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[apropos of the role of ticks from the ixodoidea superfamily in q fever. v. localization and dissemination of rickettsia burnetii in the organism of hyalomma asiaticum p. sch. et e. schl. ticks]. 19635832114
[apropos of the role of ticks from the ixodoidea superfamily in q fever. 3. experimental infection of ixodes ricinus l. and hyalomma asiaticum sch. et schl. ticks with rickettsia burnetii]. 19635832112
pathways of regeneration of haller's sensory organ during the life cycle of the tick hyalomma asiaticum.a study of regeneration in nymphs and adults of the asiatic desert tick, hyalomma asiaticum, from which forelegs had been amputated during the previous instar, revealed that regenerated haller's sensory organs exhibited significant changes in structure. adult regenerates possessed atavistic features in terms of the number and topography of different sensillar types. regularity in these changes was similar to that demonstrated in regenerates of ixodes ricinus (leonovich and belozerov [1992] exp. ...19957699360
a rapid method for detection of bhanja virus in infected ticks.a rapid method has been developed to detect bhanja virus in experimentally infected hyalomma asiaticum ticks by an indirect hemagglutination test. the titer of viral antigen is suspensions prepared from infected ticks ranged from 1:640 to 1:2,560; the antigen was demonstrated in both unfed and engorged ticks during an observation period from 2 weeks to 5 months after infection. the test is simple, easily reproduced, highly sensitive and specific, and may be useful for field studies with bhanja v ...1979457365
[study of the antibacterial effect of organs and tissues of the tick hyalomma asiaticum (ixodidae)]. 19744217426
[isolation of tamdy virus (bunyaviridae) pathogenic for man from natural sources in central asia, kazakhstan and transcaucasia].isolation of 47 strains of tamdy virus (bunyaviridae) in the uzbek ssr, turkmen ssr, armenian ssr, kazakh ssr, and kirghiz ssr was analysed. thirty-two strains were isolated from hyalomma asiaticum ticks in which transovarial transmission of the virus was demonstrated. three subspecies of h. asiaticum are associated with semi-desert and desert landscapes of the asian continent. the association of tamdy virus with hosts of various stages of metamorphosis of the ticks, in particular, with cattle a ...19846238483
[effect of the organisms of hyalomma asiaticum sch. et schl. and ornithodoros papillipes bir. ticks on the biologic activity of rickettsia burneti]. 19705537972
[tarsal gland of ixodid ticks (ixodidae)].in the tarsi of all legs of ixodes persulcatus, dermacentor daghestanicus, rhipicephalus turanicus and hyalomma asiaticum the multicellular gland was observed. the gland is formed by a single layer of glandular cells that form a central cavity where two ciliary structures in a cuticular (scolopoid) sheath are situated. a possible function of the gland is discussed in the article.19761026913
[electron-microscopic study of the excretory system of hungry females of the tick hyalomma asiaticum p. sch. et e. schl. 2].in h. asiaticum the cells of the malpighian tubules and these of the rectal cas have the uniform structure: the apical surface is covered with microvilli, the basal plasmatic membrane forms relatively small invaginations. as to ultrastructural characters, there is no distinct division of the malpighian tubule into departments. the distal ends of the tubules are not only somewhat enlarged and form the so-called ampulla cells of which are noticeably flattened. the microvilli and basal folds of the ...19751235414
virus "tamdy"--a new arbovirus, isolated in the uzbee s.s.r. and turkmen s.s.r. from ticks hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum schulee et schlottke, 1929, and hyalomma plumbeum plumbeum panzer, 1796.eleven virus strains were isolated from ticks hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum schulce et schlottke, 1929, and hyalomma plumbeum plumbeum panzer, 1796,collected in 1971-1974 in desert regions of the uzbee s.s.r. and the turkmen s.s.r. according to cf test the strains were closely related to each other and not antigenically connected with viruses from antigenic groups a, b, california, chf-congo, bakau, bunyamwera, gajam, kaisodi, qalyub, kemerovo, quaranfil, simbu, turlock, hughes, uukuniemi, tete a ...1976134682
genotypic and antigenic identification of two new strains of spotted fever group rickettsiae isolated from china.four isolates of spotted fever group rickettsiae isolated from ticks in china were compared with all known species and strains of spotted fever group rickettsiae by immunofluorescence assay, dna polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction endonuclease fragment length polymorphism analysis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and western immunoblot. the chinese isolates belonged to three types, including a novel serotype which has not been described before. one isolat ...19938093253
detection of rickettsia prowazekii in body lice and their feces by using monoclonal antibodies.in order to identify rickettsia prowazekii in lice, we developed a panel of 29 representative monoclonal antibodies selected from 187 positive hybridomas made by fusing splenocytes of immunized mice with sp2/0-ag14 myeloma cells. immunoblotting revealed that 15 monoclonal antibodies reacted with the lipopolysaccharide-like (lps-l) antigen and 14 reacted with the epitopes of a 120-kda protein. only typhus group rickettsiae reacted with the monoclonal antibodies against lps-l. r. felis, a recently ...200212202579
characterization of the glycoproteins of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus.crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) virus is the cause of an important tick-borne disease of humans throughout regions of africa, europe, and asia. like other members of the genus nairovirus, family bunyaviridae, the cchf virus m genome rna segment encodes the virus glycoproteins. sequence analysis of the cchf virus (matin strain) m rna segment revealed one major open reading frame that potentially encodes a precursor polyprotein 1,689 amino acids (aa) in length. comparison of the deduced ami ...200212072526
[duration of the developmental cycle of hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum schulze et schlottke in natural biotopes]. 19724263900
