hepatitis b virus (hbv) infections in turtles.thirty turtles (15 clemys mutica and 15 geoclemys reevesii) which were inoculated with human sera those were positive for hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag) and hepatitis b "e" antigen (hbeag) were found to be infected with hepatitis b virus (hbv). the levels of hbv infection markers, such as hbsag and antibody to hbsag (anti-hbsag), were retinely monitored in the turtles' serum for 46 weeks. within two weeks of the inoculation, 42% of the turtles tested were positive for hbsag, and their recip ...19892800564
pituitary extract of the ricefield eel monopterus albus (synbranchidae, teleostei) exhibits gonadotropic activity in the classes mammalia, aves, reptilia and amphibia.pituitary extract of the ricefield eel monopterus albus demonstrated gonadotropic activity in mammals and non-mammalian vertebrates. using the rat as the recipient, fsh activity was detected in monopterus pituitaries in the hcg augmentation test and lh activity in the ovarian ascorbic acid depletion test. cyclic amp level in superovulated ovaries, ovarian lactate production and glucose uptake in vitro, plasma testosterone level in males, testicular enzymes, ventral prostate weight and other andr ...19862873938
the long intron 1 of growth hormone gene from reeves' turtle (chinemys reevesii) correlates with negatively regulated gh expression in four cell lines.turtles grow slowly and have a long lifespan. ultrastructural studies of the pituitary gland in reeves' turtle (chinemys reevesii) have revealed that the species possesses a higher nucleoplasmic ratio and fewer secretory granules in growth hormone (gh) cells than other animal species in summer and winter. c. reevesii gh gene was cloned and species-specific similarities and differences were investigated. the full gh gene sequence in c. reevesii contains 8517 base pairs (bp), comprising five exons ...201627077853
cloning of complimentary deoxyribonucleic acid encoding follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone beta subunit precursor molecules in reeves's turtle (geoclemys reevesii) and japanese grass lizard (takydromus tachydromoides).reptilia is the only vertebrate class in which cdna for the gonadotropin beta subunit precursor molecule has not been cloned. we have isolated the full-length cdna clone encoding the lh beta subunit precursor molecule and a partial cdna clone encoding the fsh beta subunit precursor molecule from a pituitary cdna library of reeves's turtle. we further clarified the nucleotide sequence of the remaining part of the turtle fsh beta cdna and that of full-length cdna encoding the lh beta subunit precu ...200312849970
[investigation report on the resources of chinemys reevesii (gray)].our on-the-spot investigation has indicated that the tortoise population as natural resources has been on the decrease ever since the sixties. the reason for the decrease lies in some natural factors as well as the indiscriminate catching and killing by man. as a result, the female tortoises remarkably over whelm the male ones in number, which leads to a drop in the natural rate of breeding.19902282165
a highly repetitive and transcribable sequence in the tortoise genome is probably a retroposon.on in vitro transcription of total genomic dna of the tortoise (geoclemys reevessi), a discrete-sized rna of 6.5s was obtained that represented a highly repetitive and transcribable sequence in the tortoise genome. three sequences of the 6.5s rna gene were sequenced, and a consensus sequence was deduced from these three sequences and one reported previously [endoh, h & okada, n. (1986) proc. natl acad. sci. usa 83, 251-255]. the 5' part of the gene showed close similaries to lysine (rabbit) and ...19901691979
[role of the intramural ganglion cells played in the motility of the large intestine of the tortoise, geoclemys reevesii].the development of the intramural plexuses in the tortoise, geoclemys reevesii was inferior to that observed in the fowl: the meshes of both auerbach's and meissner's plexuses were coarser, and consisted of less number of nerve fibers. occasionally, a small ganglion was seen at the crossing points of the meshes. the average number of nerve cells contained in the ganglion was estimated to be 1500/cm2, being about half as much as that estimated in the fowl. when the mucosa of a colon in vitro was ...1976988401
a new eimeria (apicomplexa: eimeriidae), possessing mitra-shaped oocysts, from the neotropical chelid turtle batrachemys heliostemma (testudines: chelidae), and its comparison with eimeria mitraria (laveran & mesnil 1902).eimeria jirkamoraveci sp. n. is described from faeces of two specimens of the toad-headed, side-necked turtle batrachemys heliostemma collected at iquitos in peru. oocysts are ovoid to almost spherical, 10.6 (8-12) x 8.9 (7-10) microm, without micropyle, polar granule and oocyst residuum. one conically stretched end and three blunt conical tubercles at the opposite end of oocyst give it mitra-like appearance. sporocysts are elongated, ellipsoidal, 7.2 (6-8) x 4.1 (4-4.5) microm, with a small, kn ...200617072462
