bat rabies in illinois: 1965 to 1986.from 1968 to 1986, illinois (usa) citizens and agencies submitted 4,272 bats to the illinois department of public health for rabies testing. of this number, 6% tested positive, a rate comparable to similar studies from other parts of north america. due to sampling biases, the true infection rate among bats in illinois is probably lower than 6%. additional analysis relied on a subsample (n = 2,433) of the specimens collected from 1965 to 1986. prevalences were significantly different among years, ...19892915390
rabies in insectivorous bats of western canada, 1979 to 1983.a total of 1,745, 362, and 536 bats collected in alberta, british columbia, and saskatchewan, respectively, was tested for rabies virus between 1979 and 1983. only one (0.1%) of 769 bats collected at random from buildings was infected with rabies virus in contrast to 95 (5%) of 1,874 symptomatic, rabies-suspect bats submitted for testing. the pattern of infection in the rabies-suspect bats was similar in alberta and saskatchewan, but differed in british columbia. rabies was diagnosed in four spe ...19863735577
bat rabies in canada 1963-1967.six hundred and twenty-eight insectivorous bats originating from seven provinces were submitted to this institute for rabies diagnosis between august 1, 1963 and december 31, 1967. brain tissue was examined by the fluorescent antibody technique and the mouse infectivity test was carried out with brain, salivary gland, interscapular adipose tissue and kidney samples. rabies virus was detected in 44 bats, 29 of which were from ontario, 12 from british columbia and three from manitoba. most of the ...19694242773
antigenic analysis of rabies-virus isolates from latin america and the caribbean.a total of 288 rabies-virus samples from 17 latin american and caribbean countries were reacted with an array of monoclonal antibodies. identification of eight distinct antigenic variants among these samples permitted epidemiologic studies of the geographic distribution of different concentrations of rabies in the region and of the animal species serving as maintenance sources for rabies within a concentrated area. two variants were broadly distributed and associated with enzootic disease in dog ...19947801717
bat ectoparasites from the trans-pecos region of texas, including notes from big bend national park.ectoparasites of 13 species of molossid, mormoopid, and vespertilionid bats from the trans-pecos region of texas were studied, as follows: antrozous pallidus (leconte), corynorhinus townsendii (cooper), eptesicus fuscus (palisot de beauvois), lasiurus cinereus (palisot de beauvois), mormoops megalophylla (peters), myotis thysanodes g. s. miller, myotis velifer (j. a. allen), myotis volans (h. allen), myotis yumanensis (h. allen), nyctinomops femorosaccus (merriam), nyctinomops macrotis (gray), p ...200111372965
auditory sensitivity of hawaiian moths (lepidoptera: noctuidae) and selective predation by the hawaiian hoary bat (chiroptera: lasiurus cinereus semotus).the islands of hawai'i offer a unique opportunity for studying the auditory ecology of moths and bats since this habitat has a single species of bat, the hawaiian hoary bat (lasiurus cinereus semotus), which exerts the entire predatory selection pressure on the ears of sympatric moths. i compared the moth wings discarded by foraging bats with the number of surviving moths on the island of kaua'i and concluded that the endemic noctuid haliophyle euclidias is more heavily preyed upon than similar- ...200111429137
survey of bat populations from mexico and paraguay for rabies.a mammalian survey was conducted in mexico (october 1994-january 1996) and in paraguay (august 1996-march 1997); a complete specimen was collected for each bat in the survey, including primary voucher specimen, ectoparasites, karyotype, and various frozen tissues. the surveys combined provided 937 brain samples (65 bat species) for rabies diagnosis. one male lasiurus ega, collected in paraguay, tested positive for the rabies virus (overall prevalence rate of 0.1%). nucleotide sequence from a 300 ...200111504233
antigenic typing of brazilian rabies virus samples isolated from animals and humans, 1989-2000.animal and human rabies samples isolated between 1989 and 2000 were typified by means of a monoclonal antibody panel against the viral nucleoprotein. the panel had been previously established to study the molecular epidemiology of rabies virus in the americas. samples were isolated in the diagnostic laboratory of the pasteur institute and in other rabies diagnostic centers in brazil. in addition to the fixed virus samples cvs-31/96-ip, preserved in mouse brain, and pv-bhk/97, preserved in cell c ...200212048546
evolutionary timescale of rabies virus adaptation to north american bats inferred from the substitution rate of the nucleoprotein gene.throughout north america, rabies virus (rv) is endemic in bats. distinct rv variants exist that are closely associated with infection of individual host species, such that there is little or no sustained spillover infection away from the primary host. using bayesian methodology, nucleotide substitution rates were estimated from alignments of partial nucleoprotein (n) gene sequences of nine distinct bat rv variants from north america. substitution rates ranged from 2.32 x 10(-4) to 1.38 x 10(-3) ...200515831959