genetic characterization of the m rna segment of crimean congo hemorrhagic fever virus strains, china.we report the genetic characterization of the m rna segment of crimean congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv). two cchfv strains isolated in xinjiang province, a region endemic for cchf in northwestern china, were studied. these strains, designated ba66019 and ba8402, were isolated in 1965 and 1984 from a cchf patient and hyalomma ticks, respectively. viral rna was extracted from suckling mouse brains infected with these two strains, amplified, and sequenced. the full-length m rna, consisting of ...200211749748
hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum schülze and schlottke, 1929. its distribution, hosts, seasonal activity, life cycle, and role in transmission of bovine theileriosis in iran. 19685693626
[ultrastructural features of histopathologic changes at the site of attachment of the larva of the ixodid tick haemaphysalis longicornis to the body of the host].this article continues the series of electronic microscopical investigations of tick attachment and host's inflammatory reaction in the attachment site. in all this works we used larvae of different ixodid ticks but the same species of the host (white mouse), ixodid species having different type of attachment. dermacentor marginatus (amosova, 1989a) is characterized by the superficial penetration of mouth parts, the abundance of cement around them and on the surface of the host's skin, the mouth ...19979541934
[experimental infection of ixodid ticks with karshi virus].the ixodid ticks hyalomma asiaticum, h. anatolicum, dermacentor niveus were infected experimentally with karsha virus. the virus replication has been proved to occur in the tick's organism. the titre of the virus grows gradually in infected ticks. entering the tick's gut during its feeding virus particles penetrate into the gut walls where primary multiplication and accumulation of the virus take place.19863024093
[orientational behavior of the ixodid tick hyalomma asiaticum under desert conditions].the orientational behaviour of the imago of ticks in natural conditions is based on the optimal using of relatively primitive eyes with the development of a specific mechanism of orientation. a statistical study of tracks of ticks together with the analysis of the optical system and functional possibilities of the eyes have made it possible for the author to suggest a model of orientational mechanism based on different signal meanings of increasing and decreasing of light intensity registered by ...19862950366
experimental study of the reproduction of karshi virus (togaviridae, flavivirus) in some species of mosquitoes and ticks.the strain kaz-816 of karshi virus was isolated in 1976 from h. asiaticum ticks collected in the north of central asia (alma-ata region of the kazakh soviet socialist republic). both ticks and mosquitoes can be vectors of karshi virus as proved experimentally by reproduction of the virus in hyalomma asiaticum and dermacentor daghestanicus ticks and culex pipiens molestus, anopheles atroparvus an aedes aegypti mosquitoes as well as by transmission to newborn mice by the bite of infected mosquitoe ...19852864824
taxonomic relationships among spotted fever group rickettsiae as revealed by antigenic analysis with monoclonal antibodies.the spotted fever group (sfg) is made up of more than 20 different rickettsial species and strains. study of the taxonomic relationships among the group has been attempted by phenotypic, genotypic, and phylogenetic analyses. in this study, we determined taxonomic relationships among the sfg rickettsiae by comparative analysis of immunogenic epitopes reactive against a panel of monoclonal antibodies. a total of 98 monoclonal antibodies, which were directed against epitopes on the major immunodomi ...19989542904
[ixodid ticks of pavlodar province and their participation in the circulation of tularemia infection].investigations carried out in pavlodar province have shown that 7 species of ixodid ticks, ixodes crenulatus, i. lividus, i. persulcatus, i. laguri laguri, dermacentor marginatus, d. reticulatus, haemaphysalis concinna, and one brought species, hyalomma asiaticum, parasitize domestic animals and wild mammals. maximum activity of pasture ticks of the genus dermacentor falls on the end of april--beginning of may, that of h. concinna on the beginning of june. the growth in the abundance of pasture ...19892528108
[characteristics of acquired resistance of lambs to mature ticks hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum (experimental studies)].a new method was employed for studies of parasite-host relationships between ixodid ticks and their hosts. it has been established that ixodid ticks are able to desensibilize the reactive sensibility of the host and to satiate themselves without unhibiting the latter. every day and long parasitism of the ticks on cattle (in nature) and increasing doses of secretion of the ticks' saliva (sensibilizer) lead apparently to the weakening of the host's organism (desensitization). however, under labora ...19761023144
[transovarial and transspermal transmission of coxiella burneti by the tick hyalomma asiaticum and its role in the ecology of q-rickettsiosis].the transovarial transmission of c. burneti by the tick h. asiaticum was traced on three daughter generations during 751 days. the infection rate of the first generation ticks was found to be 5 times lower than that of the parental ones, of the second generations ticks--9 times lower while f3 population was characterized by 20 fold decrease in the infection rate. the transmission of c. burneti by the infected males of h. asiaticum to the females after copulation was observed in none of the 19 te ...1977909725
[distribution of rickettsia burneti in hyalomma asiaticum ticks (immunofluorescent and histological studies)]. 19724563894
characteristics of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (xinjiang strain) in china.virus strains isolated from blood of patients during a hemorrhagic fever outbreak in 1968 in southern xinjiang, china, from hyalomma asiaticum and from sheep, were found to be identical or closely related to crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (c-chf) virus by complement fixation and indirect immunofluorescence tests with convalescent sera of patients and with c-chf reference antibody. the virus was inactivated by ether and acid. viral synthesis was not suppressed by 5-iododeoxyuridine suggesting an ...19852422968
[isolation of the karshi virus from hyalomma asiaticum ticks in alma-ata province, kazakh ssr]. 1978149901
