Publications

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the humeroscapular bone of the great horned owl (bubo virginianus) and other raptors.a small, separate, bony density dorsal to the shoulder joint is radiographically visible in several species of large hawks and owls. gross dissection and histological examination show the bone to lie on the deep surface of the major deltoid muscle in intimate association with the dorsal coracohumeral ligament of the shoulder joint. the tendon of the supracoracoideus muscle passes immediately cranial to the humeroscapular bone. two ligaments distinct from the shoulder joint capsule attach the hum ...19921585989
prevalence of encysted apicomplexans in muscles of raptors.an acid-pepsin digestion technique was used to examine portions of breast muscle and heart from raptors for encysted protozoans. apicomplexan zoites were present in 52 (45.6%) of the 114 samples examined: 11 of 12 (91.7%) red-shouldered hawks (buteo lineatus), 20 of 34 (58.8%) red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis), two of seven (28.6%) cooper's hawks (accipiter cooperi), three of four (75%) sharp-shinned hawks (accipiter striatus), one (100%) mississippi kites (ictinia misisippiensis), one of two ...19999950339
are life history events of a northern breeding population of cooper's hawks influenced by changing climate?numerous studies have demonstrated earlier timing of spring migration and egg-laying in small passerines, but documentation of such responses to recent climate change in the life histories of higher trophic feeding birds such as raptors is relatively scarce. raptors may be particularly susceptible to possible adverse effects of climate change due to their longer generation turnover times and lower reproductive capacity, which could lead to population declines because of an inability to match rep ...201728070302
isolation, molecular characterization, and in vitro schizogonic development of sarcocystis sp. ex accipiter cooperii from a naturally infected cooper's hawk (accipiter cooperii).raptors serve as the definitive host for several sarcocystis species. the complete life cycles of only a few of these sarcocystis species that use birds of prey as definitive hosts have been described. in the present study, sarcocystis species sporocysts were obtained from the intestine of a cooper's hawk (accipiter cooperii) and were used to infect cell cultures of african green monkey kidney cells to isolate a continuous culture and describe asexual stages of the parasite. two clones of the pa ...201728033565
cyanide poisoning of a cooper's hawk ( accipiter cooperii).a cooper's hawk ( accipiter cooperii) was found dead in a ditch leading from a heap leach pad at a gold mine in nevada. observations at autopsy included an absence of external lesions, traces of subcutaneous and coronary fat, no food in the upper gastrointestinal tract, and no lesions in the viscera. cyanide concentrations (µg/g ww) were 5.04 in blood, 3.88 in liver, and 1.79 in brain. no bacteria or viruses were isolated from tissues, and brain cholinesterase activity was within the normal rang ...201728114852
ophthalmologic and oculopathologic findings in red-tailed hawks and cooper's hawks with naturally acquired west nile virus infection.to assess ophthalmologic features and ocular lesions in red-tailed hawks and cooper's hawks naturally infected with west nile virus (wnv).200717937556
pathology and epidemiology of natural west nile viral infection of raptors in georgia.carcasses from 346 raptors found between august 2001 and december 2004 were tested for west nile virus (wnv) using virus isolation and immunohistochemistry; 40 were positive for wnv by one or both methods. of these 40 birds, 35 had histologic lesions compatible with wnv infection, one had lesions possibly attributable to wnv, and four had no histologic evidence of wnv. the most common histologic lesions associated with wnv infection were myocardial inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis; skeletal ...200717495305
serologic evidence of west nile virus infection in three wild raptor populations.we assayed for west nile virus (wnv) antibodies to determine the presence and prevalence of wnv infection in three raptor populations in southeast wisconsin during 2003-04. this study was conducted in the framework of ongoing population studies that started before wnv was introduced to the study area. for 354 samples, 88% of 42 adult cooper's hawks (accipiter cooperii), 2.1% of 96 nestling cooper's hawks, 9.2% of 141 nestling red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis), and 12% of 73 nestling great hor ...200516252490
prevalence of encysted toxoplasma gondii in raptors from alabama.little is known about the prevalence of encysted toxoplasma gondii in wild birds. we examined the hearts and breast muscles from 101 raptors for encysted t. gondii. all of the raptors had been submitted for necropsy to the state veterinary diagnostic laboratory, auburn, alabama. tissues were digested in acid-pepsin solution and inoculated into groups of 3-5 laboratory mice. toxoplasma gondii was isolated from 27 of 101 (26.7%) raptors: 8 of 12 (66.7%) red-shouldered hawks (buteo lineatus), 13 of ...19938277379
ddt poisoning in a cooper's hawk collected in 1980. 19827082872
visceral gout in a captive cooper's hawk. 19685691434
