epidemiology of plasmodium falciparum and p. vivax malaria endemic in northern 2002, the total malaria burden in afghanistan was estimated to be 3 million cases annually, mainly from takhar and kunduz provinces. field investigations from 2001 to 2007 revealed a rapid resurgence of plasmodium falciparum & p. vivax malaria, with annual incidence rates between 0.0026 & 4.39, and between 0.88 & 13.37 episodes/1,000 person years, respectively. both diseases peaked during 2002, and then declined independently, indicating two differing modes of transmission and epidemiology. a ...200819209754
[rapd analysis of the populations of the malaria mosquitoes anopheles superpictus and a. pulcherrimus in the malaria foci of the central asia].rapd-analysis was used to estimate intraspecies-specific variability in malaria mosquitoes, the major vectors of malaria in central asia. the high heterogeneity of rapd-loci was found in 7 populations of an. superpictus and 2 populations of an. pulcherrimus. genetic distances between the populations were determined on the basis of analysis of the frequencies of 15 rapd-loci. there was a genetic similarity of an. superpictus populations in the malaria foci of tadjikistan with those in the neighbo ...200516212086
the anopheles superpictus complex: introduction of a new malaria vector complex in iran.anopheles superpictus grassi is one of the most widespread malaria vectors in iran. two morphologically independent forms of this mosquito, both at larval and adult stage as well as a great diversity in its mtdna loci have been previously described in iran. because of existence of mtdna haplotypes, co-occurrence of two forms in diverse climates as well as different roles of populations played in malaria transmission, we hypothesized the possibility of emerging species (or sub-species) within the ...200819192616
field studies on inversion polymorphism in anopheles superpictus from southern italy.polytene chromosome studies were carried out on various population samples of anopheles superpictus from different localities in southern italy. more than 7,000 female specimens, mostly obtained from daytime collections of indoor resting mosquitoes, were successfully scored for nurse cell polytene chromosomes. night biting samples were also examined in some localities. only one chromosomal polymorphism, due to a paracentric inversion involving the central third of the 2l arm, was recorded in all ...19892487896
[the reconstitution of a laboratory colony of anopheles superpictus].the laboratory self-reproducing colony an. superpictus was generated. the basis for the colony was stages i and ii larvae collected in the localities of dushanbe. adult mosquitoes were kept in hutches of 0.2 m3 in volume, rabbits are used as donors. the larvae are fed with the mixture which had been used while generating laboratory colony an. sacharovi. since the creation of the colony and until recently (1.5 years) 30 generations have superseded in it.19902352519
[a trial of romanomermis iyengari and r. culicivorax mermithids as a means for controlling blood-sucking mosquitoes in the tadzhik ssr].field trials of r. iyengari and r. culicivorax in the biological control for the mosquito larvae were conducted in parkhar, kuibyshevsk, gissar districts and the outskirts of the city of dushanbe, the tadjik ssr. larvae of anopheles superpictus, an. pulcherrimus and an. hyrcanus in a dosage of 1-5 thousand intact larvae per sq. m were invaded by mermithids. the mean infection rate was 46 per cent. the maximum infection rate was 98 per cent. it depended on several factors: the dosage of intact la ...19902145503
[trials of the insecticides icon and ficam against mosquitoes in the southern ussr].two residual insecticides (icon 10% wp, ici and ficam w 80% wp, camco) were in 1989 tested in field trials in tajikistan, azerbaijan and uzbekistan against anopheles superpictus, an. sacharovi, an. pulcherrimus, an. martinius, culex pipiens, aedes caspius, and ae. vexans. in dosages recommended by the producing companies (0.025 g/m2 a. i. for icon and 0.4 g/m2 for ficam), the above preparations showed residual action during 2-3 months. icon and ficam did not cause irritability and repellency in ...19912067463
[seasonal variability in the insecticide resistance and irritability of anopheles superpictus].the resistance and irritability to malathion, fenitrothion, propoxur and ddt (who insecticide impregnated papers) in anopheles superpictus from dangara district were determined three times in season. complete susceptibility to malathion, fenitrothion and ddt and low resistance to propoxur probably based on knockdown mechanism were noticed. ddt and malathion irritability levels were high, and those for fenitrothion and propoxur were lower. during the season irritability to malathion and fenitroth ...19921387193
analysis of von willebrand factor a domain-related protein (warp) polymorphism in temperate and tropical plasmodium vivax field isolates.the identification of key molecules is crucial for designing transmission-blocking vaccines (tbvs), among those ookinete micronemal proteins are candidate as a general class of malaria transmission-blocking targets. here, the sequence analysis of an extra-cellular malaria protein expressed in ookinetes, named von willebrand factor a domain-related protein (warp), is reported in 91 plasmodium vivax isolates circulating in different regions of iran.200919549316
