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rodent infection with leishmania in a new focus of human cutaneous leishmaniasis, in northern iran.the incidence of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (zcl), which is endemic in several parts of iran, has recently increased in the rural areas of the northern district of damghan, in semnan province. between 2001 and 2004, as part of an investigation of this worrying trend, wild rodents in this region were caught and checked, by the microscopical examination of liver and spleen smears, for leishmanial infection, to see which species were acting as 'reservoir' hosts. overall 298 nesokia indica, 29 ...200818318934
detection of bartonella spp. in wild rodents in israel using hrm real-time pcr.the prevalence of bartonella spp. in wild rodents was studied in 19 geographical locations in israel. one hundred and twelve rodents belonging to five species (mus musculus, rattus rattus, microtus socialis, acomys cahirinus and apodemus sylvaticus) were included in the survey. in addition, 156 ectoparasites were collected from the rodents. spleen sample from each rodent and the ectoparasites were examined for the presence of bartonella dna using high resolution melt (hrm) real-time pcr. the met ...200919595521
suggesting the use of integrated methods for vole population management in alfalfa fields.human-made agro-ecosystems lack negative feedback controls, which may result in rodent population explosions, causing considerable economic loss and thus increasing human-wildlife conflicts. the traditional solution is the extensive use of rodenticides, which have a negative impact on the environment. in beit-sheaan valley, israel, which is located on a major route for migrating birds, poisoning of voles may result in the death of birds that prey on the dead voles (e.g. storks and herons). in th ...200721396034
endoparasites of rodents and their zoonotic importance in germi, dashte-mogan, ardabil province, iran.in order to verify the infectivity of rodents with endoparasites in germi (dashte-mogan, ardabil province) the current study was undertaken.201022347261
prevalence and diversity of bartonella species in rodents from georgia (caucasus).bartonella infections are widespread and highly prevalent in rodents. several rodent-associated bartonella species have been related to human diseases. recently, bartonella species was reported as the etiology of a human case in the country of georgia (caucasus). however, information on bartonella in rodents in georgia is absent. rodent hearts were collected from georgia to investigate the presence and diversity of bartonella species. bartonella bacteria were cultured from 37.2% (16/43) of roden ...201627162268
natural infection of nesokia indica with leishmania major and leishmania infantum parasites in damghan city, northern iran.various species of rodents are proven reservoir hosts of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in different provinces of iran and potential reservoir hosts of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. therefore, this study was conducted to determine the leishmanial infection of rodents in damghan city from april to september, 2015. sum of 100 rodents of three species; nesokia indica (95), mus musculus (3), and microtus socialis (2), were trapped alive and their tissue samples were examined using parasitologic ...201728267441
phylogenetic analysis of entomoparasitic nematodes, potential control agents of flea populations in natural foci of plague.entomoparasitic nematodes are natural control agents for many insect pests, including fleas that transmit yersinia pestis, a causative agent of plague, in the natural foci of this extremely dangerous zoonosis. we examined the flea samples from the volga-ural natural focus of plague for their infestation with nematodes. among the six flea species feeding on different rodent hosts (citellus pygmaeus, microtus socialis, and allactaga major), the rate of infestation varied from 0 to 21%. the propaga ...201424804197
rodents in open space adjust their behavioral response to the different risk levels during barn-owl attack.previous studies have revealed that the response of prey species to predatory risk comprised either freezing (when the prey remained immobile), or fleeing (when it ran frantically in order to remove itself from the vicinity of the predator). other studies, however, have suggested that the prey will adjust its behavior to risk level. the present study was designed to follow the attacks of a barn owl (tyto alba) on common spiny mice (acomys cahirinus) and social voles (microtus socialis guntherei) ...200314614781