[isolation of vad-medani arbovirus from hyalomma asiaticum sch. et schl., 1929 in turkmen ssr]. 1976139538
simultaneous detection of "rickettsia mongolotimonae" in a patient and in a tick in greece.rickettsia conorii, a spotted fever group rickettsia which is transmitted by rhipicephalus sp. complex ticks, was considered until now the only pathogenic rickettsia prevalent in greece. here, we report the presence of "rickettsia mongolotimonae" (proposed name) detected simultaneously in a patient and in a hyalomma anatolicum excavatum tick, sampled on the patient.200516000506
[the significance of the species classification of ixodid ticks and their hosts in the development of antitick immunity].larvae of ixodes persulcatus and hyalomma asiaticum were feeding permanently on hosts attacking them daily by groups of 5-20 ticks, and also fed by groups of 30-40 and 100 ticks with the interval 20 days. the factor of the host species in the case of 1-st feeding of ticks did not influence significantly on the weight of engorged ticks and also on the percent of larvae, which had finished the feeding and moulted to nymphs. in the cases of 2-nd and 3-rd feedings the significant part of ticks died ...19938152842
tick-borne rickettsioses around the world: emerging diseases challenging old concepts.during most of the 20th century, the epidemiology of tick-borne rickettsioses could be summarized as the occurrence of a single pathogenic rickettsia on each continent. an element of this paradigm suggested that the many other characterized and noncharacterized rickettsiae isolated from ticks were not pathogenic to humans. in this context, it was considered that relatively few tick-borne rickettsiae caused human disease. this concept was modified extensively from 1984 through 2005 by the identif ...200516223955
[ultrastructural characteristics of the salivary glands of the taiga tick, ixodes persulcatus (ixodidae). i. the granulosecreting alveoles of the fasting female].two types of granulosecreting alveoles were found in salivary glands of hungry females by means of electron microscopy of ultrafine sections. alveoles of the iind type occur in the anterior helf of the gland. they are not numerous and consist of three types of secretory cells (a, b, c) surrounding the inneralveolar cavity. the secretory cells are separated from each other and from the basal membrane by the strands of the epithelial cells p. three types of spherical inclusions were found in the s ...1979514626
[an experimental infection of hyalomma asiaticum and ornithodoros papillipes ticks with a single and combined infection with coxiella burnetii and dermacentroxenus sibericus].experimental infection of h. asiaticum and o. papillipes with coxiella burnetii and r. (d.) sibericus in different succession and individual study of these arthropods by means of the fluorescent antibodies method, ordinary microscopy and titration on laboratory animals have revealed an ambiguous outcome of the development of combined rickettsial infection in these ticks. the first agent obtained by the vector either prevents utterly the reproduction of the heterologous agent or inhibits its acti ...197995820
[the intraspecific taxonomic structure and identification of closely related species of ixodid ticks (ixodidae)].two variants of intraspecific morphological differentiation of 7 palearctic species of ixodidae and respectively two variants of their intraspecific taxonomic pattern have been revealed on the basis of the study of geographic variation of each species. three species--ixodes pavlovskyi pom., 1946, haemaphysalis erinacei pavesi, 1884, hyalomma asiaticum sch. et schl., 1929, are subdivided into subspecies, and four ones--i. ricinus (l., 1758), i. persulcatus sch., 1930, i. crenulatus koch, 1844, de ...200010862394
[counts of the imago of the desert tick, hyalomma asiaticum p. sch. et e. schl. in the southeastern kara-kum]. 1976133284
an epidemiological study on ovine babesiosis in the mashhad suburb area, province of khorasan, iran.the prevalence of babesia spp. infection was studied in sheep of the mashhad area in iran from 1998 to 2000. a total of 677 sheep originating from 115 flocks were clinically examined and investigated for the presence of babesia spp. in appropriate blood smears and any tick species on the body of the animals. the study revealed that the infection rate for babesia ovis and babesia motasi were 167 (24.6%) and 4 (0.5%), respectively. double (mixed) infections occurred in 21 (3%) sheep. differences i ...200212208039
[geography and host distribution of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever in the tarim basin].to determine the infective status and natural distribution of xinjiang hemorrhagic fever (xhf; crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever, cchf) in ticks, rodents and livestock in the tarim basin.200617415983
genetic differentiation of chinese isolates of rickettsia sibirica by partial ompa gene sequencing and multispacer typing.current data on rickettsiae and rickettsial diseases in china remain limited. using partial ompa gene sequencing and multispacer typing, we identified 15 rickettsial isolates from china. all isolates were found to belong to rickettsia sibirica subsp. sibirica. four isolates from dermacentor sinicus collected in beijing, china, were fully identical to strain bj-90, previously demonstrated to belong to r. sibirica subsp. sibirica despite antigenic and genotypic specificities. all 11 remaining isol ...200616825365
detection of a rickettsia closely related to rickettsia aeschlimannii, "rickettsia heilongjiangensis," rickettsia sp. strain rpa4, and ehrlichia muris in ticks collected in russia and kazakhstan.using pcr, we screened 411 ticks from four genera collected in russia and kazakhstan for the presence of rickettsiae and ehrlichiae. in russia, we detected "rickettsia heilongjiangensis," rickettsia sp. strain rpa4, and ehrlichia muris. in kazakhstan, we detected rickettsia sp. strain rpa4 and a rickettsia closely related to rickettsia aeschlimannii. these agents should be considered in a differential diagnosis of tick-borne infections in these areas.200415131195
ticks (acari: ixodoidea: argasidae, ixodidae) of china.this paper presents results of an investigation and listing of tick species found in china during a survey in all 28 provinces. this will be a step towards a definitive list of tick species and their distribution. to date, the tick fauna of this area consists of 117 species in the following families: argasidae-argas (7 species), carios (4 species) and ornithodoros (2 species); ixodidae-amblyomma (8 species), anomalohimalaya (2 species), dermacentor (12 species), haemaphysalis (44 species), hyalo ...201020101443
