some aspects of the biochemistry and nutritive value of the water melon seed (citrullus vulgaris, schrad). 19751160364
physical and chemical studies of a low-molecular-weight form of urease.1. a new form of enzymically active jack-bean [canavalia ensiformis (l.) dc] urease corresponding to an s(20,w) value of 11.8s and a molecular weight of 260000 was investigated. 2. conversion of 18s urease (ec into the 12s form depends on both low protein concentration and ph. above ph5.3 urease exists in the 18s form and below ph4.8 in the 12s form; between these two ph values a 12s-18s rapid-equilibrium process is observed. 3. comparison of the properties of 18s and 12s urease indicat ...19685691753
molecular cloning and characterization of a plant serine acetyltransferase playing a regulatory role in cysteine biosynthesis from watermelon.serine acetyltransferase (satase; ec, which catalyzes the reaction connecting serine and cysteine/methionine metabolism, plays a regulatory role in cysteine biosynthesis in plants. we have isolated a cdna clone encoding satase by direct genetic complementation of a cys- mutation in escherichia coli using an expression library of citrullus vulgaris (watermelon) cdna. the cdna encodes a polypeptide of 294 amino acids (31,536 da) exhibiting 51% homology with that of e. coli satase. dna-bl ...19957608200
peroxisomal copper, zinc superoxide dismutase. characterization of the isoenzyme from watermelon cotyledons.the biochemical and immunochemical characterization of a superoxide dismutase (sod, ec from peroxisomal origin has been carried out. the enzyme is a cu,zn-containing sod (cuzn-sod) located in the matrix of peroxisomes from watermelon (citrullus vulgaris schrad.) cotyledons (l.m. sandalio and l.a. del río [1988] plant physiol 88: 1215-1218). the amino acid composition of the enzyme was determined. analysis by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of the peroxisomal cuzn- ...19957630940
molecular cloning of a cysteine synthase cdna from citrullus vulgaris (watermelon) by genetic complementation in an escherichia coli cys- auxotroph.we have isolated cdna clones encoding cysteine synthase (csase, ec, which catalyzes the terminal step in cysteine biosynthesis, by direct genetic complementation of a cys- mutation in escherichia coli with an expression library of citrullus vulgaris (watermelon) cdna. the library was constructed from 8-day-old etiolated seedlings of c. vulgaris in the lambda zapii vector, converted to a plasmid library by in vivo excision, and then used for transformation of cysteine auxotroph e. coli ...19948041362
[molecular genetics and biotechnology in medicinal plants: studies by transgenic plants].the advances in molecular genetics and biotechnology in the field of medicinal plant research are discussed with focusing on the works using transgenic plants. differentiated organ cultures and transgenic teratomas, incited by the infection with mutants of agrobacterium ti and ri plasmids, were established in quinolizidine-alkaloid producing plants and solanaceae plants. these cultured cells were used for the production and bioconversion of specific alkaloids produced in these plants. the method ...19948133455
mutational analysis of the n-terminal topogenic signal of watermelon glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase using the heterologous host hansenula polymorpha.we have studied the significance of the n-terminal presequence of watermelon (citrullus vulgaris) glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase [gmdh; (s)-malate:nad+ oxidoreductase; ec] in microbody targeting. the yeast hansenula polymorpha was used as heterologous host for the in vivo expression of various genetically altered watermelon mdh genes, whose protein products were localized by immunocytochemical techniques. it is shown that the presequence of gmdh is essential and sufficient for peroxis ...19948159718
watermelon glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase is sorted to peroxisomes of the methylotrophic yeast, hansenula polymorpha.we have studied the fate of the watermelon (citrullus vulgaris schrad.) glyoxysomal enzyme, malate dehydrogenase (gmdh), after synthesis in the methylotrophic yeast, hansenula polymorpha. the gene encoding the precursor form of gmdh (pre-gmdh) was cloned in an h. polymorpha expression vector downstream of the inducible h. polymorpha alcohol oxidase promoter. during methylotrophic growth, pre-gmdh was synthesized and imported into peroxisomes, where it was enzymatically active. the apparent molec ...19938224215
evidence for identity of beta-pyrazolealanine synthase with cysteine synthase in watermelon: formation of beta-pyrazole-alanine by cloned cysteine synthase in vitro and in vivo.the responsibility of cysteine synthase (ec from watermelon (citrullus vulgaris) for the formation of beta-(pyrazole-1-yl)-l-alanine, a non-protein amino acid specifically accumulated in curcubitaceae plants, was confirmed in vitro and in vivo by the cloned cdna on expression vectors, pccs11 and pcen1. the cdna sequence derived from pccs11, an expression vector driven by the lacz promoter, was placed under the transcriptional control of strong t7 promoter of pet3d to yield an over-expr ...19938280125
improvement of the traditional method of ogiri production and identification of the micro-organisms associated with the fermentation process.fermented products were developed from different proportions of melon (citrullus vulgaris schrad) and groundnut (arachis hypogea) seeds after a 96 hour fermentation period. proximate analysis, carried out on both fermented and unfermented samples, indicated that only the total carbohydrate content was appreciably reduced by the fermentation process. micro-organisms responsible for fermentation were identified by gram staining and lactophenol staining, as bacteria and fungi. identified bacteria w ...19938506243
[microbiological quality of street sold fruits in san josé, costa rica].the sanitary quality of street sold fruits was analyzed during the period from march 1990 thru march 1993 in san jose, costa rica. it looked for the presence of salmonella spp. shigella spp., escherichia coli as well as fecal coliforms in natural refreshments, fruit salads and the fruits most frecuently expended on streets, either in slices as the pineapple (ananas comosus), papaya (carica papaya), non-ripe mangoe (mangifera indica) and watermelon (citrullus vulgaris) and those that can be eaten ...19958729262
production of plant non-protein amino acids by recombinant enzymes of sequential biosynthetic reactions in bacteria.we constructed the co-expression vector, pfk4, in which two cdnas encoding serine acetyltransferase (satase) and beta-(pyrazol-1-yl)-l-alanine/l-cysteine synthase (beta-pa/csase) from citrullus vulgaris (watermelon) were over-expressed under the transcriptional control of t7 promoter in escherichia coli. accumulation of both satase and beta-pa/csase in soluble extracts of e. coli was confirmed by immunoblotting. the high enzymatic activities of satase and l-cysteine synthase (csase) were detecte ...19979013806