molecular identification of palearctic members of anopheles maculipennis in northern iran.members of anopheles maculipennis complex are effective malaria vectors in europe and the caspian sea region in northern iran, where malaria has been re-introduced since 1994. the current study has been designed in order to provide further evidence on the status of species composition and to identify more accurately the members of the maculipennis complex in northern iran.200717233887
[current malaria situation in turkmenistan].malaria is one of the main health problems facing most developing countries having a hot climate. it is a problem in turkmenistan. the country is situated in central asia, north of the kopetdag mountains, between the caspian sea to the west and the amu-darya river to the east. turkmenistan stretches for a distance of 1,100 km from west to east and 650 km from north to south. it borders kazakhstan in the north, uzbekistan in the east and north-east, iran in the south, and afghanistan in the south ...200111548312
prevalence of plasmodium spp. in malaria asymptomatic african migrants assessed by nucleic acid sequence based amplification.malaria is one of the most important infectious diseases in the world. although most cases are found distributed in the tropical regions of africa, asia, central and south americas, there is in europe a significant increase in the number of imported cases in non-endemic countries, in particular due to the higher mobility in today's society.200919138412
genetic structure of the malaria vector anopheles superpictus in iran using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (coi and coii) and morphologic markers: a new species complex?anopheles superpictus has been implicated as the most widespread malaria vector in iran. we collected adult specimens from eight provinces across the country and subjected them to a morphological investigation as well as molecular analysis of mitochondrial dna coi-coii region, using pcr-rflp and analysis of dna sequence alignment for 708bp of the coi locus. two distinct morphological forms (a and b) of the species were found sympatric in all areas of study. pcr-rflp using alui separated the spec ...200717367742
history of malaria control in tajikistan and rapid malaria appraisal in an agro-ecological setting.reported malaria cases in rice growing areas in western tajikistan were at the root of a rapid appraisal of the local malaria situation in a selected agro-ecological setting where only scarce information was available. the rapid appraisal was complemented by a review of the epidemiology and control of malaria in tajikistan and central asia from 1920 until today. following a resurgence in the 1990s, malaria transmission has been reduced considerably in tajikistan as a result of concerted efforts ...200818950536
[the specific features of the development of the malaria mosquitoes anopheles superpictus (grassi 1899) in tajikistan].in tajikistan, the mosquitoes anopheles superpictus (grassi 1899) are one of the major malaria vectors. the basic habitats are the mountain and submountain landscapes of an area where this species is reckoned among the most dangerous carriers of the disease. the malaria control tactic should be determined by the species of a vector and the specific features of a protected contingent, by improving the sanitary education of people and environmental sanitation.201020361634
how human practices have affected vector-borne diseases in the past: a study of malaria transmission in alpine valleys.malaria was endemic in the rhône-alpes area of eastern france in the 19th century and life expectancy was particularly shortened in alpine valleys. this study was designed to determine how the disease affected people in the area and to identify the factors influencing malaria transmission.200717727700
demonstration of malaria situation analysis, stratification and planning in minab district, southern demonstrate malaria situation analysis, stratification and planning for an endemic area in southern iran.201121771420
malaria reemergence in northern afghanistan.field investigations were conducted in kundoz province, an afghan high-risk area, to determine factors responsible for the rapid reemergence of malaria in that country, where 3 million cases were estimated to have occurred during 2002. results indicate the presence of nonrice-field-dependent plasmodium falciparum and rice-field-associated p. vivax malaria.200718252122
molecular characterization of antifolates resistance-associated genes, (dhfr and dhps) in plasmodium vivax isolates from the middle iran, co-infections of plasmodium vivax and plasmodium falciparum are common and p. vivax infections are often exposed to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (sp). in the present study, the frequency distribution of mutations associated to sp resistance was investigated in pvdhfr and pvdhps genes from field isolates.200919175936
the dominant anopheles vectors of human malaria in africa, europe and the middle east: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis.abstract:201021129198