molecular cloning of full-length dmrt1 cdna of reeves turtle (chinemys reevesii).we cloned and sequenced a full-length open reading frame turtle dmrt1 cdna (crdmrt1) that was 1,504 bp in length and encoded 371 amino acid residues. rt-pcr analysis in different tissues of adult male turtle showed that the crdmrt1 cdna fragment was only detected in the testis. the amino acid sequence derived from crdmrt1 demonstrated high homology to sequences from dmrt1 of pelodiscus sinensis (92% identities and 93% positives) and elaphe quadrivirgata (75% identities and 83% positives). the de ...200818685240
ultrastructural and histochemical studies on the taste buds in some reptiles.the taste buds in tortoises (clemmys japonica and geoclemys reevesii), lizards (takydromus tachydromoides) and snakes (elaphe quadrivirgata) were examined by both ultrastructural and histochemical methods. the taste buds consisted of at least three types of cells: the type i, ii and iii cells. the type i cells were characterized by the presence of secretory dense granules containing polysaccharides which were demonstrated by periodic acid-chromic acid-silver methenamine technique. the type ii ce ...19806972201
cryptosporidium testudinis sp. n., cryptosporidium ducismarci traversa, 2010 and cryptosporidium tortoise genotype iii (apicomplexa: cryptosporidiidae) in tortoises.understanding of the diversity of species of cryptosporidium tyzzer, 1910 in tortoises remains incomplete due to the limited number of studies on these hosts. the aim of the present study was to characterise the genetic diversity and biology of cryptosporidia in tortoises of the family testudinidae batsch. faecal samples were individually collected immediately after defecation and were screened for presence of cryptosporidia by microscopy using aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining, and by pcr a ...201627827334
the phylogeny of mediterranean tortoises and their close relatives based on complete mitochondrial genome sequences from museum part of an ongoing project to generate a mitochondrial database for terrestrial tortoises based on museum specimens, the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of 10 species and a approximately 14kb sequence from an eleventh species are reported. the sampling of the present study emphasizes mediterranean tortoises (genus testudo and their close relatives). our new sequences are aligned, along with those of two testudinoid turtles from genbank, chrysemys picta and mauremys reevesii, yielding ...200616150614
cross-reactivity of a polyclonal antibody against chinemys reevesii vitellogenin with the vitellogenins of other turtle species: chelydra serpentina , macrochelys temminckii , and pelodiscus sinensis.vitellogenin (vtg), a yolk-precursor protein in oviparous vertebrates, is a useful biomarker for reproductive physiology and environmental estrogenic pollution. to examine interspecific applicability of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for quantifying chinemys reevesii vtg, we observed cross-reactivity between a polyclonal antibody against chinemys reevesii vtg and the vtgs from other turtle species: chelydra serpentina (chelydridae), macrochelys temminckii (chelydridae), and pelodis ...200819267600
vitellogenin, a biomarker for environmental estrogenic pollution, of reeves' pond turtles: analysis of similarity for its amino acid sequence and cognate mrna expression after exposure to estrogen.vitellogenin (vtg), a biomarker for environmental estrogenic pollution, can be detected in the bloodstream of oviparous animals before morphological and functional abnormalities appear due to exposure to environmental estrogens. reports observing vtg in turtles have been limited. we therefore cloned and sequenced a partial cdna of vtg in reeves' pond turtle, chinemys reevesii. the cloned cdna fragment possessed the start codon and 2,229 bp, encoding 743 amino acid residues. a sequence of deduced ...200818388421
sensory transduction and neuronal transmission as related to ultrastructure and encoding of information in different labyrinthine receptor systems of vertebrates.mechano-electric transduction and neuronal transmission were studied in sensory systems ascending from and descending to single receptor cells of the labyrinth organs in submammalian vertebrates. the animals were young crocodiles (caiman crocodilus), geckos (gekko gecko, tarentola mauritanica), and turtles (pseudemys scripta elegans, chinemys reevesii). intracellular receptor potentials from the apical region of the hair cell (or from the ciliary surface) were recorded in the ampullar, macular, ...19826289788
localization of g protein alpha subunits and morphology of receptor neurons in olfactory and vomeronasal epithelia in reeve's turtle, geoclemys reevesii.most vertebrates have two nasal epithelia: the olfactory epithelium (oe) and the vomeronasal epithelium (vne). the apical surfaces of oe and vne are covered with cilia and microvilli, respectively. in rodents, signal transduction pathways involve g alpha olf and g alpha i2/g alpha o in oe and vne, respectively. reeve's turtles (geoclemys reevesii) live in a semiaquatic environment. the aim of this study was to investigate the localization of g proteins and the morphological characteristics of oe ...200818533749