the glyoxysomal and plastid molecular chaperones (70-kda heat shock protein) of watermelon cotyledons are encoded by a single gene.the monoclonal a-70-kda heat shock protein (hsp70) antibody recognizes in crude extracts from watermelon (citrullus vulgaris) cotyledons two hsps with molecular masses of 70 and 72 kda. immunocytochemistry on watermelon cotyledon tissue and on isolated glyoxysomes identified hsp70s in the matrix of glyoxysomes and plastids. affinity purification and partial amino acid determination revealed the 70-kda protein to share high sequence identity with cytosolic hsp70s from a number of plant species, w ...19979391076
the plant pts1 receptor: similarities and differences to its human and yeast counterparts.two targeting signals, pts1 and pts2, mediate import of proteins into the peroxisomal matrix. we have cloned and sequenced the watermelon (citrullus vulgaris) cdna homologue to the pts1 receptor gene (pex5). its gene product, cvpex5p, belongs to the family of tetratricopeptide repeat (tpr) containing proteins like the human and yeast counterparts, and exhibits 11 repeats of the sequence w-x2-(e/s)-(y/f/q) in its n-terminal half. according to fractionation studies the plant pex5p is located mainl ...19989881165
inheritance of resistance to zucchini yellow mosaic virus and watermelon mosaic virus in watermelon.high resistance to zucchini yellow mosaic virus-china strain (zymv-ch) and moderate resistance to watermelon mosaic virus (wmv) were found in a selection of pi 595203 (citrullus lanatus var. lanatus), an egusi type originally collected in nigeria. mixed inoculations showed primarily that these two viruses have no cross-protection. this fact may explain the high frequency of mixed infection often observed in commercial fields. when plants were inoculated with a mixture of the two viruses, the fre ...200415475395
molecular and biochemical characterisation of a serine acetyltransferase of onion, allium cepa (l.).we have previously cloned a cdna, designated sat1, corresponding to a gene coding for a serine acetyltransferase (sat) from onion (allium cepa l.). the sat1 locus was mapped to chromosome 7 of onion using a single-stranded conformation polymorphism (sscp) in the 3' utr of the gene. northern analysis has demonstrated that expression of the sat1 gene is induced in leaf tissue in response to low s-supply. phylogenetic analysis has placed sat1 in a strongly supported group (100% bootstrap) that comp ...200515949827
comparative studies of glyoxysomes from various fatty seedlings.the separation of various organelles from cotton cotyledon (gossypium hirsutum l.), cucumber cotyledon (cucumis sativus l.), peanut cotyledon (archis hypogaea l.), pine megagametophyte (pinus ponderosa laws), and watermelon cotyledon (citrullus vulgaris schrad.) by sucrose density gradient centrifugation was found to be similar to that described for castor bean endosperm (ricinus communis l.). equilibrium densities were 1.12 to 1.13 g cm(3) for endoplasmic reticulum, 1.17 to 1.19 g/cm(3) for mit ...197516659183
dual specificities of the glyoxysomal/peroxisomal processing protease deg15 in higher plants.glyoxysomes are a subclass of peroxisomes involved in lipid mobilization. two distinct peroxisomal targeting signals (ptss), the c-terminal pts1 and the n-terminal pts2, are defined. processing of the pts2 on protein import is conserved in higher eukaryotes. the cleavage site typically contains a cys at p1 or p2. we purified the glyoxysomal processing protease (gpp) from the fat-storing cotyledons of watermelon (citrullus vulgaris) by column chromatography, preparative native isoelectric focusin ...200717592111
protective role of mangifera indica, cucumis melo and citrullus vulgaris peel extracts in chemically induced investigation was made to evaluate the pharmacological importance of fruit peel extracts of mangifera indica (mi), citrullus vulgaris (cv) and cucumis melo (cm) with respect to the possible regulation of tissue lipid peroxidation (lpo), thyroid dysfunctions, lipid and glucose metabolism. pre-standardized doses (200mg/kg of mi and 100mg/kg both of cv and cm), based on the maximum inhibition in hepatic lpo, were administered to wistar albino male rats for 10 consecutive days and the changes in ...200919059228
possible amelioration of atherogenic diet induced dyslipidemia, hypothyroidism and hyperglycemia by the peel extracts of mangifera indica, cucumis melo and citrullus vulgaris fruits in rats.hitherto unknown efficacy of the peel extracts of mangifera indica (mi), cucumis melo (cm) and citrullus vulgaris (cv) fruits in ameliorating the diet-induced alterations in dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction and diabetes mellitus have been investigated in rats. in one study, out of 4 different doses (50-300 mg/kg), 200 mg/kg of mi and 100 mg/kg for other two peel extracts could inhibit lipidperoxidation (lpo) maximally in liver. in the second experiment rats were maintained on pre-standardized a ...200819276533
[fruit-specific expression of sweet protein brazzein in transgenic tomato plants].the agpl1 (adp-glucose pyrophosphorylase large subunit 1) promoter from watermelon (citrullus vulgaris s.) has proved to exhibit fruit-specific expression patterns in tomato (lycopersicon esculentum l.). a plant expression vector harboring sweet-taste protein, brazzein, directed by agpl1 promoter, was constructed and transferred into tomato plants through agrobacterium-mediated transform methods. histochemical staining assay, pcr screening, southern blotting analysis and rt-pcr analysis showed t ...200919586868
non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in the watermelon eif4e gene are closely associated with resistance to zucchini yellow mosaic virus.zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) is one of the most economically important potyviruses infecting cucurbit crops worldwide. using a candidate gene approach, we cloned and sequenced eif4e and eif(iso)4e gene segments in watermelon. analysis of the nucleotide sequences between the zymv-resistant watermelon plant introduction pi 595203 (citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) and the zymv-susceptible watermelon cultivar 'new hampshire midget' ('nhm') showed the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms ...200919820912
protein inhibitors of trypsin from the seeds of cucurbitaceae trypsin inhibitors were isolated from the seeds of cucurbitaceae plants: two from cucumber (cucumis sativus) and red bryony (bryonia diotica) and one from figleaf gourd (cucurbita ficifolia), spaghetti squash (cucurbita pepo var. (vegetable spaghetti) and water melon (citrullus vulgaris). the inhibitors were purified by fractionation with ammonium sulphate, followed by ion-exchange chromatography and affinity chromatography using immobilized trypsin or anhydro-trypsin. the homogeneous inhi ...20073450102
