[electron microscope studies on developmental stages of theileria parva (theiler, 1904) in the intestine of the tick hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (koch, 1844) (author's transl)].the developmental stages of theileria parva within the intestine of ticks were studied by electron microscopy. on the 2nd-4th day post repletionem (p.r.) the intestine of the ticks contained numerous stages, which were very similar to microgamonts and microgametes of haemosporidia. from these results it seemed likely that gamogony of theileria parva takes place in the intestine of ticks, too. the microgamont-like stages were spear-head-like; they measured about 10.5 mum in length with a maximum ...1976821188
effect of age and sex of gerbils on the attraction of immature hyalomma excavatum koch, 1844 (ixodoidea:ixodidae). 19705421093
simultaneous detection of bovine theileria and babesia species by reverse line blot hybridization.a reverse line blot (rlb) assay was developed for the identification of cattle carrying different species of theileria and babesia simultaneously. we included theileria annulata, t. parva, t. mutans, t. taurotragi, and t. velifera in the assay, as well as parasites belonging to the t. sergenti-t. buffeli-t. orientalis group. the babesia species included were babesia bovis, b. bigemina, and b. divergens. the assay employs one set of primers for specific amplification of the rrna gene v4 hypervari ...199910325324
studies on theileria and babesia infecting live and slaughtered animals in al arish and el hasanah, north sinai governorate, egypt.during the year 2001, a total of 475 sheep, 200 goats, 135 cattle and 190 camels in el arich city and el hassanah center were examined for babesia ovis and theileria ovis. blood films were taken from the vein of the ear. meanwhile, the animals were examined for tick infestations. b. ovis and th. ovis were detected in 13 (2.7%), and 14 (2.9%) sheep, 14 (7.0%), and 15 (7.5%) goats, 13 (9.6%), and 11 (8.1%) cattle and 18 (9.5%), and 24 (12.6%) camels respectively. on the other hand, double infectio ...200212214937
distribution and ecology of ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting livestock in tunisia: an overview of eighth years field collections.ticks (ixodidae) play a significant role as vectors of pathogens of domestic animals in tunisia. the major losses caused by ticks are related to transmission of protozoan parasites. these include agents of tropical theileriosis and babesiosis in ruminants. since 1991, we conducted research studies on tick population of livestock in tunisia. this overview reports a synthesis on tick distribution, their biology and their role as vectors of pathogens in domestic animals, particularly cattle. during ...199911071534
transmission of theileria annulata (dschunkowsky & luhs, 1904) by hyalomma excavatum (koch, 1844).theileria annulata was transmitted transtadially by an israeli strain of hyalomma excavatum from larvae to nymphs and from nymphs to adults. however, the adults developing from larvae which engorged on infected calves and fed during the nymphal stage on non-infected calves, rabbits or gerbils (meriones tristrami), did not transmit theileriosis. suspensions of infected unfed nymphs or adults did not produce theileriosis but both nymphs and adults of the same batch became infective to cattle after ...19836406969
prevalence of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks from southern israel.the prevalence of spotted fever group rickettsiae was studied in questing ticks collected from southern israel. ticks were examined from an agricultural settlement (kibbutz ze'elim), an endemic site for mediterranean spotted fever, and from another kibbutz (re'im) in an adjacent area where the disease has not been reported. ticks were collected by flagging and co2 traps from vegetation inside and outside the settlements during 1989/1990 and 1994. in ze'elim, 98% of the ticks collected were brown ...19968961650
the infection of various tick species with babesia bigemina, its transmission and identification.strains of boophilus decoloratus and b. microplus were easily infected with a single stock of babesia bigemina; boophilus annulatus could be infected less easily, and it was difficult to infect rhipicephalus evertsi. two strains of r. appendiculatus and one strain each of r. bursa and hyalomma anatolicum excavatum were refractory. the same stock of b. bigemina was transmitted by nymphs and adults of b. decoloratus but only by nymphs of r. evertsi. vertical infection was not observed in r. everts ...19883387405
quantitative studies of host immunoglobulin g in the hemolymph of ticks (acari).a radioimmunoassay was used to measure the concentration of host immunoglobulin g (igg) in the hemolymph of female hard and soft ticks. hyalomma excavatum koch, rhipicephalus sanguineus latreille, ornithodoros tholozani (laboulbene and megnin), and o. moubata (murry) were fed on rabbits immunized with ovalbumin; argas persicus (oken) was fed on chickens immunized with cytochrome 'c.' at 24 h after feeding, the concentration of antiovalbumin igg in the hemolymph was 7 micrograms/ml for h. excavat ...19892769701