respiratory nematodiases in raptors in quebec.this is a retrospective study on wild raptors submitted to the université de montréal (quebec, canada) from 1989 to 1996. cyathostoma spp. (nematoda: syngamidae) adults and/or eggs were found in air sacs, lungs, bronchi, and trachea of 12 raptors (falconiformes and strigiformes) from quebec, canada, belonging to eight different species, five of which are first host records for this parasite: barred owl (strix varia), snowy owl (nyctea scandiaca), northern harrier (circus cyaneus), northern gosha ...199910231766
the predatory behavior of wintering accipiter hawks: temporal patterns in activity of predators and prey.studies focused on how prey trade-off predation and starvation risk are prevalent in behavioral ecology. however, our current understanding of these trade-offs is limited in one key respect: we know little about the behavior of predators. in this study, we provide some of the first detailed information on temporal patterns in the daily hunting behavior of bird-eating accipiter hawks and relate that to their prey. during the winters of 1999-2004, twenty-one sharp-shinned hawks (a. striatus) and t ...200717216210
exceptionally well preserved late quaternary plant and vertebrate fossils from a blue hole on abaco, the bahamas.we report quaternary vertebrate and plant fossils from sawmill sink, a "blue hole" (a water-filled sinkhole) on great abaco island, the bahamas. the fossils are well preserved because of deposition in anoxic salt water. vertebrate fossils from peat on the talus cone are radiocarbon-dated from approximately 4,200 to 1,000 cal bp (late holocene). the peat produced skeletons of two extinct species (tortoise chelonoidis undescribed sp. and caracara caracara creightoni) and two extant species no long ...200718077421
polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism applied to sex identification of accipiter cooperii.determination of sex in birds is valuable for studying population dynamics and structure, habitat use, behavior and mating systems. the purpose of the present study was to optimize a dna-based methodology to allow the sex identification in accipiter cooperii nestlings. chromo-helicase-dna-binding (chd1) gene was used in this work as a marker for sex identification. chd-w and chd-z sequences should present length and/or sequence differences providing a way to identify gender. we used a non-invasi ...200919111606
hematologic parameters in raptor species in a rehabilitation setting before release.to be considered for release, raptors undergoing rehabilitation must have recovered from their initial injury in addition to being clinically healthy. for that purpose, a good understanding of reference hematologic values is important in determining release criteria for raptors in a rehabilitation setting. in this study, retrospective data were tabulated from clinically normal birds within 10 days of release from a rehabilitation facility. hematologic values were compiled from 71 red-tailed hawk ...201122216719
identification of a toll-like receptor 1 in guinea fowl (agelastes niger).toll-like receptors (tlrs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns, thus playing important roles in host defense. this study determined the first sequence of a tlr1 type 1 in the guinea fowl (gftlr1). the open reading frame of gftlr1 type 1 contains 2,115 nucleotides and encodes 705 amino acids. amino acid analysis indicated that gftlr1 type 1 shares 92.3 % homology with the green jungle fowl, 92.1 % with the chicken, 90.4 % with the turkey, and 84.4 % with cooper's hawk. genetic patter ...201222570094
pbdes and other pops in urban birds of prey partly explained by trophic level and carbon source.as urban sprawl and agricultural intensification continue to invade prime wildlife habitat, some animals, even apex predators, are managing to adapt to this new environment. chemical pollution is one of many stressors that wildlife encounter in urban environments. predators are particularly sensitive to persistent chemical pollutants because they feed at a high trophic level where such pollution is biomagnified. to examine levels of pollution in urban birds of prey in the lower mainland region o ...201525897724
does breeding population trajectory and age of nesting females influence disparate nestling sex ratios in two populations of cooper's hawks?offspring sex ratios at the termination of parental care should theoretically be skewed toward the less expensive sex, which in most avian species would be females, the smaller gender. among birds, however, raptors offer an unusual dynamic because they exhibit reversed size dimorphism with females being larger than males. and thus theory would predict a preponderance of male offspring. results for raptors and birds in general have been varied although population-level estimates of sex ratios in ...201526445658
an assessment of exposure and effects of persistent organic pollutants in an urban cooper's hawk (accipiter cooperii) population.among the stressors confronting urban wildlife, chemical contaminants pose a particular problem for high trophic feeding species. previous data from fortuitous carcass collections revealed surprisingly high levels of persistent organic pollutants in raptor species, including the cooper's hawk (accipiter cooperii), from urbanized areas of southwestern british columbia, canada. thus, in 2012 and 2013, we followed up on that finding by measuring pops in blood samples from 21 adult and 15 nestling c ...201727796689