assessment of dapg-producing pseudomonas fluorescens for management of meloidogyne incognita and fusarium oxysporum on watermelon.pseudomonas fluorescens isolates clinto 1r, wayne 1r, and wood 1r, which produce the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (dapg), can suppress soilborne diseases and promote plant growth. consequently, these beneficial bacterial isolates were tested on watermelon plants for suppression of meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode: rkn) and fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (fon). in a greenhouse trial, wayne 1r root dip suppressed numbers of rkn eggs per gram root on 'charleston gray' watermelon ...201627168652
two negative cis-regulatory regions involved in fruit-specific promoter activity from watermelon (citrullus vulgaris s.).a 1.8 kb 5'-flanking region of the large subunit of adp-glucose pyrophosphorylase, isolated from watermelon (citrullus vulgaris s.), has fruit-specific promoter activity in transgenic tomato plants. two negative regulatory regions, from -986 to -959 and from -472 to -424, were identified in this promoter region by fine deletion analyses. removal of both regions led to constitutive expression in epidermal cells. gain-of-function experiments showed that these two regions were sufficient to inhibit ...200819073962
sequence homologies between glyoxysomal and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase.the comparison of mitochondrial and glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase (ec from cotyledons of germinating watermelon (citrullus vulgaris schrad., cv. kleckey's sweet no. 6) by means of serological methods and peptide patterns revealed a high degree of homology. the n-terminal sequence analysis yielded a distinct presequence of eight or nine amino-acid residues, respectively, which is followed by an almost identical stretch of at least 20 amino-acid residues. a very similar domain has bee ...198624232764
a gbs-snp-based linkage map and quantitative trait loci (qtl) associated with resistance to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum race 2 identified in citrullus lanatus var. citroides.a major qtl for resistance to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum race 2 was mapped to a narrow 1.2 mb interval using a high-density gbs-snp linkage map, the first map of citrullus lanatus var. citroides. fusarium wilt, a fungal disease caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (fon), devastates watermelon crop production worldwide. several races, which are differentiated by host range, of the pathogen exist. resistance to fon race 2, a particularly virulent strain prevalent in the united states, ...201727803951
resistance to southern root-knot nematode (meloidogyne incognita) in wild watermelon (citrullus lanatus var. citroides).southern root-knot nematode (rkn, meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the united states and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. wild watermelon relatives (citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to rkn species. experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern rkn in c. lanatus var. citro ...201627168648
characterization of melon necrotic spot virus occurring on watermelon in korea.melon necrotic spot virus (mnsv) was recently identified on watermelon (citrullus vulgaris) in korea, displaying as large necrotic spots and vein necrosis on the leaves and stems. the average occurrence of mnsv on watermelon was found to be 30-65% in hapcheon and andong city, respectively. four isolates of the virus (mnsv-hw, mnsv-aw, mnsv-yw, and mnsv-sw) obtained from watermelon plants in different areas were non-pathogenic on ten general indicator plants, including chenopodium quinoa, while t ...201526673673
evaluation of watermelon germplasm for resistance to phytophthora blight caused by phytophthora capsici.this study was conducted to determine the phytophthora rot resistance of 514 accessions of watermelon germplasm, citrullus lanatus var lanatus. about 46% of the 514 accessions tested were collections from uzbekistan, turkey, china, u.s.a., and ukraine. phytophthora capsici was inoculated to 45-day-old watermelon seedlings by drenching with 5 ml of sporangial suspension (10(6) sporangia/ml). at 7 days after inoculation, 21 accessions showed no disease symptoms while 291 accessions of susceptible ...201325288932
effect of a phloxine b-cucurbitacin bait on diabroticite beetles (coleoptera: chrysomelidae).cucurbitacin e glycoside, extracted from a bitter mutant of hawkesbury watermelon [citrulls lanatus (thunb.) matsum. & nakai (syn. citrullus vulgaris schrad)] is the active ingredient of a feeding stimulant for the corn rootworm complex. it is the primary component of a water-soluble bait that can be combined with toxins for adult diabroticite control. studies were conducted using phloxine b (d&c red 28), a xanthene dye, as the toxin. this dye was efficacious against diabrotica undecimpunctata h ...200111561848
effect of bioactive fractions of citrullus vulgaris schrad. leaf extract against anopheles stephensi and aedes aegypti.the benzene extract of citrullus vulgaris was tested against anopheles stephensi and aedes aegypti for the larvicidal activity and ovicidal properties. the crude benzene extract was found to be more effective against a. stephensi than a. aegypti. the lc50 values were 18.56 and 42.76 ppm respectively. the lc50 values for silica gel fractions (bioactive fractions i, ii, iii and iv) were 11.32, 14.12, 14.53 and 16.02 ppm respectively. the mean per cent hatchability of the egg rafts were observed af ...200818176817
a comparative study on the effect of conventional thermal pasteurisation, microwave and ultrasound treatments on the antioxidant activity of five fruit juices.a comparative study on the effect of conventional thermal pasteurisation, microwave and ultrasound treatments on the phytochemical and antioxidant activities of juices from carambola (averrhoa carambola l.), black jamun (syzygium cumuni l.skeels.), watermelon (citrullus lanatus var lanatus), pineapple (ananas comosus l. merr) and litchi (litchi chinensis sonn.) was carried out. depending on the type of fruit sample and treatment, increase or decrease in phytochemical values was observed. overall ...201626190045
mosquitocidal and repellent activity of the leaf extract of citrullus vulgaris (cucurbitaceae) against the malarial vector, anopheles stephensi liston (diptera culicidae).the efficacy of the cucurbitaceous plant citrullus vulgaris against the anopheles stephensi was assessed in the present study. the leaf extract of citrullus vulgaris with different solvents viz, benzene, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol were tested for larvicidial, ovicidal, repellent and insect growth regulatory activities against anopheles stephensi. the larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. the lc50 values are 18.56, 48.51, 49.57 and 50.32 ppm respectively. the mean pe ...200818401966