[evaluation of mosquito species (diptera: culicidae) identified in manisa province according to their breeding sites and seasonal differences].objective: to identify the mosquito species and the potential mosquito-related infectious diseases in manisa province, mosquito larvae were collected from aquatic habitats in manisa between october 2008 and october 2009. methods: mosquito larvae were collected from the surface water of study sites with a standard larvae collection spoon. the 1st and 2nd stage larvae brought to the laboratory were kept until they become adults, and their species were identified during 3rd or 4th larvae stages. in ...201121776596
some ecological attributes of malarial vector anopheles superpictus grassi in endemic foci in southeastern determine the bionomics and susceptibility status of the malarial vector anopheles superpictus (an. superpictus) to different insecticides in the sistan-baluchestan province which has the highest malarial prevalence in iran.024093794
development of plasmodium vivax in anopheles superpictus under experimental conditions.the susceptibility of anopheles superpictus for plasmodium vivax was described quantitatively under laboratory conditions. of the 697 laboratory females studied in 16 groups, 513 (73.5%) females took a bloodmeal, of which 88.4% developed ookinetes on day 1, 56.1% oocysts between days 3 and 11, and 52.5% sporozoites in the salivary gland on days 15 to 63 post-infection. sporogony was completed in 10-11 days post-infection. there was no difference in the longevity of uninfected and infected female ...19873310681
[residual anophelism in italy: distribution in 4 southern regions].about 40 years after malaria eradication from italy, the potential vectors of this disease, anopheles labranchiae, anopheles superpictus and anopheles sacharovi, are still present in some regions of the south. since 1991 the laboratory of parasitology, istituto superiore di sanità, in collaboration with the local health authorities, carried out an investigation to assess the levels of these potential anopheline vectors in calabria, puglia, sicily and sardinia. a. labranchiae, the most important ...19947865027
[degree of sensitivity of larvae of anopheles superpictus grassi and an. m. sacharovi favre from various regions of turkmenistan to organochlorine insecticides]. 1977146782
species composition and seasonal activities of malaria vectors in an area at reintroduction prevention stage, khuzestan, south-western iran.the most part of iran become malaria-free region and fall in prevention of re-introduction stage. these regions however are struggling with imported of malaria cases where malaria vectors exist. therefore, understanding the situation of mosquito vectors is crucial. this study was carried out to find out the present situation of malaria vectors and malaria transmission potential in a malaria-free area.201426114144
larval habitat characteristics of the genus anopheles (diptera: culicidae) and a checklist of mosquitoes in guilan province, northern iran.ecological data are important in the vector control management of mosquitoes. there is scattered published information about the larval habitat characteristics and ecology of the genus anopheles (diptera: culicidae) in iran and most of available data is in relation to malaria vectors in southern iran.201122808409
the ecology and larval habitats characteristics of anopheline mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in aligudarz county (luristan province, western iran).to determine ecology and characteristics of the larval habitats of the genus anopheles (dipetra: culicidae) in aligudarz county, western iran.025183088
characterization of larval habitats for anopheline mosquitoes in a malarious area under elimination program in the southeast of determine the effects of environmental characteristics of larval habitats on distribution and abundance of anopheline mosquitoes in bashagard county, a malarious area in southeast of iran.025183151
molecular characterization, biological forms and sporozoite rate of anopheles stephensi in southern identify the biological forms, sporozoite rate and molecular characterization of the anopheles stephensi (an. stephensi) in hormozgan and sistan-baluchistan provinces, the most important malarious areas in iran.024144130
the malaria transition on the arabian peninsula: progress toward a malaria-free region between 1960-2010.the transmission of malaria across the arabian peninsula is governed by the diversity of dominant vectors and extreme aridity. it is likely that where malaria transmission was historically possible it was intense and led to a high disease burden. here, we review the speed of elimination, approaches taken, define the shrinking map of risk since 1960 and discuss the threats posed to a malaria-free arabian peninsula using the archive material, case data and published works. from as early as the 194 ...023548086
[control of anopheles superpictus. grassi in the foot-hill zone of the upper surkhan]. 19684241291
fauna and larval habitats of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) of west azerbaijan province, northwestern iran.several important diseases are transmitted by mosquitoes. despite of the potential of the occurrence of some mosquito-borne diseases such as west nile, dirofilariasis and malaria in the region, there is no recent study of mosquitoes in west azerbaijan province. the aim of this investigation was to study the fauna, composition and distribution of mosquitoes and the characteristics of their larval habitats in this province.201426114130
[ecology of anopheles superpictus grassi of the kara-kala region of turkmenia]. 19744282113