molecular diversity of rabies viruses associated with bats in mexico and other countries of the americas.bat rabies and its transmission to humans and other species in mexico were investigated. eighty-nine samples obtained from rabid livestock, cats, dogs, and humans in mexico were studied by antigenic typing and partial sequence analysis. samples were further compared with enzootic rabies associated with different species of bats in the americas. patterns of nucleotide variation allowed the definition of at least 20 monophyletic clusters associated with 9 or more different bat species. several lin ...200616672396
[rabies virus in naturally infected bats in the state of são paulo, southeastern brazil].to identify the species of bats involved in maintaining the rabies cycle; to investigate the distribution of the rabies virus in the tissues and organs of bats and the time taken for mortality among inoculated mice.200717515992
[rabies virus isolation in the salivary glands of insectivorous bats].this study determined the presence of the rabies virus in salivary glands, as well as its titre and antigenic characterisation and the level of exposure to the virus from contact between domestic animals and humans. twenty-six positive brain samples were selected, 80% of which were from the brazilian free-tailed bat, tadarida brasiliensis, corresponding to the period 1999-2005. antigenic characterisation was conducted on a panel of 19 monoclonal antibodies targeting the rabies virus nucleoprotei ...200920462155
rabies surveillance among bats in tennessee, usa, 1996-2010.rabies virus (rabv) infects multiple bat species in the americas, and enzootic foci perpetuate in bats principally via intraspecific transmission. in recent years, bats have been implicated in over 90% of human rabies cases in the us. in tennessee, two human cases of rabies have occurred since 1960: one case in 1994 associated with a tricolored bat (perimyotis subflavus) rabv variant and another in 2002 associated with the tricolored/silver-haired bat (p. subflavus/lasionycteris noctivagans) rab ...201526251992
ecology and geography of transmission of two bat-borne rabies lineages in chile.rabies was known to humans as a disease thousands of years ago. in america, insectivorous bats are natural reservoirs of rabies virus. the bat species tadarida brasiliensis and lasiurus cinereus, with their respective, host-specific rabies virus variants agv4 and agv6, are the principal rabies reservoirs in chile. however, little is known about the roles of bat species in the ecology and geographic distribution of the virus. this contribution aims to address a series of questions regarding the e ...201324349592
prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to rabies virus in serum of seven species of insectivorous bats from colorado and new mexico, united states.we determined the presence of rabies-virus-neutralizing antibodies (rvna) in serum of 721 insectivorous bats of seven species captured, sampled, and released in colorado and new mexico, united states in 2003-2005. a subsample of 160 bats was tested for rabies-virus rna in saliva. we sampled little brown bats (myotis lucifugus) at two maternity roosts in larimer county, colorado; big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus) at three maternity roosts in morgan county, colorado; and big brown bats at five mat ...201323568912
high diversity of rabies viruses associated with insectivorous bats in argentina: presence of several independent enzootics.rabies is a fatal infection of the central nervous system primarily transmitted by rabid animal bites. rabies virus (rabv) circulates through two different epidemiological cycles: terrestrial and aerial, where dogs, foxes or skunks and bats, respectively, act as the most relevant reservoirs and/or vectors. it is widely accepted that insectivorous bats are not important vectors of rabv in argentina despite the great diversity of bat species and the extensive argentinean territory.201222590657
genomic resources notes accepted 1 october 2013-30 november 2013.this article documents the public availability of (i) genomic sequence data and 43 microsatellite loci for the bat species, lasiurus borealis and lasiurus cinereus, and (ii) complete mitochondrial and partial nuclear genomes for two jack species, caranx ignobilis, caranx melampygus.201424373211
using sutures to attach miniature tracking tags to small bats for multimonth movement and behavioral studies.determining the detailed movements of individual animals often requires them to carry tracking devices, but tracking broad-scale movement of small bats (<30 g) has been limited by transmitter technology and long-term attachment methods. this limitation inhibits our understanding of bat dispersal and migration, particularly in the context of emerging conservation issues such as fatalities at wind turbines and diseases. we tested a novel method of attaching lightweight global positioning system (g ...201526306181
large roads reduce bat activity across multiple species.although the negative impacts of roads on many terrestrial vertebrate and bird populations are well documented, there have been few studies of the road ecology of bats. to examine the effects of large roads on bat populations, we used acoustic recorders to survey bat activity along ten 300 m transects bordering three large highways in northern california, applying a newly developed statistical classifier to identify recorded calls to the species level. nightly counts of bat passes were analyzed ...201424823689