polar lipids of water-melon (citrullus vulgaris) and squash-melon (citrullus vulgaris variety fistulosus) seeds. 19714334505
membranous appendices of spherosomes (oleosomes) : possible role in fat utilization in germinating oil seeds.spherosomes (oleosomes) of cotyledons of rape (brassica napus l.), sunflower (helianthus annuus l.), and watermelon (citrullus vulgaris, schrad.) seedlings are delimited by a "half unit membrane" that appears to be continuous with each of the osmiophilic layers of a tripartite unit membrane forming a handlelike appendix of the spherosomes. prior to any noticeable utilization of the spherosomal storage fat, ribosomes were found to be attached to these "handles". at later stages appendices of the ...197824414473
the antioxidant activity and polyphenolic contents of different plant seeds extracts.different plant seeds extracts of citrus sinensis, hordeum sativum, triticum sativum, canna indica, citrullus vulgaris and capsicum annuum were evaluated for their antioxidant activity by the following methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycril-hydrazyl (dpph) radical scavenging, reducing power, rbcs hemolysis and linoleic acid oxidation, a long with the determination of total phenolic and flavonoids contents. all the methanolic extracts showed high antioxidant activity and have high contents of phenolic an ...200919943462
acc synthase genes are polymorphic in watermelon (citrullus spp.) and differentially expressed in flowers and in response to auxin and gibberellin.the flowering pattern of watermelon species (citrullus spp.) is either monoecious or andromonoecious. ethylene is known to play a critical role in floral sex determination of cucurbit species. in contrast to its feminizing effect in cucumber and melon, in watermelon ethylene promotes male flower development. in cucumber, the rate-limiting enzyme of ethylene biosynthesis, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (acc) synthase (acs), regulates unisexual flower development. to investigate the role of eth ...200818367517
major quantitative trait loci and putative candidate genes for powdery mildew resistance and fruit-related traits revealed by an intraspecific genetic map for watermelon (citrullus lanatus var. lanatus).an intraspecific genetic map for watermelon was constructed using an f2 population derived from 'arka manik' × 'ts34' and transcript sequence variants and quantitative trait loci (qtl) for resistance to powdery mildew (pmr), seed size (ss), and fruit shape (fs) were analyzed. the map consists of 14 linkage groups (lgs) defined by 174 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (caps), 2 derived-cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers, 20 sequence-characterized amplified regions, and 8 express ...201526700647
high-resolution genetic map for understanding the effect of genome-wide recombination rate on nucleotide diversity in watermelon.we used genotyping by sequencing to identify a set of 10,480 single nucleotide polymorphism (snp) markers for constructing a high-resolution genetic map of 1096 cm for watermelon. we assessed the genome-wide variation in recombination rate (gwrr) across the map and found an association between gwrr and genome-wide nucleotide diversity. collinearity between the map and the genome-wide reference sequence for watermelon was studied to identify inconsistency and chromosome rearrangements. we assesse ...201425227227
single nucleotide polymorphisms generated by genotyping by sequencing to characterize genome-wide diversity, linkage disequilibrium, and selective sweeps in cultivated watermelon.a large single nucleotide polymorphism (snp) dataset was used to analyze genome-wide diversity in a diverse collection of watermelon cultivars representing globally cultivated, watermelon genetic diversity. the marker density required for conducting successful association mapping depends on the extent of linkage disequilibrium (ld) within a population. use of genotyping by sequencing reveals large numbers of snps that in turn generate opportunities in genome-wide association mapping and marker-a ...201425196513
characterization of the small rna component of leaves and fruits from four different cucurbit species.micrornas (mirnas) are a class of non-coding small rnas involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression critical for plant growth and development, stress responses and other diverse biological processes in plants. the cucurbitaceae or cucurbit family represents some of economically important species, particularly those with edible and medicinal fruits. genomic tools for the molecular analysis of members of this family are just emerging. partial draft genome sequence became availab ...201222823569
a high resolution genetic map anchoring scaffolds of the sequenced watermelon part of our ongoing efforts to sequence and map the watermelon (citrullus spp.) genome, we have constructed a high density genetic linkage map. the map positioned 234 watermelon genome sequence scaffolds (an average size of 1.41 mb) that cover about 330 mb and account for 93.5% of the 353 mb of the assembled genomic sequences of the elite chinese watermelon line 97103 (citrullus lanatus var. lanatus). the genetic map was constructed using an f(8) population of 103 recombinant inbred lines (ri ...201222247776
sequence variation at cpdna regions of watermelon and related wild species: implications for the evolution of citrullus haplotypes.sequencing analysis of one coding and four noncoding cpdna regions was conducted to infer biogeographic and evolutionary relationships in the genus citrullus. eighteen taxa from diverse geographical areas were included. a low number of parsimony informative characters (1.1%) was observed at the ∼4 kb section of cpdna. variability within citrullus was detected primarily at noncoding regions of high a + t content. substitution rates varied from 0-0.48% for ndhf with a + t content of 68.4% to 0.39- ...200421652338
inheritance of egusi seed type in unusual seed mutant in watermelon (citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) has seeds with a fleshy pericarp, commonly called egusi seeds. the origin of the phenotype is unknown, but it is widely cultivated in nigeria for the high protein and carbohydrate content of the edible seeds. egusi seeds have a thick, fleshy pericarp that appears during the second to third week of fruit development. we studied the inheritance of this phenotype in crosses of normal seeded charleston gray and calhoun gray with t ...200615220396