phylogeny of anopheline (diptera: culicidae) species in southern africa, based on nuclear and mitochondrial genes.a phylogeny of anthropophilic and zoophilic anopheline mosquito species was constructed, using the nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 (its2) and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit i (coi) genes. the its2 alignment, typically difficult due to its noncoding nature and large size variations, was aided by using predicted secondary structure, making this phylogenetically useful gene more amenable to investigation. this phylogeny is unique in explicitly including zoophilic, non-vector anophel ...026047180
progress toward malaria elimination in jazan province, kingdom of saudi arabia: 2000-2014.the draft global technical strategy for malaria aims to eliminate malaria from at least 10 countries by 2020. yemen and saudi arabia remain the last two countries on the arabian peninsula yet to achieve elimination. over the last 50 years, systematic efforts to control malaria in the kingdom of saudi arabia has successfully reduced malaria cases to a point where malaria is now constrained largely to jazan province, the most south-western area along the red sea. the progress toward elimination in ...201526552387
wing shape as an indicator of larval rearing conditions for aedes albopictus and aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).estimating a mosquito's vector competence, or likelihood of transmitting disease, if it takes an infectious bloodmeal, is an important aspect of predicting when and where outbreaks of infectious diseases will occur. vector competence can be affected by rearing temperature and inter- and intraspecific competition experienced by the individual mosquito during its larval development. this research investigates whether a new morphological indicator of larval rearing conditions, wing shape, can be us ...022897054
malaria risk in corsica, former hot spot of malaria in france.background: the prevalence of plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax malaria was very high in corsica just before the second world war. the last outbreak was in 1972 and the most recent indigenous case was in 2006. results: analysis of historical data shows that anopheline vectors were abundant. recent surveys demonstrated that potential vectors are still present in corsica, despite the likely disappearance of anopheles sacharovi. moreover, p. falciparum can develop experimentally into these ...201020704707
fauna and larval habitat characteristics of mosquitoes in neka county, northern iran.ecological studies on mosquitoes are very important in vector control programs. there are a few studies about the ecology of mosquitoes in northern iran. this study was carried out to detect fauna and larval habitat characteristics of mosquitoes.201526623437
analysis of the causes of spawning of large-scale, severe malarial epidemics and their rapid total extinction in western provence, historically a highly endemic region of france (1745-1850).the two main puzzles of this study are the onset and then sudden stopping of severe epidemics in western provence (a highly malaria-endemic region of mediterranean france) without any deliberate counter-measures and in the absence of significant population flux.201424581282
imported malaria in albania and the risk factors that could allow its reappearance.malaria is an infectious disease gradually becoming a serious concern for public health institutions, even in european countries where the eradication of the disease was previously taken for granted. albania was listed as an endemic area from the beginning of the 20th century, but the disease was gradually under control and some decades after the world war ii it was merely considered a historical curiosity. nevertheless, for many reasons, since 1994 and in increasing trend, albanian health facil ...201323758911
malaria situation and anopheline mosquitoes in qom province, central iran.the aims of this study was to analysis the current situation of malaria and to find the distribution of anopheline mosquitoes, as probable vectors of the disease, in qom province, central iran.201022808402
microsporidium infecting anopheles supepictus (diptera: culicidae) larvae.microsporidia are known to infect a wide variety of animals including mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae). in a recent study on the mosquito fauna of chahar mahal and bakhtiari province, at the central western part of iran, a few larvae of anopheles superpictus were infected with a microsporidium-resembled microorganism. current investigation deals with the identification of the responsible microorganism at the genus level.201627308299
genotyping plasmodium vivax isolates from the 2011 outbreak in greece.plasmodium vivax malaria was common in greece until the 1950s with epidemics involving thousands of cases every year. greece was declared free of malaria by the world health organization in 1974. from 1974 to 2010, an average of 39 cases per year were reported, which were mainly imported. however, in 2009 and 2010 six and one autochthonous cases were reported culminating with a total of 40 autochthonous cases reported in 2011, of which 34 originated from a single region: laconia of southern pelo ...201324373457