postnatal development of body architecture and gait in several rodent species.observations on five species of rodents, vole (microtus socialis), gerbil (gerbillus dasyurus), jird (meriones tristrami), dormouse (eliomys melanurus) and jerboa (jaculus orientalis), revealed that, during the period when their neonates share a matching morphology, they also share the same forms of quadruped locomotion (gaits). the order in which the different gaits develop is similar in all species, beginning with the basic gaits of lateral walk and trot. gaits and body morphology do not under ...19979172418
new species and new records of mites of the genus stigmaeus(acari: prostigmata: stigmaeidae) from crimea.three new species of the genus stigmaeus koch, 1836 (acari: stigmaeidae) are described from various habitats in crimea: stigmaeus kuznetsovi sp. nov. from nests of microtus socialis (rodentia: cricetidae); s. mitrofanovi sp. nov. from galleries of pityogenes bistridentatus (coleoptera: curculionidae) under the bark of pinus pallasiana, and s. silvestris sp. nov. from rotten log of pinus pallasiana. stigmaeus corticeus kuznetsov and wainstein, 1977 and s. maraghehiensis bagheri and ueckermann, 20 ...201424870321
[a new nematode species, physaloptera musayevi sp. n., from the lybian jird meriones libycus and the social vole microtus socialis in the gobustan area of azerbaijan republic].nematodes belonging to the genus physaloptera rudolphi, 1819 were obtained from the lybian jird meriones libycus and the social vole microtus socialis in the gobustan area as a result of helminthological research. these nematodes significantly differed from other species of the genus in morphological and morphometric characters. in the present paper, they are described as the new species physaloptera musayevi sp. n.201222586924
revisiting the “visible burrow system”: the impact of the group, social rank, and gender on voles under owl attack.in the present study, corticosterone levels and behavior were compared between voles (microtus socialis) that were attacked by a barn owl (tyto alba) and voles that did not experience such attack. both female and male voles were exposed to the owl either together with their group mates or when socially isolated. as hypothesized, corticosterone levels were higher in voles after the owl attack, and were higher in females than in males. however, blood corticosterone was higher in voles that experie ...201526066727
how barn owls (tyto alba) visually follow moving voles (microtus socialis) before attacking them.the present study focused on the movements that owls perform before they swoop down on their prey. the working hypothesis was that owl head movements reflect the capacity to efficiently follow visually and auditory a moving prey. to test this hypothesis, five tame barn owls (tyto alba) were each exposed 10 times to a live vole in a laboratory setting that enabled us to simultaneously record the behavior of both owl and vole. bi-dimensional analysis of the horizontal and vertical projections of m ...200919577583
detection of bartonella spp. in wild carnivores, hyraxes, hedgehog and rodents from israel.bartonella infection was explored in wild animals from israel. golden jackals (canis aureus), red foxes (vulpes vulpes), rock hyraxes (procavia capensis), southern white-breasted hedgehogs (erinaceus concolor), social voles (microtus socialis), tristram's jirds (meriones tristrami), cairo spiny mice (acomys cahirinus), house mice (mus musculus) and indian crested porcupines (hystrix indica) were sampled and screened by molecular and isolation methods. bartonella-dna was detected in 46 animals: 9 ...201627210612
spectral and duration sensitivity to light-at-night in 'blind' and sighted rodent species.light-at-night (lan) has become a defining feature of human and animal ecosystems and may possibly compromise human and animal physiology and health. spectral and acclimation duration (ad) sensitivity were compared between social voles (microtus socialis) and 'blind' mole rats (spalax ehrenbergi) in four increasing ads (0, 1, 7 and 21 days) to lan (1×30 min, 293 μw cm(-2)) of three different monochromatic lights [blue (479 nm), yellow (586 nm) and red (697 nm)]. animals were sampled for urine an ...201121900468
photoentrainment in blind and sighted rodent species: responses to photophase light with different wavelengths.our study examined the impact of daylight (photophase) wavelength on the photoentrainment sensitivity of two species with vastly different visual systems. social voles (microtus socialis) and 'blind' mole rats (spalax ehrenbergi) were exposed to short-wavelength (479 nm) or long-wavelength (697 nm) light at an intensity of 293 μw cm(-2). rhythms of urine production, urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6-smt), urinary metabolites of adrenaline and cortisol, and oxygen consumption (vo(2)) were used as m ...201021113002