microsatellite markers suggest high genetic diversity in an urban population of cooper's hawks (accipiter cooperii). 201627994172
apparent fatal snakebite in three hawks.based on histories and gross and histologic findings, snakebite was diagnosed in three dead raptors submitted for post-mortem examination from northern florida and southern georgia (usa). two immature red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis) were found next to dead and partially eaten venomous snakes. an adult cooper's hawk (accipiter cooperii) was found adjacent to a den containing a cotton-mouth (agkistrodon piscivorus) and an eastern diamondback rattlesnake (crotalus adamanteus). gross findings i ...19947760504
chlorinated hydrocarbons and shell thinning in eggs of (accipiter) hawks in ontario, 1986-1989.eggs of sharp-shinned hawks (accipiter striatus), cooper's hawks (a. cooperii), and northern goshawks (a. gentilis) were collected from nests in south-central ontario from 1986 to 1989. detectable levels of the chlorinated hydrocarbons dde, ddt, ddd, mirex, photomirex, cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, dieldrin, heptachlor expoxide, hcb and pcb were present in all the eggs analyzed. mean contaminant levels were highest in sharp-shinned hawks, slightly lower in cooper's hawks, and sig ...199415091636
isolation of west nile virus from mosquitoes, crows, and a cooper's hawk in connecticut.west nile (wn) virus, a mosquito-transmitted virus native to africa, asia, and europe, was isolated from two species of mosquitoes, culex pipiens and aedes vexans, and from brain tissues of 28 american crows, corvus brachyrhynchos, and one cooper's hawk, accipiter cooperii, in connecticut. a portion of the genome of virus isolates from four different hosts was sequenced and analyzed by comparative phylogenetic analysis. our isolates from connecticut were similar to one another and most closely r ...199910600741
surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in wild birds during outbreaks in domestic poultry, minnesota, 2015.in 2015, a major outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (hpaiv) infection devastated poultry facilities in minnesota, usa. to understand the potential role of wild birds, we tested 3,139 waterfowl fecal samples and 104 sick and dead birds during march 9-june 4, 2015. hpaiv was isolated from a cooper's hawk but not from waterfowl fecal samples.201627064759
columbid herpesvirus-1 in two cooper's hawks (accipiter cooperii) with fatal inclusion body disease.we report two separate naturally occurring cases of fatal herpesviral disease in cooper's hawks (accipiter cooperii). gross lesions included splenomegaly and hepatomegaly, with diffuse pale mottling or scattered small white foci. histologic lesions included splenic and hepatic necrosis associated with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies characteristic of herpesvirus. in one case, necrosis and inclusions were also noted in bone marrow, thymus, bursa of fabricius, thyroid gland, parathyroid ...200818689647
serratospiculoides amaculata in a cooper's hawk (accipiter cooperii).during a routine examination of a female cooper's hawk (accipiter cooperii) nematodes were found in the thoracic air sacs. a total of 12 females and nine males were recovered and identified as serratospiculoides amaculata. this is the first record of this parasite found in a raptor, other than a falcon, in north america.19883373650
comparison of wing morphology in three birds of prey: correlations with differences in flight behavior.flight is the overriding characteristic of birds that has influenced most of their morphological, physiological, and behavioral features. flight adaptations are essential for survival in the wide variety of environments that birds occupy. therefore, locomotor structure, including skeletal and muscular characteristics, is adapted to reflect the flight style necessitated by different ecological niches. red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis) soar to locate their prey, cooper's hawks (accipiter cooper ...200616477604
trichinellosis in a cooper's hawk. 19827174467
the potential role of oral ph in the persistence of trichomonas gallinae in cooper's hawks (accipiter cooperii).trichomoniasis, caused by the protozoan trichomonas gallinae, affects a variety of species worldwide including avivorious raptors. existing information suggests that the disease is most prevalent in young birds, and differential susceptibility to trichomoniasis among individuals in different age groups was documented in cooper's hawks (accipiter cooperii) nesting in tucson, arizona. in that population, 85% of nestling cooper's hawks had t. gallinae in their oral cavity, compared to only 1% of br ...201424171574
antibody prevalence and isolation of viable toxoplasma gondii from raptors in the southeastern usa.raptors are good indicators of the prevalence of toxoplasma gondii in the environment because they prey on small mammals and birds. these prey species are a major source of infection in domestic cats ( felis catus ), which shed the environmentally resistant oocysts. we assessed t. gondii infection in 281 opportunistically available raptors at a rehabilitation facility between 2012 and 2014. antibodies to t. gondii were assayed by a modified agglutination test (cutoff 1:25) and found in serum of ...201627243150