characterization of cdnas encoding small and large subunits of adp-glucose pyrophosphorylases from watermelon (citrullus vulgaris s.).three cdna clones encoding adp-glucose pyrophosphorylases were isolated from a full red fruit cdna library of watermelon (citrullus vulgaris s.). sequence analyses indicated that one clone, wms1, corresponds to the small subunit, and two clones, wml1 and wml2 (a partial gene), are the large subunits of agpase. the presumed agpase proteins encoded by wms1, wml1, and wml2 have 526, 526, and 481 amino acids, respectively. the protein sequences have the conserved amino acids important for the substr ...19989571786
plant exudates trigger leaf-trenching by cabbage loopers, trichoplusia ni (noctuidae).cabbage loopers, trichoplusia ni, cut a narrow trench across leaves of plants that release exudate, then feed distal to the trench in an area of reduced exudation. the larvae do not normally trench plant species such as plantain, plantago lanceolata, that lack exudate. to determine what cues elicit trenching, i reared larvae to the final instar on plantain, then applied test solutions to their mouthparts during feeding. loopers that received latex from lactuca serriola (asteraceae) or phloem exu ...199728307485
peroxidases do not move in phloem.phloem exudates from grafts between queensland blue pumpkin (cucurbita maxima duch.) and candy red hawkesbury watermelon (citrullus vulgaris schrad.) were analysed by iso-electric focusing to detect iso-enzymes of peroxidase. these enzymes did not move in intact phloem but, when stems were cut, they surged rapidly through graft unions.197824413951
import of peroxisomal hydroxypyruvate reductase into glyoxysomes.a new procedure was used to purify the peroxisomal matrix enzyme hydroxypyruvate reductase (hpr) from green leaves of pumpkin (cucurbita pepo l.) and spinach (spinacia oleracea l.). monospecific antibodies were prepared against this enzyme in rabbits. immunoprecipitation of hpr from watermelon (citrullus vulgaris schrad.) yielded a single protein with a subunit molecular weight of 45 kda. immunohistochemical labeling of hpr was found exclusively in watermelon microbodies. isolated polyadenylated ...198824220768
larvicidal efficacy of some cucurbitacious plant leaf extracts against culex quinquefasciatus (say).larvicidal efficacies of extracts of five species of cucurbitacious plants, momordica charantia, trichosanthes anguina, luffa acutangula, benincasa cerifera and citrullus vulgaris were tested against the late third larval age group of culex quinquefasciatus. the larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. the lc50 values of m. charantia, t. anguina, l. acutangula, b. cerifera and c. vulgaris were 465.85, 567.81, 839.81, 1189.30 and 1636.04 ppm respectively.200415207304
inactivation of aphidicolin by plant cells.plant cells are endowed with an aphidicolin inactivating activity. data on cultured cells show that the rate of inactivation depends on the cell type, daucus carota cells being the most effective among the other tested materials (oryza sativa and nicotiana plumbaginifolia). also germinating seedling of haplopappus gracilis and of citrullus vulgaris inactivate aphidicolin.inactivation, which may lead to unexpected results when a prolonged incubation with the drug is required, as in the case of th ...198324258125
acetohydroxamate inhibition of the activity of urease from dehusked seeds of water melon (citrullus vulgaris).urease from the seeds of watermelon (citrullus vulgaris) was purified to apparent homogeneity, using two acetone fractionation steps, heat treatment at 48 degrees c and gel filtration through sephadex g-200. effect of acetohydroxamic acid (aha) on the activity of the homogeneous enzyme preparation (sp. act. 3000 +/- 550u/mg protein) was investigated. aha exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition both in the presence and absence of the substrate. the inhibition was uncompetitive and the ki w ...200415558957
isolation and identification of fungi associated with spoilt fruits vended in gwagwalada market, abuja, nigeria.annual reports have shown that 20% of fruits and vegetables produced are lost to spoilage. this study was undertaken to isolate and identify fungi that are associated with spoilt fruits commonly sold in gwagwalada market, abuja, and recommend appropriate control measure.201728507410
inhibition of urease by disulfiram, an fda-approved thiol reagent used in humans.urease is a nickel-dependent amidohydrolase that catalyses the decomposition of urea into carbamate and ammonia, a reaction that constitutes an important source of nitrogen for bacteria, fungi and plants. it is recognized as a potential antimicrobial target with an impact on medicine, agriculture, and the environment. the list of possible urease inhibitors is continuously increasing, with a special interest in those that interact with and block the flexible active site flap. we show that disulfi ...201627898047
a metabolomics approach to identify and quantify the phytochemicals in watermelons by quantitative (1)hnmr.watermelon (citrullus vulgaris) contains many health-promoting compounds, such as ascorbic acid, carotenoids, phenolic acids and amino acids including l-citrulline, arginine, and glutathione. reported hplc method for quantification of l-citrulline and sugars in watermelon involves, time-consuming sample preparation, post-column color development and detection with fluorescence and refractive index detectors. the present study describes development of a method to identify and quantify amino acids ...201627130118
proteomic study related to vascular connections in watermelon scions grafted onto bottle-gourd rootstock under different light intensities.although grafting is broadly used in the production of crops, no information is available about the proteins involved in vascular connections between rootstock and scion. similarly, proteome changes under the light intensities widely used for grafted seedlings are of practical use. the objective of this study was to determine the proteome of vascular connections using watermelon (citrullus vulgaris schrad.) 'sambok honey' and 'speed' as the scion and bottle gourd (lagenaria siceraria stanld.) 'r ...201525789769
[study on chemical constituents of citrullus vulgaris schrad vine (ii)].to study the chemical constituents of ethyl acetate fraction of citrullus vulgaris schrad vine.201324761671
fabrication of sucrose biosensor based on single mode planar optical waveguide using co-immobilized plant invertase and present studies, the new optical sensing platform based on optical planar waveguide (opwg) for sucrose estimation was reported. an evanescent-wave biosensor was designed by using novel agarose-guar gum (ag) biopolymer composite sol-gel with entrapped enzymes (acid invertase (inv) and glucose oxidase (god)). partially purified watermelon invertase isolated from citrullus vulgaris fruit (specific activity 832 units mg(-1)) in combination with god was physically entrapped in ag sol-gel and cladd ...200717314040