a field study on serum vitellogenin levels in male reeves' pond turtles (chinemys reevesii) from estrogen-contaminated sites and a reference ascertain whether wild male turtles were influenced by environmental estrogens, we examined serum vitellogenin (vtg) levels of male reeves' pond turtles (chinemys reevesii) collected from four study sites (a-d) in kyoto, japan. sites a-c, which were impacted by domestic or industrial wastewater and effluents from sewage treatment plants, were chosen as contaminated sites, and site d was intended as a reference site. this contaminated/reference site characterization was confirmed by measuring ...200717597185
sensitivity and transduction mechanisms of responses to general odorants in turtle vomeronasal system.(a) the responses of the vomeronasal organ to general odorants in the turtle, geoclemys reevesii, were measured by recording the accessory olfactory bulbar responses. the threshold concentrations of the vomeronasal responses to various odorants were similar to those in main olfactory bulbar responses, indicating that vomeronasal cells lacking cilia and olfactory cells having many cilia have similar sensitivities to general odorants. (b) the vomeronasal epithelium was perfused with 100 mm nacl so ...19911765762
extensive morphological convergence and rapid radiation in the evolutionary history of the family geoemydidae (old world pond turtles) revealed by sine insertion analysis.the family geoemydidae is one of three in the superfamily testudinoidea and is the most diversified family of extant turtle species. the phylogenetic relationships in this family and among related families have been vigorously investigated from both morphological and molecular viewpoints. the evolutionary history of geoemydidae, however, remains controversial. therefore, to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships of geoemydidae and related species, we applied the sine insertion method to invest ...200617345673
organization of the histaminergic system in the brain of the turtle chinemys accumulate phylogenetic information on the central histaminergic system, we investigated the histaminergic system in the brain of the reeves turtle, chinemys reevesii, using the indirect immunofluorescent method with antiserum against histamine. histaminergic neuronal cell bodies were found exclusively in the posterior part of the ventral hypothalamus. histaminergic varicose fibers innervated almost all parts of the turtle brain, but tended to be concentrated in several areas. very dense inne ...19902165505
total dna transcription in vitro: a procedure to detect highly repetitive and transcribable sequences with trna-like dnas from various animals were transcribed in vitro in a hela cell extract, and it was found that one to several discrete rnas were transcribed by rna polymerase iii. with tortoise (geoclemys reevessi) and newt (cynops pyrrhogaster), distinct 6.5s and 8s rnas were transcribed from these respective dnas. representative phage clones carrying the 6.5s and 8s rna genes were isolated from genomic libraries of these animals, and the sequences of these genes were determined. the 5' parts of highl ...19863455763
de novo assembly and characterization of the chinese three-keeled pond turtle (mauremys reevesii) transcriptome: presence of longevity-related genes.mauremys reevesii (geoemydidae) is one of the most common and widespread semi-aquatic turtles in east asia. the unusually long lifespan of some individuals makes this turtle species a potentially useful model organism for studying the molecular basis of longevity. in this study, pooled total rna extracted from liver, spleen and skeletal-muscle of three adult individuals were sequenced using illumina hiseq 2500 platform. a set of telomere-related genes were found in the transcriptome, including t ...201627257545
[identification and partial comparison of the chemical components of the tortoise-plastron of testudo impressa (guenther) and chinemys reevesii (gray)]. 19883197225
cadmium toxicokinetics in the freshwater turtle, chinemys reevesii.this study was designed to investigate the toxicokinetics of cadmium (cd) in chinemys reevesii. the animals were exposed to 15 mg/kg cd chloride by intraperitoneal injection, and the cd absorption, distribution, and excretion in different organs were determined. the results showed that cd absorption reached its peak in the blood at 3 h after treatment. the accumulation of cd was the highest in the liver and the second highest in the pancreas. all other tissues also accumulated cd, such as spleen ...201728511134
cadmium induces histopathological injuries and ultrastructural changes in the liver of freshwater turtle (chinemys reevesii).the study investigated the histopathological and ultrastructural lesions of liver of freshwater turtle chinemys reevesii exposed to cadmium (cd). the animals were exposed to 0 mg kg-1(0.85% normal saline (ns)), 7.5 mg kg-1, 15 mg kg-1, 30 mg kg-1cd chloride separately by intraperitoneal injection. liver samples were collected for examination of lesions under light and electronic microscopes. results showed that liver tissues from cd -treated animals presented various degrees of histopathological ...201728806674
high-throughput lc-ms method for the rapid characterization of multiple chemical constituents and metabolites of da-bu-yin-wan.traditional chinese medicine is the clinical experience accumulated by chinese people against diseases. da-bu-yin-wan is a famous traditional chinese medicine formula consisting of phellodendri amurensis rupr., anemarrhenae asphodeloides bge., radix rehmanniae preparata and chinemys reevesii. in this study, ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight high-definition mass spectrometry with the control software of masslynx (v4.1) was establis ...201728841261