molecular survey of tularemia and plague in small mammals from iran.introduction: plague and tularemia are zoonoses and their causative bacteria are circulating in certain regions of iran. this study was conducted to investigate potential disease reservoirs amongst small wildlife species in different regions of iran. methods: rodents, insectivores and hares from 17 different provinces of the country were collected in 2014 and 2015. samples were taken from the spleens of the animals and real-time pcr was applied to detect nucleic acid sequences that are specific ...201830042927
rodent burrow network dynamics under human-induced landscape transformation from desert to steppe in kalmykian rangelands.rodents play an important role in rangelands through the engineering of extensive burrow systems, which provides key habitats for many animal and plant species. we have analyzed the long-term variation in the abundance and distribution of rodent burrows in grazing ecosystems of southern russia (kalmykia) under the landscape change from desert to steppe caused by the drastic reduction of livestock after the collapse of the ussr in the early 1990s. we conducted burrow surveys in the "desert" (1980 ...201930983144
photosensitivity to different light intensities in blind and sighted rodents.photoperiod is an important cue regulating biological rhythms in mammals, including 'blind' subterranean and sighted fossorial rodent species. these species may respond differentially to changes in light quality according to their retinal complexity. the effects of increasing light intensity on daily rhythms of urine excretion and urinary output of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels were compared in 'blind' mole rats spalax ehrenbergi and sighted social voles, microtus socialis. our results show that t ...200919915128
differential effects of intraspecific interactions on the striatal dopamine system in social and non-social voles.we used in vivo microdialysis to examine the responses to intraspecific social interactions in the striatal dopamine systems of females of two vole species displaying vastly different social structures. both highly social prairie voles and asocial meadow voles had similar increases in extracellular dopamine associated with mating. there was a species-specific effect of social condition on extracellular dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (dopac). exposure to a conspecific male significantly decreased ext ...200312732259
voles scale locomotion to the size of the open-field by adjusting the distance between stops: a possible link to path integration.in this study we show that social voles (microtus socialis guentheri) preserve the same level of activity and spatio-temporal organization of behavior whether exploring a small (1 x 1 m) or a large (2 x 2 m) open field. in each open field, a vole established a home base from which it set on to round-trips of exploration; taking fewer but longer trips in the large open field, compared with more frequent but shorter trips in the small open field. each trip comprised bouts of progression (locomotio ...200312672561
differential behavioural and hormonal responses of voles and spiny mice to owl calls.rodents usually respond to the presence of owls by reducing overall activity, in particular foraging. in this study, a playback of recorded tawny owl, strix aluco, calls was sufficient to induce a marked effect in the social (gunther's) vole, microtus socialis. some of the voles exposed to owl calls reduced their activity ('freeze' pattern) unlike control voles exposed to a human voice. other voles, however, dashed around the cage ('flee' pattern). owl calls also increased corticosterone levels ...199910564611
histology and enzymatic activity in the postnatal development of limb muscles in rodents.the present work examines how increases in spontaneous motor capabilities during postnatal development are reflected in enzymatic activity and the histology of hindlimb muscles of the dormouse (eliomys melanurus), the jird (meriones tristrami), the vole (microtus socialis), and the spiny mouse (acomys cahirinus). the precocial neonate of the spiny mouse had the most advanced developmental state of young myofibers with striations as early as 1 week after delivery. at the same age, the altricial n ...19989523911
stress impairs new but not established relationships in seasonally social voles.affiliative social relationships are impacted by stressors and can shape responses to stress. however, the effects of stress on social relationships in different contexts are not well understood. meadow voles provide an opportunity to study these effects on peer relationships outside of a reproductive context. in winter months, female meadow voles cohabit with peers of both sexes, and social huddling is facilitated by exposure to short, winter-like day lengths in the lab. we investigated the rol ...201626777726
