to determine the initial and residual activity of deltamethrin (0.05% dust) applied to rodent burrows (at approximately 14 g/burrow) against fleas in the silverwood lake area of san bernardino county. in initial toxicity (2-d post-treatment), deltamethrin provided 97% flea control and in residual toxicity it resulted in 68% control of the rodent fleas at 15-d post-treatment. the flea fauna consisted of oropsylla montana (89.9%) and hoplopsylls anomalus (10.1%). all rodents ...200415707280
prevalence and seasonality of fleas associated with california ground squirrels and the potential risk of tularemia in an outdoor non-human primate research facility.ectoparasites at primate research centers may be difficult to control, e.g. without exposing non-human primates (nhps) to toxicants, but their impact on nhp health is poorly understood. in 2010, there was an epizootic of tularemia at the california national primate research center (cnprc) in yolo county, california that resulted in 20 confirmed and suspect clinical cases in outdoors housed rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta [zimmermann]) and a 53% seroprevalence in the southern section of the colon ...201729202201
infectious blood source alters early foregut infection and regurgitative transmission of yersinia pestis by rodent fleas.fleas can transmit yersinia pestis by two mechanisms, early-phase transmission (ept) and biofilm-dependent transmission (bdt). transmission efficiency varies among flea species and the results from different studies have not always been consistent. one complicating variable is the species of rodent blood used for the infectious blood meal. to gain insight into the mechanism of ept and the effect that host blood has on it, fleas were fed bacteremic mouse, rat, guinea pig, or gerbil blood; and the ...201829357385
between-host phylogenetic distance and feeding efficiency in hematophagous ectoparasites: rodent fleas and a bat host.we hypothesized that a parasite exploits most effectively its principal host, less effectively a host that is phylogenetically close to its principal host, and least effectively a host that is phylogenetically distant from its principal host. we tested this hypothesis by quantifying the feeding efficiency of two flea species (parapulex chephrenis and xenopsylla ramesis) on two rodents, acomys cahirinus, the specific host of p. chephrenis, and meriones crassus, a preferred host of x. ramesis, and ...200717297629
effects of parasitism on host reproductive investment in a rodent-flea system: host litter size matters.parents may alter offspring phenotype depending on the type of environment they encounter. parasitism is a common stressor; therefore, maternal reproductive investment could change in response to parasitic infection. however, few experiments have investigated the relationship between parasitism and maternal investment, whereas earlier field studies provided contradictory evidence. we investigated number, sex ratio, and growth of offspring in two rodent species, solitary altricial meriones crassu ...201727900542
distribution and diversity of bartonella washoensis strains in ground squirrels from california and their potential link to human cases.we investigated the prevalence of bartonella washoensis in california ground squirrels (otospermophilus beecheyi) and their fleas from parks and campgrounds located in seven counties of california. ninety-seven of 140 (69.3%) ground squirrels were culture positive and the infection prevalence by location ranged from 25% to 100%. in fleas, 60 of 194 (30.9%) oropsylla montana were found to harbor bartonella spp. when screened using citrate synthase (glta) specific primers, whereas bartonella dna w ...201627705539
bartonella infection in rodents and their flea ectoparasites: an overview.epidemiological studies worldwide have reported a high prevalence and a great diversity of bartonella species, both in rodents and their flea parasites. the interaction among bartonella, wild rodents, and fleas reflects a high degree of adaptation among these organisms. vertical and horizontal efficient bartonella transmission pathways within flea communities and from fleas to rodents have been documented in competence studies, suggesting that fleas are key players in the transmission of bartone ...025629778
lack of transovarial transmission of bartonella by rodent this issue of molecular ecology, morick et al. (2011) present an interesting study of acquisition and transmission of bartonella by xenopsylla ramesis fleas (fig. 1) which infest naturally wild desert rodents from the negev desert. a major issue with vector-borne diseases and vector-borne infection is to know whether the vector can also be a natural reservoir and transmit the infectious agent transovarially, allowing the infection to be perpetuated through successive generations of vectors. t ...201121834170
modeling susceptible infective recovered dynamics and plague persistence in california rodent-flea communities.plague persists as an enzootic in several very different rodent-flea communities around the world. in california, a diversity of rodent-flea communities maintains the disease, and a single-host reservoir seems unlikely. logistic regression of plague presence on climate and topographic variables predicts plague in many localities where it is absent. thus, a dynamic community-based analysis was needed. deterministic susceptible infective recovered (sir) models were adapted for plague and analyzed ...201020158333