low genetic diversity in ozobranchus jantseanus (hirudinida: ozobranchidae) in japan: possibility of introduction with their host turtles.leeches belonging to the genus ozobranchus are ectoparasitic on sea and freshwater turtles. the freshwater species o. jantseanus has been recorded from china and japan. ozobranchus jantseanus inhabiting japan is considered to be a non-indigenous species, because their primary host, the reeves' pond turtle, mauremys reevesii, is thought to have been introduced in the last few centuries from adjacent asian countries. to assess whether the japanese populations of o. jantseanus were likely to have b ...201728847744
effects of incubation temperature on the expression of sex-related genes in the chinese pond turtle, mauremys reevesii.despite widespread temperature-dependent sex determination (tsd) in reptiles, it is still unclear how the molecular network responds to temperature variation and drives the sexual fate. profiling of sex-related genes is the first step in understanding the sex determination system in reptiles. in this study, we cloned the full-length coding sequences of cyp19a1, foxl2, rspo1, sf1, and sox9 in an asian freshwater turtle (mauremys reevesii) with tsd and identified the expression patterns of these g ...201728848222
effects of cadmium on oxidative stress activities in plasma of freshwater turtle chinemys reevesii.cadmium (cd) has been recently found in high concentrations in the aquatic environment. this study was designed to examine the effects of cd on the oxidative stress activities in plasma of freshwater turtle chinemys reevesii. experimental turtles were exposed to cd at the concentration of 15 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection, and redox status was investigated. compared to the controls, superoxide dismutase (sod) and catalase activities in plasma of the treated animals significantly decreased in ...201829305804
comparative analyses of serum vitellogenin levels in male and female reeves' pond turtles (chinemys reevesii) by an immunological assay.a quantitative immunological method was developed for measuring serum vitellogenin levels of reeves' pond turtles (chinemys reevesii) to investigate the effects of endocrine disruptors on the freshwater ecosystem. vitellogenin was induced by injecting estradiol-17beta into c. reevesii turtles (adult females, juvenile females, and males) and was purified from the turtle serum by edta-mgcl2 precipitation followed by gel filtration. using a polyclonal antibody raised against c. reevesii vitellogeni ...200414513265
production of monoclonal antibodies against chinemys reevesii turtle vitellogenin and their usage for comparison of biochemical and immunological characters of vitellogenins and yolk proteins of freshwater turtles.four hybridoma clones (acv-1, -3, -4, and -5) were established for chinemys reevesii (reeves' turtle) vitellogenin (vtg) as a precursor protein of egg yolk and a biomarker of environmental pollution. binding-inhibition experiments indicated that the epitopes of four mabs were distinct. no binding of acv-4 to c. reevesii vtg in the western blot suggests that the epitope of acv-4 would be dependent on the three-dimensional structure. acv-1, -3, and -5 bound to c. reevesii vtg in the western blot. ...200516122960
comparison of complete mitochondrial dna control regions among five asian freshwater turtle species and their phylogenetic relationships.the complete mitochondrial dna (mtdna) control regions (cr), cytochrome b (cyt b), nadh dehydrogenase subunit 4 (nd4) and cytochrome coxidase subunit i (co i) genes of four asian freshwater turtles, mauremys japonica, ocadia sinensis, m. mutica, and annamemys annamensis, were sequenced using universal pcr and long-pcr techniques. combined with cr sequences of chinemys reevesii, the composition and structure of cr of the five species were compared and analyzed. three functional domains (tas, cd a ...201121863550
the bioconcentration factor of perfluorooctane sulfonate is significantly larger than that of perfluorooctanoate in wild turtles (trachemys scripta elegans and chinemys reevesii): an ai river ecological study in japan.turtles rank high in the river food chain, and are suitable for predicting the bioconcentrations of chemicals through the food chain. trachemys scripta elegans (n=46) and chinemys reevesii (n=51) were captured in a river in japan, from september to october 2003 and april to june 2004. surface water samples were collected simultaneously from the same sites at which the turtles were caught. serum perfluorooctane sulfonate (pfos) ranged from 2.4 to 486 microg/l, while water pfos levels ranged from ...200616040121
complete mitochondrial genome of the korean reeves's turtle mauremys reevesii (reptilia, testudines, geoemydidae).the mitochondrial genome of korean reeves's turtle mauremys reevesii (reptilia, testudines, geoemydidae) was studied. the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of m. reevesii was 16,784 bp in length and its gene arrangement pattern, gene content and gene organization is identical to those of geoemydids. the control region (cr) was located between the trna(pro) and trna(phe) genes and is 1253 bp in length. the typical conserved domains such as tas and csb-f, and csb1, csb2 and csb3 were identifi ...201524102604