the fauna and ecology of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in western iran.the aim of this study was to obtain new data which would be valuable to develop programs for future planning of mosquito controls in in western iran.201426114143
diversification of the genus anopheles and a neotropical clade from the late cretaceous.the anopheles genus is a member of the culicidae family and consists of approximately 460 recognized species. the genus is composed of 7 subgenera with diverse geographical distributions. despite its huge medical importance, a consensus has not been reached on the phylogenetic relationships among anopheles subgenera. we assembled a comprehensive dataset comprising the coi, coii and 5.8s rrna genes and used maximum likelihood and bayesian inference to estimate the phylogeny and divergence times o ...201526244561
time series analysis of malaria in afghanistan: using arima models to predict future trends in incidence.malaria remains endemic in afghanistan. national control and prevention strategies would be greatly enhanced through a better ability to forecast future trends in disease incidence. it is, therefore, of interest to develop a predictive tool for malaria patterns based on the current passive and affordable surveillance system in this resource-limited region.201627876041
topographical distribution of anopheline mosquitoes in an area under elimination programme in the south of iran.malaria is a major vector-borne disease in tropical and sub-tropical countries caused by plasmodium infection. it is one the most important health problem in south and southeast of iran. since iran has recently launched to the elimination phase of malaria and vector control is one of the main strategies for elimination, this study was conducted to determine the topographical distribution of malaria vectors in minab county, one of the important malaria endemic areas in south of iran.201526148647
european surveillance for west nile virus in mosquito populations.a wide range of arthropod-borne viruses threaten both human and animal health either through their presence in europe or through risk of introduction. prominent among these is west nile virus (wnv), primarily an avian virus, which has caused multiple outbreaks associated with human and equine mortality. endemic outbreaks of west nile fever have been reported in italy, greece, france, romania, hungary, russia and spain, with further spread expected. most outbreaks in western europe have been due ...201324157510
mosquito fauna (diptera: culicidae) of hamedan county, western iran.this study aimed to identify and determine the larval and adult mosquitoes (culicidae) fauna in hamedan county, western iran.201426114135
towards a strategy for malaria in pregnancy in afghanistan: analysis of clinical realities and women's perceptions of malaria and anaemia.afghanistan has some of the worst maternal and infant mortality indicators in the world and malaria is a significant public health concern. study objectives were to assess prevalence of malaria and anaemia, related knowledge and practices, and malaria prevention barriers among pregnant women in eastern afghanistan.201526537247
[insecticide sensitivity and irritability of malarial mosquitoes in the ussr. 2. anopheles superpictus grassi in the tadzhik ssr]. 19872952872
community knowledge and practices regarding malaria and long-lasting insecticidal nets during malaria elimination programme in an endemic area in iran.since malaria is one of the foremost public health problems in iran, a malaria elimination phase has been initiated and application of long-lasting insecticidal nets (llins) is an important strategy for control. success and effectiveness of this community based strategy largely dependent on proper use of llins. in this context, to determine the community's knowledge and practices about malaria and llins, a study was conducted in rudan county, one of the important malaria endemic areas in southea ...201425539639
status of malaria vectors in italy.about 30 yr after malaria eradication, surveys to assess the presence and abundance of anopheline vectors were carried out in central and southern italy and in the islands of sardinia and sicily from 1992 to 1994. anopheles labranchiae falleroni was present in scattered foci in all regions, except for tuscany, where it breeds almost exclusively in rice fields (grosseto province). most common breeding sites were rivers and streams, followed by ponds and ground pools. the highest adult density was ...19979151488
central asia's hidden burden of neglected tropical diseases. 201121980541
resting habits of anopheles superpictus grassi and anopheles sacharovi faure (culicidae, diptera) in northern iraq. 196113859105
status of insecticide resistance in high-risk malaria provinces in afghanistan.insecticide resistance seriously threatens the efficacy of vector control interventions in malaria endemic countries. in afghanistan, the status of insecticide resistance is largely unknown while distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets has intensified in recent years. the main objective of this study was thus to measure the level of resistance to four classes of insecticides in provinces with medium to high risk of malaria transmission.201626888409