potential citric acid exposure and toxicity to hawaiian hoary bats (lasiurus cinereus semotus) associated with eleutherodactylus frog control.we examined potential exposure of hawaiian hoary bats (lasiurus cinereus semotus) to citric acid, a minimum risk pesticide registered for control of invasive eleutherodactylus frog populations. hoary bats are nocturnal insectivores that roost solitarily in foliage, federally listed as endangered, and are endemic to hawaii. oral ingestion during grooming of contaminated fur appears to be the principal route by which these bats might be exposed to citric acid. we made assessments of oral toxicity, ...201424526591
white-nose syndrome and wing damage index scores among summer bats in the northeastern united states.white-nose syndrome (wns) adversely affects millions of bats hibernating in caves of the eastern united states. beginning in 2009, the us fish and wildlife service supported use of a wing damage index (wdi) scoring system (scale of 0 to 3, or no damage to severe) to assess wing damage of bats captured during summer. based on bat captures at 459 mist net sites in pennsylvania, new york, maryland, virginia, and new jersey, usa, we questioned whether wdi scores varied by species group, date, and di ...201121269995
monitoring seasonal bat activity on a coastal barrier island in maryland, usa.research on effects of wind turbines on bats has increased dramatically in recent years because of significant numbers of bats killed by rotating wind turbine blades. whereas most research has focused on the midwest and inland portions of eastern north america, bat activity and migration on the atlantic coast has largely been unexamined. we used three long-term acoustic monitoring stations to determine seasonal bat activity patterns on the assateague island national seashore, a barrier island of ...201120364316
purkinje cell compartmentation of the cerebellum of microchiropteran bats.transverse boundaries divide the mammalian cerebellar cortex into transverse zones, and within each zone the cortex is further subdivided into a symmetrical array of parasagittal stripes. this topography is highly conserved across the mammalia. bats have a remarkable cerebellum with presumed adaptations to flight and to echolocation, but nothing is known of its compartmentation. we have therefore used two purkinje cell compartmentation antigens, zebrin ii/aldolase c and phospholipase cbeta4, to ...200919731335
type i external skeletal fixation of radial fractures in adult male big brown bat (eptesicus fuscus) and an adult female hoary bat (lasiurus cinereus) were presented with open transverse middiaphyseal left radial fractures. initial repair was attempted by intramedullary pinning. when the fractures did not heal, intramedullary pins were removed and type i external skeletal fixators were placed. the fractures healed, and the big brown bat regained normal flight but the hoary bat did not.200112785704
defining torpor in free-ranging bats: experimental evaluation of external temperature-sensitive radiotransmitters and the concept of active temperature.a variety of definitions involving body temperature (tb), metabolic rate and behavior have been used to define torpor in mammals and birds. this problem is confounded in some studies of free-ranging animals that employ only skin temperature (tsk), a measure that approximates but may not precisely reflect tb. we assess the accuracy of tsk in the context of a recent definition for torpor called active temperature. we compared the active temperatures of individual big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus), ...200312764630
bat rabies in alberta 1979-1982.the infection rate among eight species of bats submitted for rabies diagnosis in alberta during 1979-82 was 4.6%. prevalence of rabies was greatest (24%) for hoary bats lasiurus cinereus, while the big brown bat eptesicus fuscus was the species in which rabies was most commonly diagnosed, and the species submitted most frequently for rabies diagnosis was the little brown bat myotis lucifugus. the rabies infection rate among male hoary bats was significantly greater than in either sex of all othe ...198517422507
winter activity of coastal plain populations of bat species affected by white-nose syndrome and wind energy facilities.across the entire distribution of a species, populations may have variable responses to environmental perturbations. many bat species experience mortality in large portions of their range during hibernation and along migratory paths to and from wintering grounds, from white-nose syndrome (wns) and wind energy development, respectively. in some areas, warm temperatures may allow bats to remain active through winter, thus decreasing their susceptibility to wns and/or mortality associated with migr ...201627851832
are migratory behaviours of bats socially transmitted?to migrate, animals rely on endogenous, genetically inherited programmes, or socially transmitted information about routes and behaviours, or a combination of the two. in long-lived animals with extended parental care, as in bats, migration tends to be socially transmitted rather than endogenous. for a young bat to learn migration via social transmission, they would need to follow an experienced individual, most likely one roosting nearby. therefore, we predicted that bats travelling together or ...201627152208