determination of citrulline in watermelon rind.watermelon (citrullus vulgaris schrad.) is a natural and rich source of the non-essential amino acid citrulline. citrulline is used in the nitric oxide system in humans and has potential antioxidant and vasodilatation roles. a method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms) was developed to separate citrulline from glutamic acid, which co-elute when analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. watermelons were analyzed by gc-ms to determine the citrulline content among varieties ...200516007998
elevated plasma citrulline and arginine due to consumption of citrullus vulgaris (watermelon).a 19-month-old girl with developmental delay was found to have moderately elevated plasma citrulline and mildly elevated plasma arginine concentrations. dietary history revealed that she consumed large quantities of watermelon (citrullus vulgaris), a fruit containing high free citrulline and arginine concentrations. in order to determine whether the patient's high watermelon intake could account for her elevated plasma citrulline and arginine concentrations, we studied the response of plasma cit ...200515902549
relationship between dimedone concentration and formaldehyde captured in plant different parts of water-melon plants (citrullus vulgaris l.) formaldehyde (hcho), in dimedone adduct form (formaldemethone), and fully n-methylated substances were identified and determined by oplc as well as hplc, capillary gc and gc-ms methods using authentic substances. the hcho captured originates from dynamic methylation and demethylation processes in which this simplest aliphatic aldehyde is bound in the form of highly reactive hydroxymethyl groups. dimedone will react with the small q ...199810526972
a study of inhibition of urease from seeds of the water melon (citrullus vulgaris).urease from seeds of the water melon was found to be inhibited by various salts of sodium. sodium fluoride strongly inhibited the activity in the low urea concentration range. the enzyme was also inhibited by a high concentration of urea which was completely abolished in the presence of 10 mm sodium fluoride. time-dependent inactivation of urease with iodoacetic acid, n-ethylmaleimide and p-hydroxymercuribenzoate exhibited biphasic kinetics in which half of the initial activity was lost in the f ...19989879515
genomic structure and expression analyses of serine acetyltransferase gene in citrullus vulgaris (watermelon).the genomic clones of sat gene encoding serine acetyltransferase (satase), a key enzyme in cysteine biosynthesis in plants, were isolated from the genomic library of citrullus vulgaris (watermelon). the determination of nucleotide sequence of 5.7 kilobase pair (kbp) length revealed the presence of two introns of 1939 basepair (bp) and 515 bp length in the gene. the transcription start point was determined by primer extension experiments. southern blot analysis indicated the presence of a single ...19979161412
immunocytochemical localization of copper,zinc superoxide dismutase in peroxisomes from watermelon (citrullus vulgaris schrad.) previous works using cell fractionation methods we demonstrated the presence of a cu,zn-containing superoxide dismutase in peroxisomes from watermelon cotyledons. in this work, this intracellular localization was evaluated by using western blot and em immunocytochemical analysis with a polyclonal antibody against peroxisomal cu,zn-sod ii from watermelon cotyledons. in crude extracts from 6-day old cotyledons, analysis by western blot showed two cross-reactivity bands which belonged to the iso ...19979161841
purification and properties of cytosolic copper, zinc superoxide dismutase from watermelon (citrullus vulgaris schrad.) cotyledons.cytosolic copperzinc-superoxide dismutase (cuzn-sod i; ec was purified to homogeneity from watermelon (citrullus vulgaris schrad.) cotyledons. the stepwise purification procedure consisted of acetone precipitation, batch anion-exchange chromatography, anion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography, gel-filtration column chromatography, and affinity chromatography on concanavalin a-sepharose. cuzn-sod i was purified 310-fold with a yield of 12.6 micrograms enzyme per gram cotyledons, ...19979018475
early diagnosis of colon cancer due to citrullus vulgaris. 20041473694
purification and properties of glyoxysomal cuprozinc superoxide dismutase from watermelon cotyledons (citrullus vulgaris schrad).a glyoxysomal copper,zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (ec was purified to homogeneity, for the first time, from watermelon cotyledons (citrullus vulgaris schrad.). the stepwise purification procedure consisted of acetone precipitation, batch anion-exchange chromatography, anion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography and gel-filtration column chromatography. pure copper,zinc-superoxide dismutase (cu,zn-sod ii) had a specific activity of 1211 units per milligram protein and was ...199216668632
high efficiency plant regeneration from cotyledons of watermelon (citrullus vulgaris schrad).cotyledons of various ages from seedlings of eight watermelon (citrullus vulgaris) cultivars were cultured on ms medium supplemented with different combinations of phytohormones. high frequency shoot regeneration (60.0-92.0%) was induced from 5-day-old cotyledons of cultivars cultured on ms medium containing 5.0 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (ba) and 0.5 mg/l indole-3-acetic acid (iaa). multiple shoot buds elongated on ms medium containing 0.2 mg/l kinetin (kt) and 5-10 shoots per expiant could be re ...199124220711
tissue culture and plant regeneration of watermelon (citrullus vulgaris schrad. cv. melitopolski).plants were regenerated from cotyledon and hypocotyl explants of watermelon (citrullus vulgaris). the explants were cultured on a murashige and skoog's basal nutrient medium supplemented with auxin, cytokinin and auxin-cytokinin combinations. green healthy nodular and compact callus was obtained in medium containing naphthalene acetic acid and benzylaminopurine. shoot differentiation and root differentiation from the cotyledon and hypocotyl after callus formation in different media containing be ...198924233231
intraorganellar distribution of superoxide dismutase in plant peroxisomes (glyoxysomes and leaf peroxisomes).the intraorganellar distribution of superoxide dismutase (sod) (ec in two types of plant peroxisomes (glyoxysomes and leaf peroxisomes) was studied by determinations of sod latency in intact organelles and by solubilization assays with 0.2 molar kcl. glyoxysomes were purified from watermelon (citrullus vulgaris schrad.) cotyledons, and their integrity, calculated on the basis of glyoxysomal marker enzymes, was about 60%. under the same conditions, the latency of sod activity determined ...198816666446
superoxide free radicals are produced in glyoxysomes.the production of superoxide free radicals in pellet and supernatant fractions of glyoxysomes, specialized plant peroxisomes from watermelon (citrullus vulgaris schrad.) cotyledons, was investigated. upon inhibition of the endogenous superoxide dismutase, xanthine, and hypoxanthine induced in glyoxysomal supernatants the generation of o(2) (-) radicals and this was inhibited by allopurinol. in glyoxysomal pellets, nadh stimulated the generation of superoxide radicals. superoxide production by pu ...198816666081