electron microscopic studies of the development of kinetes in theileria annulata dschunkowsky & luhs, 1904 (sporozoa, piroplasmea).gamogony of theileria annulata dschunkowsky & luhs occurs within the intestine of nymphs of the tick hyalomma anatolicum excavatum koch. after the 5th day post repletionem (p.r.) of the ticks spherical and ovoid parasites were found within the intestinal cells. these stages were thought to represent fertilized macrogametes. these underwent a transformation process leading ultimately to the differentiation of a motile stage, the kinete, which leaves the intestinal cells on the 14th-17th day p.r. ...1977407352
[light microscopic studies on the development of theileria annulata (dschunkowsky and luhs, 1904) in hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (koch, 1844). ii. the development in haemolymph and salivary glands (author's transl)].fully differentiated kinetes, average length 17.6 micrometer, appeared in the haemolymph of engorged nymphs usually 17 to 20 days after repletion. kinetes were observed at first in the salivary glands on day 18 after repletion. the kinetes then transformed into fission bodies of about 10 micrometer in diameter, mainly in type iii alveoli and less frequently in type ii alveoli. the fission bodies grew up to a size of about 20 micrometer after several divisions of their nucleus. at this time the t ...197899896
development of an indirect tams1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of theileria annulata infection in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed based on a recombinant major theileria annulata merozoite surface antigen, tams1. four different recombinant proteins derived from two different tams1 alleles, both in two different truncated forms, were tested for their performance in the elisa. furthermore, antigen concentration, various buffers, washing protocol, and the choice of anti-total-immunoglobulin g (igg), anti-igg1, or anti-igg2 as second antibody were evaluated. the perform ...200010799453
tick-borne diseases of sheep and goats caused by babesia, theileria or anaplasma spp.a review is given on the babesia, theileria, and anaplasma species infecting sheep and goats. b. ovis is the most important disease agent. it is transmitted by rhipicephalus bursa, r. turanicus, hyalomma anatolicum excavatum, and probably by r. evertsi evertsi b. ovis is widely spread in southern europe, the middle east, and central asia. its geographical distribution in south and east asia and in africa is widely unknown. b. motasi obviously represents several nosodemes in separate regions. it ...19979530692
tick-host relationships. ii. factors affecting the circadian rhythm of "drop off" of engorged preimaginal stages of the tick hyalomma excavatum (koch, 1844) from the gerbil--meriones tristrami. 19704395828
biocontrol of ticks by entomopathogenic nematodes. research update.entomopathogenic nematodes (epns) are lethal to ticks even though they do not use their normal propagation cycle within tick cadavers. the tick boophilus annulatus was found to be far more susceptible to epns than hyalomma excavatum, rhipicephalus bursa, or rhipicephalus sanguineus. ticks seem to be less susceptible to nematodes when feeding on a host. preimaginal tick stages were less susceptible to nematodes than adult ticks. the mortality rate of unfed females was highest, followed by unfed m ...200011193678
comparative study of anaplasma parasites in tick carrying buffaloes and cattle.a comparative study on the prevalence of anaplasma parasite was conducted on ticks carrying buffaloes and cattle. five hundred blood samples of both animals (250 of each) were collected during february, march and april. thin blood smears on glass slides were made, fixed in 100% methyl alcohol and examined. microscopic examination revealed that 205 (41%) animals had anaplasma parasites, out of which 89, 44 and 72 animals had anaplasma marginale, anaplasma centrale and mixed infection respectively ...200516252338
a comparison of susceptibilities to infection of four species of hyalomma ticks with theileria this comparative study unfed nymphs of four hyalomma tick species (hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, hyalomma anatolicum excavatum, hyalomma detritum and hyalomma marginatum marginatum) were allowed to engorge on calves experimentally infected with theileria annulata. the infection prevalence in the salivary glands of the adult female and male ticks of each hyalomma species used in the study were assessed. the infection prevalence with t. annulata was high and did not vary markedly in the four ...200312695036