[experimental hybridization of voies of the genus microtus s.l. m. socialis with species of the group arvalis (mammalia, rodentia)].the results of interspecific crosses of the social vole microtus socialis with the altai vole m. obscurus, the east european vole m. rossiaemeridionalis, and the transcaspian vole m. transcaspicus are presented. the role of the sperm head structure in the reproductive isolation of this species was studied. hybrids were obtained in five of the six crossing combinations. it is established that significant differences in the sperm head shape in the social vole and in arvalis group species do not pr ...201625739313
histochemical indices of cutaneous glands as criteria of taxonimic evaluation of two vole species (microtus socialis and microtus guentheri). 201611103329
molecular phylogeny of the speciose vole genus microtus (arvicolinae, rodentia) inferred from mitochondrial dna sequences.voles of the genus microtus represent one of the most speciose mammalian genera in the holarctic. we established a molecular phylogeny for microtus to resolve contentious issues of systematic relationships and evolutionary history in this genus. a total of 81 specimens representing ten microtus species endemic to europe as well as eight eurasian, six asian and one holarctic species were sequenced for the entire cytochrome b gene (1140 bp). a further 25 sequences were retrieved from genbank, prov ...200415522793
pattern of x-y chromosome pairing in microtine rodents.pairing of x and y chromosomes at meiotic prophase in 14 species of the subfamily microtinae (clethrionomys rufocanus, c. rutilus, c. glareolus, arvicola terrestris, microtus guentheri, m. socialis, m. afghanus, m. bucharicus, m. oeconomus, m. arvalis, m. rossiaemeridionalis, m. kirgisorum, m. transcaspicus, m. (pitymys) majori) was analysed in relation to their taxonomic position and variation in the morphology of their sex chromosomes. the sex chromosomes formed a synaptonemal complex (sc) at ...19958598341
social vole parents force their mates to baby-sit.parental care has been categorized into direct and indirect investment. the former includes direct contact with the offspring, as in lactation or huddling with the pups, and the latter includes activities such as nest building or hoarding food for the guarding mate. we report here an unfamiliar type of parental behavior in which one parent aggressively forces its mate to stay in the nest with the pups. in this "forced baby-sitting," one parent grasps the fur of its mate and drags it toward the n ...200212325138
seasonal variation of the histochemical parameters of skin glands in the vole microtus socialis paradoxus and their importance for the taxonomic status. 201714556534
thermoregulatory and endocrine responses to light pulses in short-day acclimated social voles (microtus socialis).in mammals, nocturnal light pulses (nlp) have been demonstrated to affect physiology and behavior. however, the impact of nlp as a stressor has been less broadly examined. the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of nlp (three 15 min 450 lux light pulses) during each scotophase on both thermoregulation and endocrine stress responses under short-day (sd; 8l:16d) acclimation. voles were acclimated to either sd (sd voles) or sd+nlp (nlp voles). resistance to cold was estimated by measure ...200717453847
the effect of alpha- and beta-adrenergic blockade on daily rhythms of body temperature, urine production, and urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin of social voles microtus socialis.to examine the effect of adrenergic blockade on daily rhythms of rectal body temperature (t(b)), urine production rate, and melatonin (mel; measured as urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin; 6-smt), social voles microtus socialis received a single intra-peritoneal injection of either prazosin (praz, 1 mg/kg) or propranolol (prop, 4.5 mg/kg); alpha- and beta-adrenergic blocking agents respectively, 1 h prior to scotophase onset (light/dark, 12l:12d; lights on 07:00 h). both blockers caused significant dec ...200717544305
urinary adrenalin and cortisol secretion patterns of social voles in response to adrenergic blockade under basal conditions.the effect of alpha(1)- and beta-adrenergic blockade on daily rhythms of urinary adrenalin (adr) and cortisol (cort) under basal conditions were evaluated. voles acclimated to a 12:12 h light/dark cycle at 26+/-2 degrees c received a single dose of either propranolol (prop; 4.5 mg/kg) or prazosin (praz; 1 mg/kg) 1 h before lights off. urine samples were collected for 24 h at 4 h intervals. prop evokes a significant increase in mean urinary adr; although cort was unaffected by prop, praz administ ...200817910962