epidemiology and control of plasmodium vivax in afghanistan.around half of the population of afghanistan resides in areas at risk of malaria transmission. two species of malaria (plasmodium vivax and plasmodium falciparum) account for a high burden of disease-in 2011, there were more than 300,000 confirmed cases. around 80-95% of malaria is p. vivax transmission is seasonal and focal, below 2,000 m in altitude, and in irrigated areas which allow breeding of anopheline mosquito vectors. malaria risk is stratified to improve targeting of interventions. six ...201627708189
towards malaria risk prediction in afghanistan using remote sensing.malaria is a significant public health concern in afghanistan. currently, approximately 60% of the population, or nearly 14 million people, live in a malaria-endemic area. afghanistan's diverse landscape and terrain contributes to the heterogeneous malaria prevalence across the country. understanding the role of environmental variables on malaria transmission can further the effort for malaria control programme.201020465824
[optimization of the placement density and feed composition for the maintenance of the larvae of anopheles superpictus grassi and anopheles pulcherrimus theob].the optimal density of placement of an. superpictus and an. pulcherrimus larvae in the culture is 50 individuals/dm2 of the water surface. this provided about 90% survival, 2.5- and 2.3-mg weights of chrysalids, respectively, 5.8 and 5.3 chrysalid multiplication per dm2 a day. a mixture containing ground combined fodder, daphnia and wheat bran in a ratio of 2:1:4 is recommended for feeding both species of larvae.200910414045
spatio-temporal distribution of malaria vectors (diptera: culicidae) across different climatic zones of iran.malaria is a main vector-borne public health problem in iran. the last studies on iranian mosquitoes show 31 anopheles species including different sibling species and genotypes, eight of them are reported to play role in malaria transmission. the objective of this study is to provide a reference for malaria vectors of iran and to map their spatial and temporal distribution in different climatic zones. shape files of administrative boundaries and climates of iran were provided by national cartogr ...201121771707
anopheles plumbeus (diptera: culicidae) in europe: a mere nuisance mosquito or potential malaria vector?anopheles plumbeus has been recognized as a minor vector for human malaria in europe since the beginning of the 20th century. in recent years this tree hole breeding mosquito species appears to have exploited novel breeding sites, including large and organically rich man-made containers, with consequently larger mosquito populations in close vicinity to humans. this lead to investigate whether current populations of an. plumbeus would be able to efficiently transmit plasmodium falciparum, the pa ...201223181931
epidemiological profile of malaria in a university hospital in the eastern region of saudi study the epidemiological, clinical and hematological profile of laboratory-diagnosed malaria cases at king fahd hospital of the university, al-khobar, saudi arabia, during the period from january 1990 to december 1999, and to provide suitable recommendations accordingly.200111299407
malaria's contribution to world war one - the unexpected adversary.malaria in the first world war was an unexpected adversary. in 1914, the scientific community had access to new knowledge on transmission of malaria parasites and their control, but the military were unprepared, and underestimated the nature, magnitude and dispersion of this enemy. in summarizing available information for allied and axis military forces, this review contextualizes the challenge posed by malaria, because although data exist across historical, medical and military documents, descr ...201425515618
assessment of antibody responses in local and immigrant residents of areas with autochthonous malaria transmission in greece.greece has been officially malaria free since 1974. however, from 2009 to 2012, several locally acquired, cases of plasmodium vivax malaria were detected, in immigrants and in greek citizens. in this study, the antibody (ab) response of greeks and immigrants with documented malaria was initially assessed, followed by an ab screening of greeks and immigrant residents of local transmission areas. of the 38 patients tested, 10.5% of greeks and 15.7% of immigrants were positive 5-7 months after infe ...201526013377
susceptibility and irritability of adult forms of main malaria vectors against insecticides used in the indoor residual sprays in muzaffargarh district, pakistan: a field southern punjab, pakistan, muzaffargarh district is known to have insecticide-resistant anopheles and drug-resistant plasmodium spp. in this part of the country, five anopheline mosquitoes, anopheles stephensi liston, anopheles culicifacies giles, anopheles fluviatilis james, anopheles superpictus grassi, and anopheles subpictus grassi (diptera: culicidae) are known as malaria vectors. among these, an. culicifacies is the primary and an. stephensi is the secondary malaria vector. outbreaks of ...201424724288
comparison of hematological aspects among children with malaria and healthy children.malaria is an acute and chronic illness characterized by paroxysms of fever, chills, sweating, fatigue, anemia, and splenomegaly. most malarial deaths occur in infants and young children.anemia in malaria has diverse pathophysiologic mechanisms such as direct invasion of red cells, in the following, we presented comparison of hematological aspects: children with malaria and healthy children.201526131347