rodent-flea-plague relationships at the higher elevations of san diego county, california.rodent-flea-plague relationships were examined at sites located at higher elevations of san diego county during 1991-2002. the most frequently sampled rodents were the california ground squirrel, spermophilus beecheyi, and white-footed mice, peromyscus spp. higher seasonal mean dependent variables (prevalences of squirrels and indices of o. montana), higher mean amounts of seasonal rainfall, and lower seasonal mean ambient temperatures were found at sites during 1991--1993 compared with 2000--20 ...200415707283
studies on pasteurella pestis in fleas. v. the experimental plague-vector efficiency of wild rodent fleas compared with xenopsylla cheopis, together with observations on the influence of temperature. 195613381882
wild-rodent-flea control in rural areas of an enzootic plague region in hawaii; a preliminary investigation of methods.preliminary field tests were carried out to develop methods for controlling fleas on wild rodents in the enzootic plague region of the island of hawaii. among several designs, a metal hood-type ddt bait-box was developed which was simple in design, low in cost, easy to transport to and maintain in the field, protected the insecticide from the elements, and attracted all species of field rats inhabiting a gulch in the hamakua district. these rats-rattus rattus (and its subspecies), r. norvegicus, ...195513260882
factors affecting the seasonal abundance of ground squirrel and wood rat fleas (siphonaptera) in san diego county, california.abiotic and biotic factors affecting the seasonal abundance of 3 species of sylvatic fleas on their hosts were examined at 7 sites in san diego county, california. indices for oropsylla (diamanus) montana (baker) were usually highest on spermophilus beecheyi nudipes (huey) when < 18.4 degrees c (october-december), whereas those for hoplopsyllus anomalus (baker) were highest when > 18.4 degrees c (july-september). o. montana was affected most by ambient temperature (inversely for the coastal site ...19968840686
primary plague pneumonia contracted from a domestic cat at south lake tahoe, calif.primary plague pneumonia occurred in a 47-year-old south lake tahoe woman shortly after face-to-face exposure to her plague pneumonia-infected cat. both died. field investigation revealed a recent plague epizootic in squirrels and chipmunks around the patient's home. control measures included active surveillance and chemoprophylaxis of 197 contacts to the victim, a community alert on methods of self- and pet protection, and application of insecticide to reduce rodent flea populations. no seconda ...19846694294
characterization of the salivary apyrase activity of three rodent flea species.1. salivary gland lysates of the adult female fleas oropsylla bacchi, orchopea howardi and xenopsylla cheopis hydrolyse atp and adp, but not amp, thus characterizing the existence of a salivary apyrase activity. 2. in all species mg++ or ca++ function as activators, and a ph optimum between 7 and 8 is observed. 3. salivary gland lysates of male fleas contain significantly smaller amounts of the enzyme activity than do those of female fleas. 4. immediately following a blood meal, apyrase activity ...19902158411
a decade of plague epidemiology and control in the western usambara mountains, north-east tanzania.outbreaks of human plague have been occurring in the western usambara mountains since 1980, involving many cases and deaths. epidemiological surveys and control activities were carried out from june 1980 to may 1990. rodents were trapped live, identified and serologically tested for plague, using the passive haemagglutination and passive haemagglutination inhibition tests. rodent fleas were collected, processed, identified and counted. house fleas were caught with light traps and similarly treat ...19921356303
effects of parasite pressure on parasite mortality and reproductive output in a rodent-flea system: inferring host defense trade-offs.evaluating host resistance via parasite fitness helps place host-parasite relationships within evolutionary and ecological contexts; however, few studies consider both these processes simultaneously. we investigated how different levels of parasite pressure affect parasite mortality and reproductive success in relationship to host defense efforts, using the rodent gerbillus nanus and the flea xenopsylla conformis as a host-parasite system. fifteen immune-naïve male rodents were infested with 20, ...201627130319
geographic variation in rodent-flea relationships in the presence of black-tailed prairie dog colonies.we characterized the relationship between fleas and their rodent hosts in the presence of prairie dog colonies and compared them to adjacent assemblages away from colonies. we evaluated the rodent-flea relationship by quantifying prevalence, probability of infestation, flea load, and intensity of fleas on rodents. as prairie dog burrows provide refugia for fleas, we hypothesized that prevalence, flea load, and intensity would be higher for rodents that are associated with black-tailed prairie do ...200818697322
Investigation of Bartonella acquisition and transmission in Xenopsylla ramesis fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae).Bartonella are emerging and re-emerging pathogens affecting humans and a wide variety of animals including rodents. Horizontal transmission of Bartonella species by different hematophagous vectors is well acknowledged but vertical transmission (from mother to offspring) is questionable and was never explored in fleas. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the rodent flea, Xenopsylla ramesis, can acquire native Bartonella from wild rodents and transmit it transovarially. For this aim, ...201121692752
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