[research of dna barcode of teseudinis carapax et planstrum and its adulterants based on coi gene sequence].to use coi gene on the mauremys reevesii and its adulterants by molecular identification. search a rapid, accurate method of identification of teseudinis carapax et planstrum and its adulterants.201323847934
turtle embryos move to optimal thermal environments within the egg.a recent study demonstrated that the embryos of soft-shelled turtles can reposition themselves within their eggs to exploit locally warm conditions. in this paper, we ask whether turtle embryos actively seek out optimal thermal environments for their development, as do post-hatching individuals. specifically, (i) do reptile embryos move away from dangerously high temperatures as well as towards warm temperatures? and (ii) is such embryonic movement due to active thermoregulation, or (more simply ...201323760168
metabolism of pyrene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in freshwater turtles.reptile population decrease is an alarming trend all around the world. yet little is known about the role of xenobiotics in this decrease. in this study, we investigated the metabolism of pyrene in three freshwater turtle species (red-eared sliders (trachemys scripta elegans), chinese pond turtles (mauremys reevesii) and chinese softshell turtles (pelodiscus sinensis). compared to other vertebrates, all turtles showed an unique metabolite distribution, pyrene-1-sulfate being the main metabolite. ...201323631161
molecular cloning of the cdna encoding follicle-stimulating hormone beta subunit of the chinese soft-shell turtle pelodiscus sinensis, and its gene expression.follicle-stimulating hormone (fsh) is a member of the pituitary glycoprotein hormone family. these hormones are composed of two dissimilar subunits, alpha and beta. very little information is available regarding the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of fshbeta in reptilian species. for better understanding of the phylogenetic diversity and evolution of fsh molecule, we have isolated and sequenced the complementary dna (cdna) encoding the chinese soft-shell turtle (pelodiscus sinensis, family of ...200515748721
[seasonal variation on reproductive cycle of the female chinemys reevesii].seasonal variation in the reproductive cycle of female chinese three-keeled pond turtles, chinemys reevesii, was studied. vitellogenesis began in early october and reached maximum level in early may (maximum follicle diameter was 19.2 mm). the first clutch was laid in june. oviposition continued until august when follicular regression began. an ovarian quiescent period was evident in september. two-three clutches are laid per year. mean clutch size is 5. annual reproductive potential ranges from ...199712572422
[molecular identification of the chinese drug turtle shells].this paper reports a new method to identify the chinese drug turtle shells using pcr product direct sequencing method. dna was extracted from tissues of the chinese three-keeled pond turtle chinemys reevesii and 20 other species of turtles occurring in china and southeast asian countries. one hundred and ten base pairs of mitochondrial 12s rrna gene fragment were amplified from the extract using pcr technique and obtained sequences. these sequences were used to construct 12s rrna gene fragment s ...199811939073
evidence of gaba-immunopositive neurons in the dorsal part of the lateral geniculate nucleus of reptiles: morphological correlates with interneurons.the distribution and staining pattern of gamma-aminobutyric acid immunoreactivity have been examined by both light and electron microscopy in the dorsal part of the lateral geniculate nucleus of three reptilian species: the turtle chinemys reevesi, the lizard ophisaurus apodus and the snake vipera aspis. after perfusion of the animals with 1% paraformaldehyde and 1% glutaraldehyde and polyethyleneglycol embedding of the brains, the analysis of sections processed immunocytochemically with an anti ...19921641130
[a preliminary survey on the growing tempo of chinemys reevesii (gray)].the growing tempo of tortoises is closely related with the temperature and intake of food. in suitable temperature range (20-28 degrees c), the intake increases with the rise of temperature and the growth accordingly accelerates. in the dormant period, the tortoise consumes more energy as ambient temperature rises.19911863331
thermal preference, thermal resistance, and metabolic rate of juvenile chinese pond turtles mauremys reevesii acclimated to different temperatures.the thermal acclimatory capacity of a particular species may determine its resilience to environmental change. evaluating the physiological acclimatory responses of economically important species is useful for determining their optimal culture conditions. here, juvenile chinese three-keeled pond turtles (mauremys reevesii) were acclimated to one of three different temperatures (17, 25 or 33°c) for four weeks to assess the effects of thermal acclimation on some physiological traits. thermal accli ...201526590464