glyoxysomal citrate synthase from watermelon cotyledons: immunocytochemical localization and heterologous translation in xenopus oocytes.glyoxysomal citrate synthase (gcs) was purified from crude extracts of watermelon (citrullus vulgaris schrad.) cotyledons, yielding a homogenous protein with a subunit mw of 48 kda. the enzyme was selectively inhibited by 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid), allowing quantification in the presence of the mitochondrial isoenzyme (mcs). differences were also observed with respect to inhibition by atp (k i=2.6 mmol · l(-1) for gcs, k i=0.33 mmol · l(-1) for mcs). the antibodies prepared against gc ...198824226535
amino-acid sequences of trypsin inhibitors from watermelon (citrullus vulgaris) and red bryony (bryonia dioica) seeds.the amino-acid sequences of two trypsin inhibitors isolated from red bryony (bryonia dioica) and watermelon (citrullus vulgaris) seeds are reported. both species represent different genera of the cucurbitaceae family, which have not been previously investigated as a source of proteinase inhibitors. the sequences are unique but are very similar to those of other proteinase inhibitors which have been isolated from squash seeds. based on structural homology we assume that the arg5-ile6 peptide bond ...19873435645
citrullus vulgaris: another cause of colon pseudopolyps. 19873569797
microbody transition in greening watermelon cotyledons double immunocytochemical labeling of isocitrate lyase and hydroxypyruvate reductase.microbody transition during the greening of watermelon cotyledons (citrullus vulgaris schrad.) was studied by double immunocytochemical labeling of the glyoxysomal marker enzyme isocitrate lyase and the peroxisomal marker enzyme hydroxypyruvate reductase. in order to analyze the immunocytochemistry, developmental stages representing the glyoxysomal, microbodytransition and peroxisomal stages were chosen, taking into account the time course of enzyme activity and the amounts of the respective ant ...198624240365
import of glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase precursor into glyoxysomes: a heterologous in-vitro system.a heterologous in-vitro system is described for the import of the precursor to glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase from watermelon (citrullus vulgaris schrad., cv. kleckey's sweet no. 6) cotyledons into glyoxysomes from castor-bean (ricinus communis l.) endosperm. the 41-kda precursor is posttranslationally sequestered and correctly processed to the mature 33-kda subunit by a crude glyoxysomal fraction or by glyoxysomes purified on a sucrose gradient. the import and the cleavage of the extrasequenc ...198624241736
import of in-vitro-synthesized glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase into isolated watermelon glyoxysomes.glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase (gmdh; ec is synthesized by a reticulocyte system in the presence of watermelon mrna (citrullus vulgaris schrad., var. kleckey's sweet no 6) as a cytosolic, higher-molecular-weight precursor (41 kdalton). we now show that this precursor is posttranslationally sequestered by a crude glyoxysomal fraction or by glyoxysomes purified on a percoll(r) gradient to a proteolytically protected form (60 min proteinase-k treatment at 4° c) with the size of the gmdh ...198424253098
free amino acids in citrullus vulgaris (watermelon) 19846728593
ontogeny of microbodies (glyoxysomes) in cotyledons of dark-grown watermelon (citrullus vulgaris schrad.) seedlings : ultrastructural evidence.the development of glyoxysomal marker enzyme activities and concomitant ultrastructural evidence for the ontogeny of glyoxysomes has been studied in cotyledons of dark-grown watermelon seedlings (citrullus vulgaris schrad., var. florida giant). catalase (cat, ec was stained in glyoxysomal structures with the 3,3'-diaminobenzidine procedure. serial sections and high-voltage electron microscopy were used to analyze the three-dimensional structure of the glyoxysomal population. with early ...198224272576
fluorescence immunohistochemical localization of malate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in watermelon cotyledons : a developmental study of glyoxysomes and mitochondria.monospecific antibodies to glyoxysomal, mitochondrial, and cytosolic i malate dehydrogenase were used for the fluorescence immunohistochemical localization of these isoenzymes in dark-grown watermelon (citrullus vulgaris schrad.) cotyledons. it was demonstrated that, with cell organelles isolated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, antibodies to glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase were specific markers for glyoxysomes, and similarly, antibodies to mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase were mar ...198216662632
organelle-bound malate dehydrogenase isoenzymes are synthesized as higher molecular weight precursors.biosynthesis of malate dehydrogenase isoenzymes was studied in cotyledons of watermelons (citrullus vulgaris schrad., var. stone mountain). the glyoxysomal and mitochondrial isoenzymes are synthesized as higher molecular weight precursors which can be immunoprecipitated by mono-specific antibodies from the products of in vitro translation in reticulocyte lysates programed with cotyledonary mrna and with the same size from enzyme extracts of pulse-labeled cotyledons. during translocation from the ...198216662520
uptake and effects of n-benzyladenine in excised watermelon cotyledons: influence of cotyledon age.some characteristics of uptake of [8-(14)c]n(6)-benzyladenine (ba) by watermelon (citrullus vulgaris schrad., cv. fairfax) cotyledons that were either excised immediately after 24 hours inhibition (day 0) or cultured in the dark for 48 hours on moist filter paper (day 2) have been compared.the uptake of ba seems to be passive in cotyledons of both kinds. the initial rate of uptake is, however, much slower in day 2 cotyledons. this is probably due to a higher resistance of cell membranes to ba in ...198216662477
uptake of benzyladenine by excised watermelon cotyledons.the uptake of 8-[(14)c]n(6)-benzyladenine (ba) was studied in excised watermelon (citrullus vulgaris schrad.) cotyledons 24 hours after the start of imbibition. the passive nature of this uptake is suggested by the following evidence: (a) no sign of saturation on increasing external concentration of ba; (b) no decrease in uptake under conditions that inhibit atp synthesis; (c) no change in amount of radioactivity absorbed when cotyledons are frozen and thawed before the uptake test. about two-th ...198116661851