genetic diversity in migratory bats: results from radseq data for three tree bat species at an ohio windfarm.genetic analyses can identify the scale at which wildlife species are impacted by human activities, and provide demographic information useful for management. here, we use thousands of nuclear dna genetic loci to assess whether genetic structure occurs within lasiurus cinereus (hoary bat), l. borealis (red bat), and lasionycteris noctivagans (silver-haired bat) bats found at a wind turbine site in ohio, and to also estimate demographic parameters in each of these three groups. our specific goals ...201626824001
evaluating the effectiveness of an ultrasonic acoustic deterrent for reducing bat fatalities at wind turbines.large numbers of bats are killed by wind turbines worldwide and minimizing fatalities is critically important to bat conservation and acceptance of wind energy development. we implemented a 2-year study testing the effectiveness of an ultrasonic acoustic deterrent for reducing bat fatalities at a wind energy facility in pennsylvania. we randomly selected control and treatment turbines that were searched daily in summer and fall 2009 and 2010. estimates of fatality, corrected for field biases, we ...201323840369
evidence of late-summer mating readiness and early sexual maturation in migratory tree-roosting bats found dead at wind turbines.understanding animal mating systems is an important component of their conservation, yet the precise mating times for many species of bats are unknown. the aim of this study was to better understand the details and timing of reproductive events in species of bats that die most frequently at wind turbines in north america, because such information can help inform conservation strategies. we examined the reproductive anatomy of hoary bats (lasiurus cinereus), eastern red bats (l. borealis), and si ...201223094065
rabies prevalence in migratory tree-bats in alberta and the influence of roosting ecology and sampling method on reported prevalence of rabies in bats.the migratory tree-roosting hoary bat (lasiurus cinereus) and silver-haired bat (lasionycteris noctivagans) are among the bat species with the highest reported prevalence of rabies in north america. however, bats submitted for rabies testing typically have been those that have come in contact with humans or pets. given the roosting ecology of l. cinereus and l. noctivagans, contact with healthy individuals of these species is expected to be rare, with a bias in contact and submission of infected ...201121269998
geographic origins and population genetics of bats killed at wind-energy unanticipated impact of wind-energy development has been large-scale mortality of insectivorous bats. in eastern north america, where mortality rates are among the highest in the world, the hoary bat (lasiurus cinereus) and the eastern red bat (l. borealis) comprise the majority of turbine-associated bat mortality. both species are migratory tree bats with widespread distributions; however, little is known regarding the geographic origins of bats killed at wind-energy facilities or the divers ...201627755755
energetic consequences of flight speeds of foraging red and hoary bats (lasiurus borealis and lasiurus cinereus; chiroptera: vespertilionidae)we used doppler radar readings of the flight speeds of foraging, lactating female lasiurus borealis (n=826) and lasiurus cinereus (n=544) to test morphologically based predictions about their flight performance. both species flew at speeds (v=6.7 and 7.7 m s-1, respectively) that differed significantly from predicted minimum power speed (vmp; 4.0 and 5.08 m s-1, respectively) or predicted maximum range speed (vmr; 5.25 and 6.69 m s-1, respectively), perhaps reflecting the active pursuit of moths ...19959320162
first direct evidence of long-distance seasonal movements and hibernation in a migratory bat.understanding of migration in small bats has been constrained by limitations of techniques that were labor-intensive, provided coarse levels of resolution, or were limited to population-level inferences. knowledge of movements and behaviors of individual bats have been unknowable because of limitations in size of tracking devices and methods to attach them for long periods. we used sutures to attach miniature global positioning system (gps) tags and data loggers that recorded light levels, activ ...201627698492
seasonally-dynamic presence-only species distribution models for a cryptic migratory bat impacted by wind energy development.understanding seasonal distribution and movement patterns of animals that migrate long distances is an essential part of monitoring and conserving their populations. compared to migratory birds and other more conspicuous migrants, we know very little about the movement patterns of many migratory bats. hoary bats (lasiurus cinereus), a cryptic, wide-ranging, long-distance migrant, comprise a substantial proportion of the tens to hundreds of thousands of bat fatalities estimated to occur each year ...201526208098