compensatory growth responses to food restriction in the chinese three-keeled pond turtle, chinemys reevesii.juvenile chinese three-keeled pond turtles (chinemys reevesii) were subjected to one of four different feeding regimens: ad libitum (al), restricted (r), ad libitum-restricted (al-r), or restricted-ad libitum (r-al) for 13 weeks, to assess the compensatory growth (cg) response to food restriction and subsequent re-alimentation. after switching to ad libitum feeding, the turtles in r-al group ate more food and grew faster than those in other groups. at the end of the trial, r-al turtles achieved ...201425520910
feeding kinematics of freshwater turtles: what advantage do invasive species possess?the red-eared slider (trachemys scripta) is an invasive turtle species that is displacing the populations of native freshwater turtles in many countries. however, the mechanism that makes red-eared sliders superior competitors has been less well studied. in this study, we compare the feeding kinematics of the red-eared slider with those of reeves' pond turtle (mauremys reevesii), a turtle native to east asia, and offer an explanation as to why red-eared sliders are superior in food competition. ...201425156933
single cell shape and population densities of indoleamine-accumulating and displaced bipolar cells in reeves' turtle retina.two types of bipolar cell in the geoclemys reevesii retina were studied quantitatively by means of specific cell labelling with an indoleamine derivative (5,6-dihydroxytryptamine, 5,6-dht), a nucleic acid stain (4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, dapi) and lucifer yellow ch. indoleamine-accumulating (ia) bipolar cells were selectively labelled with 5,6-dht applied intraocularly. after the cells accumulated 5,6-dht, the indoleamine fluorescence was photoconverted to diaminobenzidine products to allow ...19901968643
[analysis and comparison of the chemical composition of two preparations of chinemys reevesii gray].amino-acids, nitrogen content, soaking extracts, ash contents, trace elements have been systematically determined for the traditional preparation and food-bacteria preparation of chinemys reevesii. the results have shown that all the analytical targets in food-bacteria preparation are higher than or close to those in traditional preparation. so the food-bacteria preparation is better in quality.19892512944
electron microscopic and cytochemical studies of the thrombocytes of the tortoise (geoclemys reevesii).the thrombocytes of the tortoise (geoclemys reevesii) were studied at the electron microscopic level. the presence of a surface connected canalicular system, composed of numerous anastomosing canaliculi, has been demonstrated by the ruthenium red technique. however, monoamine storage organelles have not been found in tortoise thrombocytes. peroxidase activity is localised to the nuclear envelope and the rough surfaced endoplasmic reticulum, but is not present in the golgi apparatus or granules. ...19873429318
spectral sensitivities of seven morphological types of photoreceptors in the retina of the turtle, geoclemys reevesii.spectral sensitivities of photoreceptors in the turtle (geoclemys) retina were studied by intracellular recording, and each cell was filled with lucifer yellow (ly). photoreceptors were classified into seven morphological types: rod, four types of single cones, and two members of a double cone. single cones contained one of four different oil droplets: red, pale-green, orange, and clear. double cones consisted of two apposed cones; principal members contained yellow oil droplets, while accessory ...19854031119
combination of oil droplets with different types of photoreceptor in a freshwater turtle, geoclemys reevesii. 1978755287
a histochemical study of the innervation of cerebral blood vessels in the turtle.specific histochemical techniques for the demonstration of noradrenaline and of acetylcholinesterase have been used to study the distribution of adrenergic and cholinergic nerves to the cerebral blood vessels of turtle, geoclemys reevesii. the major and medium-sized cerebral arteries were supplied with dense adrenergic nerve plexuses, the plexuses were particularly dense in the medium-sized pial arteries of very thick vascular wall, indicating the functional significance of these arteries in the ...1977915039
[role of the enteric nervous system in intestinal movement of geoclemys reevesii]. 19761035748
neurosecretory axo-axonic synapses in the median eminence of the turtle, geoclemys reevesii.neurosecretory axo-axonic synapses were found in the median eminence of the turtle. most of the presynaptic axons contain granules approximately 95 nm in diameter, and the postsynaptic elements have granules approximately 110 nm in diameter. the functional significance of axo-axonic synapses in the median eminence is discussed in relation to the discharge of releasing hormones from the axon terminals.1976934425
[observations on the gastrointestinal movements of the tortoise (geoclemys reevesii) by means of the abdominal-window-technique].in the tortoise the gastrointestinal movements were observed utilizing the abdominal-window-technique. the results obtained were summarized as follows: (1) so far as the intestine was exposed to the atmosphere both in vivo and in vitro, the intestine was motionless in most cases. on the other hand, the abdominal-window-technique proved to be very useful to observe the gastrointestinal movements. (2) the operation was carried out under the aseptic precaution as follows: first the back of the anim ...19751238833