[distribution of fleas in rodent colonies in the northwestern precaspian region].distribution of fleas by their rodents hosts was investigated by field experiments using the method of individual labeling both the parasites and the hosts. the experimental site was situated in sand landscapes of the northwestern precaspian region. pattern of the contacts between rodents leading to the exchange of their ectoparasites was established. average distance of the rodent migration from the site of its previous record was 54 m, while the distance of flea transfer for the same period wa ...201020349635
differential effects of photophase irradiance on metabolic and urinary stress hormone concentrations in blind and sighted rodents.the effects of different photophase irradiance levels on the daily rhythms of energy expenditure (dee, calculated from oxygen consumption, vo(2)) and urinary metabolites of stress hormones in sighted (microtus socialis) and blind (spalax ehrenbergi) rodents were compared. five groups of each species were exposed to different irradiance levels (73, 147, 293, 366, and 498 microw/cm(2)) under short photoperiod (8l:16d) condition with constant ambient temperature 25 +/- 2 degrees c for 21 days befor ...201020524797
[analysis of the histoenzymatic activity in the sebaceous glands of the kopetdag pine vole].this work presents the results of the semi-quantitative evaluation of histochemical phosphatase activity in the sebaceous glands of the kopetdag pine vole (microtus socialis paradoxus ognev et heptner, 1928). the studies included the conversion of standard histochemical designations of enzymatic activity into digital analogues, allowing to evaluate the level of enzymatic activity and sexual dimorphism. in male voles, the index of the acid phosphatase enzymatic activity was 16% higher in summer t ...201020572399
who are the bosses? group influence on the behavior of voles following owl attack.individual members of a group must conform to the group norms, as they may otherwise become isolated from the group or the group may split. on the other hand, social groups usually comprise various social ranks and display a differential division of labor and consequently different behaviors. the present study was aimed at examining how the above factors are manifested in social voles that had experienced owl attack. here, we reconfirm the findings of past studies: that grouped voles converge to ...201425444777
levels of central oxytocin and glucocorticoid receptor and serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone in mandarin voles with different levels of sociability.sociability is the prerequisite to social living. oxytocin and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis mediate various social behaviors across different social contexts in different rodents. we hypothesized that they also mediate levels of non-reproductive social behavior. here we explored naturally occurring variation in sociability through a social preference test and compared central oxytocin, glucocorticoid receptors, serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone in mandarin vol ...201425141210
[a new species of flea in the genus ctenophthalmus (siphonaptera: hystrichopsyllidae)].a new species, ctenophthalmus (euctenophthalmus) parthicus sp. n., is described from social vole (microtus socialis pallas) from four localities of the west kopetdag mountains of turkmenia. the new species is close to c.(e.) secundus wagner and c.(e.) congener nadimi farhang-azad. it differs from males of the other known species by the following characters. the movable process has an infra-acetabular process whose length is the same as the height of its supra-acetabular portion. the movable proc ...20101297969
seasonality and seasons out of time--the thermoregulatory effects of light interference.the change in photoperiod is the main environmental cue for seasonal function of the reproductive, thermoregulatory, and immune systems in rodents existing outside of the tropics. in israel, the social vole microtus socialis breeds mainly under short photoperiod (sp) conditions. previous studies showed that exposing voles to light interference (li) in the field during the winter resulted in death. the aim of the current study was to determine the thermoregulatory response of sp-acclimated voles ...200515865321
effects of diazepam and buspirone on the behaviour of wild voles (microtus socialis) in two models of anxiety.exploration models of anxiety rely almost universally on the use of laboratory species. furthermore, the spontaneous patterns of locomotion displayed are often interpreted as being an expression of antipredator defense. however, there is no direct link between the experience of these animals and the proposed motivation for their behaviour. to address this problem, the behaviour of wild trapped voles (microtus socialis), a small-rodent species that is heavily predated upon, was examined in the el ...19979300621
[certain growth peculiarities of temperature requirements of the vole (microtus socialis pall.)]. 200614789192
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