two tickets to paradise: multiple dispersal events in the founding of hoary bat populations in hawai'i.the hawaiian islands are an extremely isolated oceanic archipelago, and their fauna has long served as models of dispersal in island biogeography. while molecular data have recently been applied to investigate the timing and origin of dispersal events for several animal groups including birds, insects, and snails, these questions have been largely unaddressed in hawai'i's only native terrestrial mammal, the hawaiian hoary bat, lasiurus cinereus semotus. here, we use molecular data to test the hy ...201526083029
continental-scale, seasonal movements of a heterothermic migratory tree bat.long-distance migration evolved independently in bats and unique migration behaviors are likely, but because of their cryptic lifestyles, many details remain unknown. north american hoary bats (lasiurus cinereus cinereus) roost in trees year-round and probably migrate farther than any other bats, yet we still lack basic information about their migration patterns and wintering locations or strategies. this information is needed to better understand unprecedented fatality of hoary bats at wind tur ...201424988763
seasonal upregulation of catabolic enzymes and fatty acid transporters in the flight muscle of migrating hoary bats, lasiurus cinereus.the high energy density of fat, and limited capacity for carbohydrate storage suggest that migrating bats should fuel endurance flights with fat, as observed in migrating birds. yet, cursorial mammals are unable to support high intensity exercise with fat stores. we hypothesized that migratory bats and birds have converged on similar physiological mechanisms to fuel endurance flight with fat. we predicted bats would seasonally upregulate fatty acid transport and oxidation pathways when migration ...201323545469
phenotypic flexibility in migrating bats: seasonal variation in body composition, organ sizes and fatty acid profiles.many species of bats migrate long distances, but the physiological challenges of migration are poorly understood. we tested the hypothesis that migration is physiologically demanding for bats by examining migration-related phenotypic flexibility. both bats and birds are endothermic, flying vertebrates; therefore, we predicted that migration would result in similar physiological trade-offs. we compared hoary bats (lasiurus cinereus) during spring migration and summer non-migratory periods, compar ...201323408801
deep, prolonged torpor by pregnant, free-ranging bats.many mammals save energy during food shortage or harsh weather using controlled reductions in body temperature and metabolism called torpor. however, torpor slows offspring growth, and reproductive individuals are thought to avoid using it because of reduced fitness resulting from delayed offspring development. we tested this hypothesis by investigating torpor during reproduction in hoary bats (lasiurus cinereus, vespertilionidae) in southern canada. we recorded deep, prolonged torpor bouts, whi ...200616456644
sensory ecology of predator-prey interactions: responses of the an2 interneuron in the field cricket, teleogryllus oceanicus to the echolocation calls of sympatric bats.we observed the responses of the an2 interneuron in the pacific field cricket, teleogryllus oceanicus, a cell implicated in eliciting avoidance flight away from bats, to acoustic stimuli representing the echolocation calls of bats as well as field recordings of search and gleaning attack calls of six species of insectivorous sympatric bats (west australia, australia: tadarida australis, chalinolobus goudii, nyctophilus geoffroyi; queensland, australia: vespadelus pumilus, myotis adversus; kaua'i ...200515886992
sex differences in the thermoregulation and evaporative water loss of a heterothermic bat, lasiurus cinereus, during its spring migration.this study quantifies sex differences in thermoregulation and water loss of a small (20-35 g) insectivorous heterothermic mammal, the hoary bat lasiurus cinereus, during its spring migration. we measured body temperature, metabolic rate and evaporative water loss, and calculated wet thermal conductance, for bats exposed to air temperatures ranging from 0 to 40 degrees c for periods of 2-5 h. pregnant females maintained normothermic body temperatures (35.7+/-0.7 degrees c; mean +/- s.e.m.) indepe ...200312939370
multi-state occupancy models of foraging habitat use by the hawaiian hoary bat (lasiurus cinereus semotus).multi-state occupancy modeling can often improve assessments of habitat use and site quality when animal activity or behavior data are available. we examine the use of the approach for evaluating foraging habitat suitability of the endangered hawaiian hoary bat (lasiurus cinereus semotus) from classifications of site occupancy based on flight activity levels and feeding behavior. in addition, we used data from separate visual and auditory sources, namely thermal videography and acoustic (echoloc ...201830379835
do you hear what i see? vocalization relative to visual detection rates of hawaiian hoary bats (lasiurus cinereus semotus).bats vocalize during flight as part of the sensory modality called echolocation, but very little is known about whether flying bats consistently call. occasional vocal silence during flight when bats approach prey or conspecifics has been documented for relatively few species and situations. bats flying alone in clutter-free airspace are not known to forgo vocalization, yet prior observations suggested possible silent behavior in certain, unexpected situations. determining when, why, and where s ...201728904749