antigenic classification of rickettsia felis by using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies.rickettsia felis is a flea-transmitted rickettsia. there is a discrepancy between its reported phylogenic and phenotypic identifications. following the first report of r. felis, it was considered by tests with serologic reagents to be closely related to another recognized flea-transmitted rickettia, r. typhi. subsequently, it appeared to be more closely related to spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae by genetic analysis. in the present work, r. felis was studied by microimmunofluorescence (mif) ...200312626446
a tick b-cell inhibitory protein from salivary glands of the hard tick, hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum.some studies done to date suggest that b-cell inhibitory factor occurred in tick saliva. in this study, a novel protein having b-cell inhibitory activity was purified and characterized from the salivary glands of the hard tick, hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum. this protein was named b-cell inhibitory factor (bif). the cdna encoding bif was cloned by cdna library screening. the predicted protein from the cdna sequence is composed of 138 amino acids including the mature bif. no similarity was found b ...200616554026
[identification of species of hyalomma asiaticum group (ixodidae) in areas of their sympatry based on immature stages].morphological characters of immature stages of three closely related tick species, hyalomma asiaticum schulze et schlottke, 1929, h. dromedarii koch, 1844 and h. schulzei olenev, 1931, collected mainly in areas of their sympatry (fig. 1) were investigated. the larvae and nymphs of these three species were collected in egypt, iran, turkmenistan, uzbekistan, afghanistan and tadjikistan: 159 larvae and 137 nymphs of h. asiaticum from 12 localities; 78 larvae and 167 nymphs of h. dromedarii from 5 l ...200212325274
[elisa and rt-pcr-based research of viruses in the ticks collected in the foci of crimean-congo fever in kazakhstan and tajikistan in 2001-2002].different species of ticks were found, in the territories of kazakhstan and tajikistan, to be infected with the virus of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (ckhf). the virologic evaluation included determination of antigen and rna of the ckhf virus by elisa and rt-pcr, respectively. the below tick species were found to be involved in the epidemic process: hyalomma asiaticum, dermacentor niveus (kazakhastan) and hyalomma anatolicum (tajikistan). the results testify to the fact that hyalomma ticks ar ...200515747867
[classification and diversity of tick community in tarim basin].to investigate the distribution pattern and structural characteristics of tick community and to understand the diversity of the communities in tarim basin.200617366967
[study of virus contamination of ixodes ticks in the foci of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever in kazakhstan and tajikistan].the data on the contamination of different of ticks with crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) virus on the territory of kazakhstan and tajikistan were obtained. the methods of the evaluation of the virus contamination of ticks included the determination of the antigen and cchf virus rna by the methods of the enzyme immunoassay and the reverse transcription pcr respectively. different tick species were found to be involved in the epidemic process: hyalomma asiaticum, dermatocentor niveus (kazak ...200515773396
[genetic monitoring of the crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus in kazakhstan and tajikistan in 2001-2003].blood specimens obtained from 32 cchf patients were tested for the presence of cchf virus markers. in addition, 3210 ticks of the genera hyalomma asiaticum, hyalomma anatolicum, and dermacentor niveus were examined to identify the cchf virus antigen and rna. this material was obtained during the 2001-2003 local outbreaks of cchf in kazakhstan and tajikistan. the nucleotide sequence in the region 983-1282 of s segment of the cchf virus for 12 wild type strains was determined. the phylogenetic rel ...200616756002
presence of broadly reactive and group-specific neutralizing epitopes on newly described isolates of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus.crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv), a member of the genus nairovirus of the family bunyaviridae, causes severe disease in humans with high rates of mortality. the virus has a tripartite genome composed of a small (s), a medium (m) and a large (l) rna segment; the m segment encodes the two viral glycoproteins, g(n) and g(c). whilst relatively few full-length m segment sequences are available, it is apparent that both g(n) and g(c) may exhibit significant sequence diversity. it is unkno ...200516298978
phylogenetic analysis of the species theilovirus: emerging murine and human pathogens.the cardiovirus genus of the family picornaviridae includes two distinct species, encephalomyocarditis virus and theilovirus. we now report the complete nucleotide sequences of three theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (tmev) strains (to yale, tob15, and vie 415htr) and of vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus (vhev). this information, together with the recently reported sequences of divergent theiloviruses (theiler's-like rat virus [trv] and saffold viruses 1 and 2 [safv-1 and safv-2]), e ...200818815294
ticks of small ruminants in china.the importance of ticks and tick-borne diseases of small ruminants in china is discussed. of the 109 species of ticks identified to date in china, 45 species infest small ruminants. five species have been proved to be involved, or possibly involved, in the transmission of tick-borne diseases. anaplasma ovis, babesia motasi, babesia ovis and two unidentified species of theileria, have been recorded in small ruminants in china. the diseases caused by these organisms are widespread in china, causin ...200717823826