effects of parathyroidectomy on the serum calcium concentration of the turtle geoclemys reevesii. 19724649175
autonomous choice in the learning process of a turtle chinemys reevesii.we studied animal's learning of spatial discrimination in an experimental environment. turtles, chinemys reevesii, were employed for the study. we focused on two independent aspects: (1) turtle's success rate in the task, which is the most common criterion to estimate the ability of the animals, and (2) the statistical properties of the time interval of the task, which is independent on the spatial criterion. for a statistical analysis, we employed the scheme of power law distributions which was ...200010785316
odor responses of the vomeronasal system in reeve's turtle, geoclemys reevesii.the number of vomeronasal receptor cells and olfactory receptor cells were determined in several turtles and tortoises. using semi-aquatic turtles with developed vomeronasal organs, neural responses to various odor stimuli were recorded as extracellular unitary spike responses of vomeronasal receptor cells, compound action potentials from vomeronasal nerve twigs, induced wave responses on the accessory olfactory bulb (aob) surface and unitary responses of aob neurons. the vomeronasal system in t ...19938386587
the complete mitochondrial genome of the keeled box turtle pyxidea mouhotii and phylogenetic analysis of major turtle groups.the complete mitochondrial genome (16,837 bp) from the keeled box turtle (pyxidea mouhotii) was determined. the genome content, gene order, and base composition conformed to the consensus vertebrate type mtdna. however, a remarkable feature was found in this molecule: a large number of (attatatc) (n) direct tandem repeats followed by (ta) (n) microsatellite at the 3' end of the control region (d-loop), which might be useful as molecular markers for studying population genetics and helpful for sp ...200818222407
positive or negative? the shell alters the relationship among behavioral defense strategy, energy metabolic levels and antioxidant capacity in freshwater turtles.the relationships among energy metabolic levels, behavioral and other physiological traits help to determine the trade-off of energy allocation between different traits and the evolution of life-history driven by natural selection. however, these relationships may be distinctive in selected animal taxa because of their unique traits. in the present study, the relationships among energy metabolic levels, behavioral defense strategies, and antioxidant capacity were explored in three freshwater tur ...201930809267
lipid peroxidation of kidney of the turtle mauremys reevesii caused by cadmium.this research was designed to investigate lipid peroxidation of the kidney of turtle (mauremys reevesii) caused by cadmium. turtles were injected intraperitoneally with cadmium at the concentration of 0 (control), 7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg, and 5 turtles were taken from each group after exposure for 1 week (1 w), 2 weeks (2 w), and 3 weeks (3 w). superoxide dismutase (sod) and catalase (cat) activities as well as glutathione (gsh) and malonyldialdehyde (mda) contents in the homogenate of kidney tiss ...202033011946
oxidative stress in liver of turtle mauremys reevesii caused by cadmium.the research was designed to examine oxidative stress of the liver of turtle mauremys reevesii caused by cadmium (cd). turtles were injected intraperitoneally with cadmium at the concentration of 7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg, and 5 turtles were taken from each group after exposure for 1 week (1 w), 2 weeks (2 w), and 3 weeks (3 w). the activities of sod and cat as well as the contents of gsh and mda in liver tissues were detected by using a kit. the results showed that the difference between the contro ...202032989702
a first insight into the structural and functional comparison of environmental microbiota in freshwater turtle chinemys reevesii at different growth stages under pond and greenhouse cultivation.the microbial community structure of water is an important indicator for evaluating the water quality of the aquaculture environment. in this study, the investigation and comparison of the bacterial communities of pond cultivation (pc) and greenhouse cultivation (gc) between hatchling, juvenile, and adult growth stages of c. reevesii were performed. in addition, the v4 regions of the 16s rrna gene were sequenced. the chao1 richness estimator of the pc group was significantly higher than that of ...202032825672
identification of the cdna encoding the growth hormone receptor (ghr) and the regulation of ghr and igf-i gene expression by nutritional status in reeves' turtle (chinemys reevesii).chinemys reevesii (reeves' turtle) is a slow-growing reptile that is distributed widely across china. prior to this study, the cdna sequence of the growth hormone receptor (ghr) in the reeve's turtle, or how periods of starvation might influence the gene expression of ghr and insulin-like growth factor i (igf-i) in this species, were unknown. here, we identified the full-length sequence of the cdna encoding ghr in reeves' turtle by using rt-pcr and race. the full-length ghr cdna was identified t ...202032582298