leishmania presence in bats in areas endemic for leishmaniasis in central-west brazil.leishmaniasis involves the participation of several species of both wild and domestic mammal hosts and sandfly vectors, which demonstrates the eco-epidemiological complexity observed in this disease. bats are among the most abundant types of mammals and the scarcity of research on leishmania infection in these animals gives evidence of the importance of new studies that aim to clarify this relationship. this study aimed to detect the leishmania spp. in bats. 146 bats, representing 16 different s ...202032195111
long-term changes in bat activity in quebec suggest climatic responses and summer niche partitioning associated with white-nose north america, the greatest and most sudden threat to hibernating bats is white-nose syndrome (wns), which has caused massive declines in populations since 2006. other determinants of bat dynamics, such as the climate, and the effect of reduction in the number of individuals sharing foraging space and summer roosting habitat may have an effect on population dynamics. we analyzed transect acoustic bat surveys conducted with ultrasonic detectors in 16 regions in quebec, canada, between 2000 and ...202032607146
separating the effects of water quality and urbanization on temperate insectivorous bats at the landscape scale.many local scale studies have shown that bats respond to water quality degradation or urbanization in a species-specific manner. however, few have separated the effects of urbanization versus water quality degradation on bats, in single city or single watershed case studies. across north carolina, usa, we used the standardized north american bat monitoring program mobile transect protocol to survey bat activity in 2015 and 2016 at 41 sites. we collected statewide water quality and urban land cov ...201829321903
rabies virus and histoplasma suramericanum coinfection in a bat from southeastern brazil.bats are essential to the global ecosystem, but their ability to harbour a range of pathogens has been widely discussed, as well as their role in the emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases. this paper describes the first report of coinfection by two zoonotic agents, rabies virus (rabv) and the fungus histoplasma suramericanum in a bat. the bat was from the molossus molossus species, and it was found during the daytime in the hallway of a public psychiatric hospital in a municipality i ...202031750629
estimation of spatiotemporal trends in bat abundance from mortality data collected at wind turbines.renewable energy sources, such as wind energy, are essential tools for reducing the causes of climate change, but wind turbines can pose a collision risk for bats. to date, the population-level effects of wind-related mortality have been estimated for only 1 bat species. to estimate temporal trends in bat abundance, we considered wind turbines as opportunistic sampling tools for flying bats (analogous to fishing nets), where catch per unit effort (carcass abundance per monitored turbine) is a pr ...202032424911
a smart curtailment approach for reducing bat fatalities and curtailment time at wind energy facilities.the development and expansion of wind energy is considered a key global threat to bat populations. bat carcasses are being found underneath wind turbines across north and south america, eurasia, africa, and the austro-pacific. however, relatively little is known about the comparative impacts of techniques designed to modify turbine operations in ways that reduce bat fatalities associated with wind energy facilities. this study tests a novel approach for reducing bat fatalities and curtailment ti ...201930939226
habitat associations of bats in a working rangeland change has resulted in rangeland loss and degradation globally. these changes include conversion of native grasslands for row-crop agriculture as well as degradation of remaining rangeland due to fragmentation and changing disturbance regimes. understanding how these and other factors influence wildlife use of rangelands is important for conservation and management of wildlife populations. we investigated bat habitat associations in a working rangeland in southeastern north dakota. we u ...201930680140
factors associated with bat mortality at wind energy facilities in the united states.hundreds of thousands of bats are killed annually by colliding with wind turbines in the u.s., yet little is known about factors causing variation in mortality across wind energy facilities. we conducted a quantitative synthesis of bat collision mortality with wind turbines by reviewing 218 north american studies representing 100 wind energy facilities. this data set, the largest compiled for bats to date, provides further support that collision mortality is greatest for migratory tree-roosting ...201731048934