rickettsia sibirica isolation from a patient and detection in ticks, portugal.we report the first isolation of rickettsia sibirica (strain mongolotimonae) from the blood of a patient and detection by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) of the rickettsia in a rhipicephalus pusillus tick collected from a dead mongoose (herpestes ichneumon) in the alentejo region, portugal. we describe also the first pcr detection of a new rickettsia strain that is related to r. sibirica.200616836827
lymphangitis in a portuguese patient infected with rickettsia sibirica. 200818325289
first report on the occurrence of rickettsia slovaca and rickettsia raoultii in dermacentor silvarum in china.abstract: background: rickettsioses are among both the longest known and most recently recognized infectious diseases. although new spotted fever group rickettsiae have been isolated in many parts of the world including china, little is known about the epidemiology of rickettsia pathogens in ticks from xinjiang autonomous region of china. methods: in an attempt to assess the potential risk of rickettsial infection after exposure to ticks in xinjiang uygur autonomous region of china, a total of ...201222257726
epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever viruses in xinjiang, china.in 2004 and 2005, an epidemiological survey of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv) was conducted in xinjiang, china. a total of 5,629 serum samples of human and livestock were collected and tested for the cchfv antibody, and 17,319 ticks were collected for viral identification. reverse passive hemagglutination inhibition assays showed that the average prevalence of cchfv antibody was 1.7% for the humans and 12.7% for the livestock. a relatively high antibody prevalence, ranging from 19 ...200919553586
the life cycle of hyalomma asiaticum kozlovi olenev, 1931 (acari: ixodidae) under laboratory conditions.the developmental stages in the life cycle of hyalomma asiaticum kozlovi were investigated under laboratory conditions. the larval, nymphal and adult ticks were all fed on rabbits at 25-27 degrees c, 50% relative humidity (rh) and exposed to daylight. all free-living stages were maintained in an incubator at 26+/-1 degrees c, 70% rh and daylight conditions. the life cycle of h. asiaticum kozlovi was completed in an average period of 151.6 days (range 104-190). the average developmental periods w ...200919062189
salivating for knowledge: potential pharmacological agents in tick saliva. 200818271624
rickettsia mongolotimonae infection in south africa.we report the first laboratory-confirmed case of rickettsia mongolotimonae infection in africa. the patient sought treatment for an eschar on his toe; lymphangitis, severe headaches, and fever subsequently developed. after a regimen of doxycycline, symptoms rapidly resolved. r. mongolotimonae infection was diagnosed retrospectively by serologic tests and molecular-based detection of the organism in biopsy specimens of eschar material.200415078607
the neglected arboviral infections in mainland china.the major arboviral diseases in mainland china include japanese encephalitis, dengue fever, crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (also known as xinjiang hemorrhagic fever), and tick-borne encephalitis. these and other newly found arbovirus infections due to banna virus and tahyna virus contribute to a large and relatively neglected disease burden in china. here we briefly review the literature regarding these arboviral infections in mainland china with emphasis on their epidemiology, primary vectors, ...201020436960
tick cell culture isolation and growth of rickettsia raoultii from dutch dermacentor reticulatus ticks.tick cell lines play an important role in research on ticks and tick-borne pathogenic and symbiotic microorganisms. in an attempt to derive continuous dermacentor reticulatus cell lines, embryo-derived primary cell cultures were set up from eggs laid by field ticks originally collected as unfed adults in the netherlands and maintained for up to 16 months. after several months, it became evident that cells in the primary cultures were infected with a rickettsia-like intracellular organism. supern ...201223140894
two immunoregulatory peptides with antioxidant activity from tick salivary glands.ticks are blood-feeding arthropods that may secrete immunosuppressant molecules, which inhibit host inflammatory and immune responses and provide survival advantages to pathogens at tick bleeding sites in hosts. in the current work, two families of immunoregulatory peptides, hyalomin-a and -b, were first identified from salivary glands of hard tick hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum. three copies of hyalomin-a are encoded by an identical gene and released from the same protein precursor. both hyalomin ...201020178988
comparative microarray analysis of rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus expression profiles of larvae pre-attachment and feeding adult female stages on bos indicus and bos taurus cattle.rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus is an obligate blood feeder which is host specific to cattle. existing knowledge pertaining to the host or host breed effects on tick transcript expression profiles during the tick - host interaction is poor.201020637126
ticks and tick-borne pathogens at the cutaneous interface: host defenses, tick countermeasures, and a suitable environment for pathogen establishment.ticks are unique among hematophagous arthropods by continuous attachment to host skin and blood feeding for days; complexity and diversity of biologically active molecules differentially expressed in saliva of tick species; their ability to modulate the host defenses of pain and itch, hemostasis, inflammation, innate and adaptive immunity, and wound healing; and, the diverse array of infectious agents they transmit. all of these interactions occur at the cutaneous interface in a complex sequence ...201324312085
prevalence of ixodid ticks on cattle in mazandaran province, iran.a survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence of hard tick species (acari: ixodidae) on cattle in mazandaran province, iran. a total of 953 ticks were collected from 86 infested cattle during activating seasons of ticks during 2004-2005. nine species were identified: boophilus annulatus (51.3%), rhipicephalus bursa (16.8%), haemaphysalis punctata (6.3%), ixodes ricinus (6.8%), hyalomma marginatum (12.5%), hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (5.2%), hyalomma asiaticum (0.6%), hyalomma detritum ...200718165714