modelling the incidence of plasmodium vivax and plasmodium falciparum malaria in afghanistan 2006-2009.identifying areas that support high malaria risks and where populations lack access to health care is central to reducing the burden in afghanistan. this study investigated the incidence of plasmodium vivax and plasmodium falciparum using routine data to help focus malaria interventions.201425033452
geometric morphometric analysis of colombian anopheles albimanus (diptera: culicidae) reveals significant effect of environmental factors on wing traits and presence of a metapopulation.anopheles albimanus is a major malaria mosquito vector in colombia. in the present study, wing variability (size and shape) in an. albimanus populations from colombian maracaibo and chocó bio-geographical eco-regions and the relationship of these phenotypic traits with environmental factors were evaluated. microsatellite and morphometric data facilitated a comparison of the genetic and phenetic structure of this species. wing size was influenced by elevation and relative humidity, whereas wing s ...201424704285
parathelohania iranica sp. nov. (microsporidia: amblyosporidae) infecting malaria mosquito anopheles superpictus (diptera: culicidae): ultrastructure and molecular characterization.microsporidia are common pathogens of insects and sometimes are considered as a candidate in the biological control of mosquitoes. recently a microsporidium infection was discovered in anopheles superpictus (diptera: culicidae) larvae, in iran. the responsible agent belonged to the genus parathelohania (microsporidia: amblyosporidae). this study has been carried out to identify its identity at the species level. fresh infected larvae were collected from the type locality, kiar district, in chaha ...201728372996
effect of different larval rearing temperatures on the productivity (r o) and morphology of the malaria vector anopheles superpictus grassi (diptera: culicidae) using geometric morphometrics.temperature affects both the biology and morphology of mosquito vectors. geometric morphometrics is a useful new tool for capturing and analyzing differences in shape and size in many morphological parameters, including wings. we have used this technique for capturing the differences in the wings of the malaria vector anopheles superpictus, using cohorts reared at six different constant temperatures (15°, 20°, 25°, 27°, 30°, and 35° c) and also searched for potential correlations with the life t ...200920836803
[the duration of the residual effect of the insecticide icon and the resistance of the major malaria pathogen vector (anopheles superpictus grassi) in tajikistan to the insecticides used in the republic]. 201323437724
[crossing experiments between anopheles stephensi and anopheles superpictus]. 19715155716
malaria and the anopheles mosquitoes of tajikistan.surveys of anopheles mosquitoes were conducted in urban, rural, and natural areas of tajikistan to obtain updated information on their distributions, especially in southern districts of the country where malaria is a prevalent disease. nine species of anopheles are found in tajikistan. anopheles superpictus, an. claviger, an. hyrcanus, and an. pulcherrimus are the most widespread and abundant species. investigations in northern tajikistan confirmed the presence of an. artemievi and the absence o ...201223181867
[a comparison of the level of resistance and irritability in anopheles hyrcanus and an. superpictus to insecticides].the resistance and irritability to malathion, fenitrothion, propoxur and ddt (who insecticide impregnated paper) were determined in the endophilic anopheles superpictus population in dushanbe and in the exophilic an. hyrcanus population in parkhar district. an. superpictus proved to be completely susceptible to malathion, fenitrothion and propoxur, low resistant to ddt, and highly or moderately irritable to all the insecticides. on the contrary, an. hyrcanus, was low irritable to insecticides bu ...20091508072
ecology and habitat characterization of mosquitoes in saudi arabia.the kingdom of saudi arabia (ksa) contains many of the world's mosquito vectors of parasitic and arboviral diseases. however, few studies addressed their geographic distribution and larval habitat characteristics. we carried out a 14-months mosquito survey in three ksa regions: makkah and al-baha (western) and jezan (south-western). larvae were collected by dipping from various water habitats and adults by cdc light and bg sentinel traps. climatic conditions and physicochemical characteristics o ...201324189671
elisa incrimination of anopheles superpictus and anopheles hyrcanus (diptera: culicidae) as vectors of plasmodium vivax (haemosporida: plasmodiidae) in tajikistan.entomological surveys were conducted in the malaria-endemic southwestern region of tajikistan to establish which species of anopheles may be responsible for malaria transmission. the head-thorax portions of 2,213 wild-caught anopheles females-anopheles superpictus grassi (n = 1,292), anopheles pulcherrimus theobald (n = 376), anopheles hyrcanus (pallas) (n = 544), and anopheles claviger (meigen) (diptera: culicidae) (n = 1)-were tested for the presence of plasmodium sporozoites using enzyme-link ...201324843935
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