the luxury effect beyond cities: bats respond to socioeconomic variation across landscapes.the luxury effect describes the positive relationship between affluence and organism diversity or activity in urban ecosystems. driven by human activities, the luxury effect can potentially be found at a broader scale across different landscapes. previously, the luxury effect relationship has been established within a city for two bat species, the red bat (lasiurus borealis) and the evening bat (nycticeius humeralis). we examined landscape-scale patterns of bat activity distribution-using empiri ...201931676008
evidence of region-wide bat population decline from long-term monitoring and bayesian occupancy models with empirically informed priors.strategic conservation efforts for cryptic species, especially bats, are hindered by limited understanding of distribution and population trends. integrating long-term encounter surveys with multi-season occupancy models provides a solution whereby inferences about changing occupancy probabilities and latent changes in abundance can be supported. when harnessed to a bayesian inferential paradigm, this modeling framework offers flexibility for conservation programs that need to update prior model ...201931641456
analysis of genomic sequence data reveals the origin and evolutionary separation of hawaiian hoary bat populations.we examine the genetic history and population status of hawaiian hoary bats (lasiurus semotus), the most isolated bats on earth, and their relationship to northern hoary bats (lasiurus cinereus), through whole-genome analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms mapped to a de novo-assembled reference genome. profiles of genomic diversity and divergence indicate that hawaiian hoary bats are distinct from northern hoary bats, and form a monophyletic group, indicating a single ancestral colonization ...202032853363
mind the gap: natural cleft palates reduce biting performance in bats.novel morphological traits pose interesting evolutionary paradoxes when they become widespread in a lineage while being deleterious in others. cleft palate is a rare congenital condition in mammals in which the incisor-bearing premaxilla bones of the upper jaw develop abnormally. however, ∼50% of bat species have natural, non-pathological cleft palates. we used the family vespertilionidae as a model and linear and geometric morphometrics within a phylogenetic framework to (1) explore evolutionar ...202031852754
inconspicuous echolocation in hoary bats (lasiurus cinereus).echolocation allows bats to occupy diverse nocturnal niches. bats almost always use echolocation, even when other sensory stimuli are available to guide navigation. here, using arrays of calibrated infrared cameras and ultrasonic microphones, we demonstrate that hoary bats (lasiurus cinereus) use previously unknown echolocation behaviours that challenge our current understanding of echolocation. we describe a novel call type ('micro' calls) that has three orders of magnitude less sound energy th ...201829720417
trophic position and dietary breadth of bats revealed by nitrogen isotopic composition of amino acids.bats perform important ecosystem services, but it remains difficult to quantify their dietary strategies and trophic position (tp) in situ. we conducted measurements of nitrogen isotopes of individual amino acids (δ 15naa) and bulk-tissue carbon (δ 13cbulk) and nitrogen (δ 15nbulk) isotopes for nine bat species from different feeding guilds (nectarivory, frugivory, sanguivory, piscivory, carnivory, and insectivory). our objective was to assess the precision of δ 15naa-based estimates of tp relat ...201729162842
increasing evidence that bats actively forage at wind turbines.although the ultimate causes of high bat fatalities at wind farms are not well understood, several lines of evidence suggest that bats are attracted to wind turbines. one hypothesis is that bats would be attracted to turbines as a foraging resource if the insects that bats prey upon are commonly present on and around the turbine towers. to investigate the role that foraging activity may play in bat fatalities, we conducted a series of surveys at a wind farm in the southern great plains of the us ...201729114441
nuclear and mtdna phylogenetic analyses clarify the evolutionary history of two species of native hawaiian bats and the taxonomy of lasiurini (mammalia: chiroptera).previous studies on genetics of hoary bats produced differing conclusions on the timing of their colonization of the hawaiian islands and whether or not north american (aeorestes cinereus) and hawaiian (a. semotus) hoary bats are distinct species. one study, using mtdna coi and nuclear rag2 and cma1, concluded that hoary bats colonized the hawaiian islands no more than 10,000 years ago based on indications of population expansion at that time using extended bayesian skyline plots. the other stud ...201729020097
novel and diverse non-rabies rhabdoviruses identified in bats with human exposure, south dakota, usa.bats are a host and reservoir for a large number of viruses, many of which are zoonotic. in north america, the big brown bat (eptesicus fuscus) is widely distributed and common. big brown bats are a known reservoir for rabies virus, which, combined with their propensity to roost in human structures, necessitates testing for rabies virus following human exposure. the current pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, likely of bat origin, illustrates the need for continue ...202033302422
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