knockdown of selenocysteine-specific elongation factor in amblyomma maculatum alters the pathogen burden of rickettsia parkeri with epigenetic control by the sin3 histone deacetylase corepressor complex.selenocysteine is the 21st naturally-occurring amino acid. selenoproteins have diverse functions and many remain uncharacterized, but they are typically associated with antioxidant activity. the incorporation of selenocysteine into the nascent polypeptide chain recodes the tga stop codon and this process depends upon a number of essential factors including the selenocysteine elongation factor (sef). the transcriptional expression of sef did not change significantly in tick midguts throughout the ...201324282621
development and evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid detection of anaplasma ovis.anaplasma ovis is an intraerythrocytic rickettsial pathogen of small ruminants. loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) is a nucleic acid detection method in which the target dna can be efficiently amplified with high specificity and sensitivity under isothermal conditions. in this study, a lamp method was developed for the specific detection of a. ovis, using lamp primers designed on the basis of the major surface protein 4 gene. lamp was performed at 65°c for 30 min. its specificity was ...201121471346
prevalence of ixodid ticks on cattle and sheep southeast of iran.a survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence of hard tick species (acari: ixodidae) on cattle and sheep southeast of iran. a total of 972 ticks were collected from 280 infested cattle and 1,207 ticks were collected from 632 infested sheep during activating seasons of ticks in 2008-2009. the species collected from cattle were hyalomma marginatum marginatum (50.92%), hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (25.61%), hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (8.12%), hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum (1.85%), and ...201021113660
tick salivary compounds: their role in modulation of host defences and pathogen transmission.ticks require blood meal to complete development and reproduction. multifunctional tick salivary glands play a pivotal role in tick feeding and transmission of pathogens. tick salivary molecules injected into the host modulate host defence responses to the benefit of the feeding ticks. to colonize tick organs, tick-borne microorganisms must overcome several barriers, i.e., tick gut membrane, tick immunity, and moulting. tick-borne pathogens co-evolved with their vectors and hosts and developed m ...201323971008
epidemiological survey of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus in yunnan, china, 2008.objectives: we aimed to determine the seroprevalence of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv) infection in yunnan province, china. materials and methods: one thousand six hundred and fifty-seven human serum samples and 1280 ticks (hyalomma asiaticum) were collected from five counties (menglian, menghai, lancang, mengla, and ximeng). serum samples were analyzed independently by indirect immunofluorescence assay and western blotting to detected cchfv antibody. the ticks were examined by re ...201121546303
distribution of tick-borne diseases in china.as an important contributor to vector-borne diseases in china, in recent years, tick-borne diseases have attracted much attention because of their increasing incidence and consequent significant harm to livestock and human health. the most commonly observed human tick-borne diseases in china include lyme borreliosis (known as lyme disease in china), tick-borne encephalitis (known as forest encephalitis in china), crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (known as xinjiang hemorrhagic fever in china), q-f ...201323617899
exploring the mialome of ticks: an annotated catalogue of midgut transcripts from the hard tick, dermacentor variabilis (acari: ixodidae).ticks are obligate blood feeders. the midgut is the first major region of the body where blood and microbes ingested with the blood meal come in contact with the tick's internal tissues. little is known about protein expression in the digestive tract of ticks. in this study, for analysis of global gene expression during tick attachment and feeding, we generated and sequenced 1,679 random transcripts (ests) from cdna libraries from the midguts of female ticks at varying stages of feeding.200819021911
An insight into the sialotranscriptome and proteome of the coarse bontlegged tick, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes.Ticks are mites specialized in acquiring blood from vertebrates as their sole source of food and are important disease vectors to humans and animals. Among the specializations required for this peculiar diet, ticks evolved a sophisticated salivary potion that can disarm their host's hemostasis, inflammation, and immune reactions. Previous transcriptome analysis of tick salivary proteins has revealed many new protein families indicative of fast evolution, possibly due to host immune pressure. The ...201121851864
laboratory identification of arthropod ectoparasites.the collection, handling, identification, and reporting of ectoparasitic arthropods in clinical and reference diagnostic laboratories are discussed in this review. included are data on ticks, mites, lice, fleas, myiasis-causing flies, and bed bugs. the public health importance of these organisms is briefly discussed. the focus is on the morphological identification and proper handling and reporting of cases involving arthropod ectoparasites, particularly those encountered in the united states. o ...201424396136
a broad-range survey of ticks from livestock in northern xinjiang: changes in tick distribution and the isolation of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto.borreliosis is highly prevalent in xinjiang uygur autonomous region, china. however, little is known about the presence of borrelia pathogens in tick species in this region, in addition borrelia pathogens have not been isolated from domestic animals.201526337627
emerging tick-borne infections in mainland china: an increasing public health threat.since the beginning of the 1980s, 33 emerging tick-borne agents have been identified in mainland china, including eight species of spotted fever group rickettsiae, seven species in the family anaplasmataceae, six genospecies in the complex borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, 11 species of babesia, and the virus causing severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. in this review we have mapped the geographical distributions of human cases of infection. 15 of the 33 emerging tick-borne agents have be ...201526453241
crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever: a molecular survey on hard ticks (ixodidae) in yazd province, iran.to determine the rate of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv) infection in hard ticks (ixodidae) in yazd province of iran.201121771418
an immunosuppressant peptide from the hard tick amblyomma variegatum.ixodid ticks are well known for spreading transmitted tick-borne pathogens while being attached to their hosts for almost 1-2 weeks to obtain blood meals. thus, they must secrete many immunosuppressant factors to combat the hosts' immune system. in the present work, we investigated an immunosuppressant peptide of the hard tick amblyomma variegatum. this peptide, named amregulin, is composed of 40 residues with an amino acid sequence of hlhmhgngatqvfkprlvlkcpnaaqliqpgklqrqlllq. a cdna of the prec ...201627153086
species diversity and geographic distribution of hard ticks (acari: ixodoidea: ixodidae) infesting domestic ruminants, in qazvin province, iran.this report presents the results of the first faunistic study of hard ticks in qazvin province of iran. the primary objective was to determine the species diversity and geographic distribution of hard ticks that parasitize domestic ruminants. information about the abiotic preferences of these species has been provided. a total of 286 cattle, 1,053 goats, and 2,050 sheep were examined in 13 villages in 28 flocks distributed throughout the studied areas. total direct body collections of ticks were ...201121805220
identification of 24h ixodes scapularis immunogenic tick saliva proteins.ixodes scapularis is arguably the most medically important tick species in the united states. this tick transmits 5 of the 14 human tick-borne disease (tbd) agents in the usa: borrelia burgdorferi, anaplasma phagocytophilum, b. miyamotoi, babesia microti, and powassan virus disease. except for the powassan virus disease, i. scapularis-vectored tbd agents require more than 24h post attachment to be transmitted. this study describes identification of 24h immunogenic i. scapularis tick saliva prote ...201525825233
prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks from eastern china.to explore the tick distribution and prevalence of borrelia in zhejiang province, we performed a survey in nine sites. a total of 447 adult ticks of 11 species were captured and the dominant tick species were haemaphysalis longicornis and ixodes sinensis and the abundance of tick species in different areas varied significantly. overall, 4.70% of the ticks were polymerase chain reaction (pcr) positive for borrelia. the average pcr positive rates were 5.19% for h. longicornis, 3.45% for amblyomma ...201525548382
unprecedented genomic diversity of rna viruses in arthropods reveals the ancestry of negative-sense rna viruses.although arthropods are important viral vectors, the biodiversity of arthropod viruses, as well as the role that arthropods have played in viral origins and evolution, is unclear. through rna sequencing of 70 arthropod species we discovered 112 novel viruses that appear to be ancestral to much of the documented genetic diversity of negative-sense rna viruses, a number of which are also present as endogenous genomic copies. with this greatly enriched diversity we revealed that arthropods contain ...201525633976
rickettsia sibirica subsp. mongolitimonae infection and retinal vasculitis. 200818394301
first survey of hard ticks (acari: ixodidae) on cattle, sheep and goats in boeen zahra and takistan counties, iran.to carry out the distribution survey of hard ticks of livestock in boeen zahra and takistan counties of qazvin province from april 2010 to september 2010.201223569956
divergent viruses discovered in arthropods and vertebrates revise the evolutionary history of the flaviviridae and related viruses.viruses of the family flaviviridae are important pathogens of humans and other animals and are currently classified into four genera. to better understand their diversity, evolutionary history, and genomic flexibility, we used transcriptome sequencing (rna-seq) to search for the viruses related to the flaviviridae in a range of potential invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. accordingly, we recovered the full genomes of five segmented jingmenviruses and 12 distant relatives of the known flavivirida ...201526491167
[electron microscopic study of the excretory system of the hungry female tick hyalomma asiaticum p. sch. et e. schl. report ii].in h. asiaticum the cells of the malpighian tubules and these of the rectal cas have the uniform structure: the apical surface is covered with microvilli, the basal plasmatic membrane forms relatively small invaginations. as to ultrastructural characters, there is no distinct division of the malpighian tubule into departments. the distal ends of the tubules are only somewhat enlarged and form the so-called ampulla the cells of which are noticeably flattened. the microvilli and basal folds of the ...1989172834
growth of coxiella burnetii in the ixodes scapularis-derived ide8 tick cell line.q fever, a zoonotic disease, is caused by a gram-negative intracellular bacterium, coxiella burnetii. although normally transmitted during exposure to infectious aerosols, c. burnetii is also found in arthropod vectors. in the environment, ticks are thought to play a crucial role in bacterial maintenance and transmission by infecting various mammalian species. however, the nature of the pathogen-tick relationship is not well defined. to determine c. burnetii's interactions with a cultured tick c ...201121254834
sero-epidemiological survey of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus in tunisia.crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) is a tick-borne disease associated with a high case fatality rate and transmitted mainly by hyalomma marginatum. the geographical distribution of h. marginatum covers most of the western mediterranean basin. we aimed to investigate whether cchf virus (cchfv) is circulating in tunisia. samples from unexplained acute febrile patients (n = 181) and a high risk group of humans, mainly slaughter workers (n = 38), were collected in the summer of 2014 and analyzed ...201626956221