clinical utility of a complete diagnostic protocol for the ocular evaluation of free-living raptors.objective:  to describe a protocol for the examination of free-living raptors and report the ophthalmic examination findings of seven raptor species native to central illinois, namely the barred owl, cooper's hawk, eastern screech owl, great horned owl, american kestrel, red-tailed hawk, and turkey vulture and to determine if the findings relative to visual prognosis affected eligibility for future release. animals studied:  seventy-nine free-living raptors. procedures:  under manual restraint, ...201122050975
pathologic findings in red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis) and cooper's hawks (accipiter cooper) naturally infected with west nile virus.carcasses of 13 red-tailed hawks (rthas) and 11 cooper's hawks (cohas) were tested for west nile virus (wnv) using wnv-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) on fresh brain tissue and wnv-specific immunohistochemistry (ihc) on various organs. ten cohas (91%) and 11 rthas (85%) were positive for wnv rna by rt-pcr. all 11 cohas (100%) and 10 rthas (77%) were positive for wnv antigen by ihc. a triad of inflammatory lesions, including chronic lymphoplasmacytic and histiocy ...200415529979
trichomoniasis in cooper's hawks from arizona.members of the family columbidae are hosts for the sarcomastigophoran, trichomonas gallinae, the causative agent of trichomoniasis. birds of prey are susceptible to the disease when they ingest infected prey. doves are a major dietary component of urban nesting cooper's hawks (accipiter cooperii) in tucson, arizona (usa). during the breeding seasons of 1995 and 1996, we clinically evaluated 89 breeding age and 223 nestling cooper's hawks from urban and exurban (i.e., undeveloped natural area) ar ...19989706569
hemograms and hematozoa of sharp-shinned (accipiter striatus) and cooper's hawks (accipiter cooperii) captured during spring migration in northern new york.hemograms were determined for 26 cooper's (accipiter cooperii) and 55 sharp-shinned hawks (accipiter striatus) captured during spring migration (27 march to 12 may 1987) on the south shore of lake ontario, new york (usa). no significant differences were noted in packed cell volume and estimated total solids between the species. however, cooper's hawks had significantly higher total white blood cells counts and higher concentrations of heterophils, monocytes, and eosinophils. proportionally, lymp ...19958583640
hawk eyes i: diurnal raptors differ in visual fields and degree of eye movement.different strategies to search and detect prey may place specific demands on sensory modalities. we studied visual field configuration, degree of eye movement, and orbit orientation in three diurnal raptors belonging to the accipitridae and falconidae families.201020877645
hawk eyes ii: diurnal raptors differ in head movement strategies when scanning from perches.relatively little is known about the degree of inter-specific variability in visual scanning strategies in species with laterally placed eyes (e.g., birds). this is relevant because many species detect prey while perching; therefore, head movement behavior may be an indicator of prey detection rate, a central parameter in foraging models. we studied head movement strategies in three diurnal raptors belonging to the accipitridae and falconidae families.201020877650
persistence of two isolates of trichomonas gallinae in simulated bird baths with and without organic material.trichomonas gallinae, a well-documented protozoan parasite of avian hosts, has been implicated in major passerine mortality events recently and historically throughout the literature. it has been suggested that bird baths and artificial water sources could serve as a source of infection for naive birds; however, trichomonad persistence in water is not well understood. we measured the persistence of t. gallinae isolates from two avian hosts in distilled water and distilled water with the addition ...201526629619
serologic evidence of exposure of raptors to influenza a virus.serum or plasma samples from raptors that prey or scavenge upon aquatic birds were tested by a commercially available blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the evidence of antibodies to influenza a virus. samples were taken from birds (n = 616) admitted to two rehabilitation centers in the united states. in addition, samples from 472 migrating peregrine falcons (falco peregrinus) trapped on autumnal and vernal migrations for banding purposes were also tested. only bald eagles were notab ...201222856203
raptors lack lower-field myopia.the presence of lower-field myopia (described in chickens, pigeons, quail and amphibians) allows these animals to keep the ground in focus while performing other visual tasks. a relationship has also been reported between the eye height and the degree of myopia observed. all of the animals reported in the literature to date are ground-foraging species. using infrared neutralizing video retinoscopy and static photoretinoscopy we found a lower-field myopia to be absent in the barn owl (tyto alba), ...19957610576
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