effect of benzyladenine on the development of plastids and microbodies in excised watermelon cotyledons.excised watermelon (citrullus vulgaris schrad.) cotyledons were grown in the dark in the presence of 0.1 mm benzyladenine (ba). under these conditions reserve breakdown and organelle differentiation progress very slowly. treatment with ba accelerates, breakdown of reserves and stimulates development of organelles. electron micrographs of cells from treated cotyledons show a larger number of plastids with a more developed inner membrane system. the levels of plastid pigments and enzymes are incre ...197924317725
glyoxysomal and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase of watermelon (citrullus vulgaris) cotyledons : ii. kinetic properties of the purified isoenzymes.kinetic parameters of the glyoxysomal and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (ec of watermelon (citrullus vulgaris schrad.) cotyledons were compared. the data were obtained by initial rate experiments at ph 8.5 in both directions of the reaction using homogeneous enzyme preparations. substrate inhibition at physiologically significant concentrations was observed with reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (nadh) (50% inhibition at 0.65 mmol·l(-1) nadh), but not with oxaloacetate, l- ...197724420394
glyoxysomal and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase of watermelon (citrullus vulgaris) cotyledons : i. molecular properties of the purified isoenzymes.molecular properties of the glyoxysomal and mitochondrial isoenzyme of malate dehydrogenase (ec; l-malate: nad(+) oxidoreductase) from watermelon cotyledons (citrullus vulgaris schrad.) were investigated, using completely purified enzyme preparations. the apparent molecular weights of the glyoxysomal and mitochondrial isoenzymes were found to be 67,000 and 74,000 respectively. aggregation at high enzyme concentrations was observed with the glyoxysomal but not with the mitochondrial isoe ...197724420393
glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase of watermelon cotyledons: de novo synthesis on cytoplasmic ribosomes.the development of glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase (gmdh, ec during early germination of watermelon seedlings (citrullus vulgaris schrad.) was determined in the cotyledons by means of radial immunodiffusion. the active isoenzyme was found to be absent in dry seeds. by density labelling with deuterium oxide and incorporation of [(14)c] amino acids it was shown that the marked increase of gmdh activity in the cotyledons during the first 4 days of germination was due to de novo synthesis ...197724419783
mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase of watermelon cotyledons: time course and mode of enzyme activity changes during germination.specific antibodies were prepared against the purified mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (ec from cotyledons of watermelon seedlings (citrullus vulgaris schrad.). the isoenzyme was assayed by means of quantitative radial immunodiffusion. cotyledons of ungerminated seeds were found to contain mitochondrial mdh. during the first 4 days of germination the enzyme activity increased threefold finally contributing 16% to the total mdh activity extracted from cotyledon tissue. isopycnic cscl ...197624430811
[studies on urease from the seeds of citrullus vulgaris: action of chemical agents and ionizing radiations].urease obtained from seeds of citrullus vulgaris fruits has been studied under three points of view: a) the effect of the urea analogs acetamide and hydroxi-urea on the enzyme kinetic b) the action of the sulfhydryl reagents and the reactivation agents on the enzyme c) the effect of x-rays and the protective action of the cysteamine. the berthelot reaction for the determination of the liberated nh3 was used enzyme activity. acetamide has no effect on urease kinetic. hidroxy-urea which produces a ...19761032092
the development of microbodies (glyoxysomes and leaf peroxisomes) in cotyledons of germinating watermelon seedlings.the ontogeny of glyoxysomes and leaf peroxisomes has been examined in the cotyledons of germinating watermelon (citrullus vulgaris) seedlings. organelles from the cotyledons were extracted by razor blade homogenization and microbodies were separated by sucrose density gradient fractionation. both kinds of microbodies have the same mean equilibrium density on sucrose gradients.the development of leaf peroxisomes was examined in seedlings transferred to light at 4 days and 10 to 12 days. in seedli ...197516659062
[measurement of ureasic activity of the intact tissue of the citrullus vulgaris cotyledons (author's transl)]. 19744424344
[compartmentation and properties of the mdh-isoenzymes from watermelon cotyledons (citrullus vulgaris schrad.)].five mdh-isoenzymes (i-v) from cotyledons of dark-grown water-melon seedlings older than 2 days can be identified by disc-electrophoresis. by isolating and fractionating cell organelles (10000 g fraction) by density gradient centrifugation (fig. 1) the following compartmentation of the mdh-isoenzymes can be shown: the mitochondria contain isoenzyme iii and the glyoxysomes preponderantly (if not exclusive) isoenzyme v (fig. 2), whereas the isoenzymes i, ii, and iv belong to the cytosol.the 5 mdh- ...197324469895
development of enzymes in the cotyledons of watermelon seedlings.changes in hypocotyl length, cotyledon weight, lipid content, chlorophyll content, and capacity for photosynthesis have been described in seedlings of citrullus vulgaris, schrad. (watermelon) growing at 30 c under various light treatments. corresponding changes in the levels of 19 enzymes in the cotyledons are described, with particular emphasis on enzymes of microbodies, since during normal greening, enzymes of the glyoxysomes are lost and those of leaf peroxisomes appear. in complete darkness ...197316658299
[kinetics of the urea amido hydrolase (urease) of citrullus vulgaris seeds]. 19734806463
[the insoluble proteins of watermelon (citrullus vulgaris schr.) seeds]. 19715149946
[inhibition of isocitrate lyase in watermelon seedlings by white light].the isocitrate lyase activity (e.c. from watermelon cotyledons (citrullus vulgaris schrad.) is inhibited by white light (fig. 5). to exclude artefacts during enzyme preparation the following experiments were performed (table 1 and 2): 1. mixing of raw extracts from cotyledons of light and dark grown seedlings. 2. joint homogenization a) of cotyledons from light and dark grown seedlings, b) of purified isocitrate lyase together with cotyledons from light or dark grown seedlings. the tot ...196924515664
beta-pyrazol-l-ylalanine, an amino acid from water-melon seeds (citrullus vulgaris). 196013729402
alpha-amino-beta-(pyrazolyl-n) propionic acid: a new amino-acid from citrullus vulgaris (water melon). 195913848707
water-melon, citrullus vulgaris schrad., and food-poisoning. 194818884601
proteins and other nitrogenous constituents of water melon seeds (citrullus vulgaris). 193916747032
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