morphological characteristics of normal and gynandromorphic hyalomma asiaticum schulze and schlottke, 1930.gynandromorphic ticks are extremely rare, and often attract parasitologists' attention. during our examination of tick specimens, an engorged gynandromorph of hyalomma asiaticum was noticed. this is the first record of gynandromorphic ticks from china. in this study, several important morphological structures of normal and gynandromorphic h. asiaticum were analyzed. comparing to the normal h. asiaticum, the gynandromorphic specimen was a typical bipartite protogynander. its right side showed nor ...201526174833
genome sequence of "rickettsia sibirica subsp. mongolitimonae"."rickettsia sibirica subsp. mongolitimonae" is the agent of lymphangitis-associated rickettsiosis, an emerging human disease that has been diagnosed in europe and africa. the present study reports the draft genome of rickettsia sibirica subsp. mongolitimonae strain ha-91.022493199
survey on cattle ticks in nur, north of iran.to survey the prevalence of cattle ticks in nur county and prepare a list of tick fauna in this district.201425182439
anaplasma infection of bactrian camels (camelus bactrianus) and ticks in xinjiang, china.to date, anaplasmosis has been reported to be a subclinical disease in indian and arabian one-humped camels (camelus dromedarius) and llamas (lama glama). however, no information on anaplasma infection in two-humped bactrian camels (camelus bactrianus) in china has been published to date. the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of anaplasma spp. in domestic bactrian camels and ticks in xinjiang, china.201526055661
sensitivity to permethrin in a dermacentor reticulatus population from eastern poland in laboratory study.the action of chemical compounds on the palaearctic tick d. reticulatus (fabricius) (acari: amblyomminae) has been poorly investigated so far. therefore, the effects of application of permethrin on engorged d. reticulatus females have been assessed, and the survival rate for the different developmental stages of the tick species in its non-parasitic phase of the life cycle was determined upon application of the pyrethroid.201424405550
clustered cases of rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae infection, france. 023460995
distribution of ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting domestic ruminants in mountainous areas of golestan province, iran.to determine the prevalence of ticks on cattle in the mountainous areas of golestan province and their geographical distribution.025183090
transcriptional activation of antioxidants may compensate for selenoprotein deficiencies in amblyomma maculatum (acari: ixodidae) injected with selk- or selm-dsrna.the gulf-coast tick, amblyomma maculatum, possesses an elaborate set of selenoproteins, which prevent the deleterious effects from oxidative stress that would otherwise occur during feeding. in the current work, we examined the role of selenoprotein k (selk) and selenoprotein m (selm) in feeding a. maculatum by bioinformatics, transcriptional gene expression, rna interference and antioxidant assays. the transcriptional expression of selk did not vary significantly in salivary glands or midguts t ...201424698418
human infection with rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae, spain, 2007-2011.human infection with rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae was initially reported in 1996, and reports of a total of 18 cases have been published. we describe 6 additional cases that occurred in the mediterranean coast region of spain during 2007-2011. clinicians should consider this infection in patients who have traveled to this area.023343524
prevalence of tick infestation in dromedary camels (camelus dromedarius) brought for slaughter in mashhad abattoir, iran.this study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of tick infestation and identify tick species that parasitize dromedary camels. since april 2012 through march 2013, a total of 400 camels that brought for slaughter in mashhad abattoir were examined for tick infestation. out of the total 400 camels examined, 237 were infested and annual prevalence of tick infestation 59.25 % (95 % ci 54-64) was calculated. the higher prevalence rates were found in the summer and spring, especially the sum ...201326345051
anaplasma phagocytophilum in sheep and goats in central and southeastern china.anaplasma phagocytophilum is wide spread throughout the world and impacts both human and animal health. several distinct ecological clusters and ecotypes of the agent have been established on the basis of various genetic loci. however, information on the genetic variability of a. phagocytophilum isolates in china represents a gap in knowledge. the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and genetic characterization of a. phagocytophilum in small ruminants in central and southeast ...201627871295
prevalence of ixodid ticks on cattle, sheep and goats in ilam county, ilam province, iran.this survey was performed to find out the infestation rate of ixodidae ticks in domestic ruminants in ilam county during 21 march 2009 to 23 august 2009. sampling was performed in 25 villages and 15 animal farm from different areas of this county. a total of 1,316 ticks were collected from 416 cattle, 208 sheep and 147 goats. the overall prevalence of ticks was recorded: 43, 23.5, and 49/6 % in cattle, sheep, and goats respectively. the number of ticks that collected from cattle, sheep, and goat ...201325698857
specific histamine binding activity of a new lipocalin from hyalomma asiaticum (ixodidae) and therapeutic effects on allergic asthma in mice.lipocalin proteins are secreted by tick salivary glands as an important strategy to interfere with the immune response of hosts. a large number of lipocalins are secreted, but the functions of most of these proteins are unclear. here, we report a new lipocalin protein with particular histamine binding capacity, which was isolated from the salivary glands of the tick hyalomma asiaticum.201627639693
kampinos national park: a risk area for spotted fever group rickettsioses, central poland?ixodid ticks are important vectors of a variety of bacterial and protozoan pathogens which cause infections in humans. in this study, altogether 1041 questing ixodes ricinus (n = 305) and dermacentor reticulatus ticks (n = 736), sympatrically occurring in kampinos national park (kpn), central-east poland, were analyzed by pcr for rickettsia species. overall, the pathogen prevalence in ticks was 27.5 % for i. ricinus and 42.8 % for d. reticulatus. sequencing analysis showed that the first tick sp ...201627631765
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