comparison of adult testis and ovary microrna expression profiles in reeves' pond turtles (mauremys reevesii) with temperature-dependent sex determination.some differentially expressed genes (degs) that encode key enzymes involved in steroidogenic biosynthesis (cyp19a1) and key molecules related to gonadal functions (dmrt1, sox9, amh, foxl2, wnt4, rspo2, and gdf9) have been identified in adult gonadal rna-seq studies of reeves' pond turtle (mauremys reevesii) with temperature-dependent sex determination (tsd). gonadal functional maintenance and gametogenesis comprises a highly regulated and coordinated biological process, and increasing evidence i ...202032194623
effects of cadmium on the activities of alt and ast as well as the content of tp in plasma of freshwater turtle mauremys reevesii.cadmium (cd) is one of the toxic metals in the aquatic environment. this study was designed to examine the effects of cd on the activities of alt and ast and the concentrations of tp in plasma of freshwater turtle mauremys reevesii. experiment turtles were exposed to cd at the concentration of 15 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection. the activities of alt and ast and the concentrations of tp were investigated. compared with the controls, the activities of alt and ast in plasma of the treated turtl ...202032170612
effects of cadmium on the gene transcription of the liver in the freshwater turtle (chinemys reevesii).this study investigated the related gene transcription of liver in freshwater turtle chinemys reevesii exposed to cadmium (cd). after acclimation, healthy turtles were selected for experiments. they were randomly divided into four experimental groups and each group had 5 animals. the turtles were treated with 0 mg/kg, 7.5 mg/kg, 15 mg/kg, and 30 mg/kg cd chloride separately by intraperitoneal injection. liver samples were collected for examination of the transcription of related genes at 2 weeks ...202031902076
characterization of deoxyribonucleic methylation and transcript abundance of sex-related genes during tempera ture-dependent sex determination in mauremys reevesii†.a number of genes relevant for sex determination have been found in species with temperature-dependent sex determination. epigenetics play a key role in sex determination, but characterization of deoxyribonucleic acid methylation of sex-related genes on temperature-dependent sex determination remains unclear. mauremys reevesii is a typical species with temperature-dependent sex determination. in this study, we analyzed the cytosine guanine (cpg) methylation status of the proximal promoters, the ...202031365051
transcriptome sequencing and comparative analysis of adult ovary and testis identify potential gonadal maintenance-related genes in mauremys reevesii with temperature-dependent sex determination.mauremys reevesii is a classical organism with temperature-dependent sex determination (tsd). gonad development in early life has recently received considerable attention but gonadal maintenance after sex differentiation in turtles with tsd remains a mystery. in this study, we sequenced the transcriptomes for the adult testis and ovary using rna-seq, and 36,221 transcripts were identified. in total, 1,594 differentially expressed genes (degs) were identified where 756 degs were upregulated in th ...201930867990
detecting coevolution of positively selected in turtles sperm-egg fusion proteins.physically interacting sperm-egg proteins have been identified using gene-modified animals in some mammal species. three proteins are essential for sperm-egg binding: izumo1 on the sperm surface, and juno and cd9 on the egg surface. most proteins linked to reproductive function evolve rapidly among species by positive selection, and have correlated evolutionary rates to compensate for changes on both the sperm and egg. up to now, interactions between sperm and egg proteins have not been identifi ...201930790628
thermal physiological performance of two freshwater turtles acclimated to different temperatures.the thermal physiological performance of invasive species may play a crucial role in determining their invasion success. in this study, we acclimated two cohorts of hatchlings of freshwater turtles (native mauremys reevesii and invasive trachemys scripta elegans) from low and high-latitude collection sites, respectively, to different thermal conditions (20 and 30 °c) for 4 weeks, and then compared their thermal tolerance and locomotor performance. t. scripta elegans hatchlings could swim faster ...201930478602
immunohistochemical analysis of the development of olfactory organs in two species of turtles pelodiscus sinensis and mauremys reevesii.the nasal cavity of turtles is composed of the upper and lower chambers, lined by the upper and lower chamber epithelia, respectively. in many turtles including the reeve's turtle mauremys reevesii, the upper chamber epithelium contains ciliated olfactory receptor neurons (orns) and the lower chamber epithelium contains microvillous orns. however, in the olfactory organ of the chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis, both the upper and lower chamber epithelia contain ciliated orns. in th ...201830236832
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