interaction between ticks (acari: ixodidae) and pathogenic nematodes (nematoda): susceptibility of tick species at various developmental stages.the virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes (steinernematidae and heterorhabditidae) to tick species under laboratory conditions is reported. the susceptibility of larval, nymphal, and adult stages of the ticks hyalomma excavatum (koch), rhipicephalus bursa (canestrini & fanz), and r. sanguineus (latereille) to 2 strains of steinernema carpocapsae and 3 strains of heterorhabditis bacteriophora were compared in laboratory assays. preimaginal stages of ticks were found to be more resistant to the ...199910593074
contact toxicity of permethrin-impregnated fabric to hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (acari: ixodidae): effects of laundering and exposure and recovery times.a previous study that documented enhanced host attachment by the camel ticks hyalomma dromedarii koch after permethrin exposure prompted a similar investigation of permethrin effects in h. anatolicum excavatum koch, an old world hardbacked tick suspected of vectoring human pathogens. contact toxicity tests were conducted with laboratory-colonized male and female h. a. excavatum of the same age exposed for periods of 5, 10, 30, and 60 min to each of 5 fabric treatments: unwashed/untreated; unwash ...19989615556
tick-host relationships. 3. the effect of photoperiodic pre-conditioning on the circadian rhythm of "drop-off" of engorged pre-imaginal stages of the tick hyalomma excavatum (koch, 1844) from the gerbil--meriones tristrami. 19744151041
effect of medium supplements on tick cells in culture.the growth of tick cells in leibovitz's l--15 medium supplemented with various concentrations of fetal bovine serum (fbs), tryptose phosphate broth (tpb), and tick egg extract (tee) was evaluated using a protein assay. a continuous cell line from rhipicephalus appendiculatus (ra 243) was compared with young lines of cells isolated from embryos of r. appendiculatus (rae 25) and rhipicephalus sanguineus (rse 8). we found fetal bovine serum and tryptose phosphate broth both to be essential suppleme ...19827131199
preparation of suspensions of hyalomma excavatum ticks infected with theileria annulata.partially engorged adult hyalomma excavatum ticks infected with theileria annulata were reared for the preparation of an infective suspension. about 6000 partially engorged infected adults were obtained from 420 non-infective adult ticks. the entire cycle required about 4 months. six rabbits were used for the production of the fully engorged females. the larvae were fed on 180 gerbils, the nymphs on 17 infected calves and the partially fed adults on 22 goats, 7 sheep and 7 rabbits the adult tick ...19836419443
the seasonal occurrence of ticks (acari: ixodidae) on sheep and in the field in the judean area of israel.a 2 year survey of ixodid ticks in the judean area of israel between 1983 and 1985 showed that sheep were parasitized by the following species: rhipicephalus sanguineus group (30.6%), rhipicephalus bursa (25.3%), haemaphysalis cretica (20.5%), haemaphysalis otophila (20.1%) and hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (3.1%). three other species, hyalomma marginatum rufipes, boophilus annulatus and amblyomma lepidum were also present but in very low numbers. a total of 50,816 specimens (78.1% adult ticks) ...19968746133
relative infectivity of theileria annulata (dchunkovsky and luhs, 1904) stabilates derived from female and male hyalomma excavatum (koch, 1844) ticks.partially engorged female and male hyalomma excavatum ticks infected with theileria annulata were triturated separately in eagle's minimum essential medium complemented with fetal calf serum. glycerol was added to the supernatant obtained after centrifugation and the material was frozen at -79 degrees c. infectivity of the stabilate was titrated by inoculating susceptible calves with dilutions of the material. stabilate prepared from female ticks was considerably more infective on a per tick bas ...19826808758
water vapour uptake from subsaturated atmospheres by engorged immature ixodid ticks.contrary to current opinion, fully engorged and detached larvae and nymphs of some ixodid ticks consistently take up substantial amounts of atmospheric water vapour and thereby display their regulative capacity for maintaining water balance in subsaturated air. net uptake of vapour generally begins some days after detachment and the capability persists until shortly after initiation of apolysis, a period which in diapausing specimens may extend up to several months. this was shown for ixodes ric ...19883378463
arthropod parasites of nubian ibexes (capra ibex nubiana) and gazelles (gazella gazella) in a 20-year survey the following ectoparasites were collected from nubian ibexes: larvae of an unidentified oestrus sp. collected from the nasal cavities, sinuses and horns, hippoboscid flies (lipoptena chalcomelaena) specific to the nubian ibex, blood sucking lice (linognathus africanus) and unidentified biting lice (damalinia sp.). ibexes were severely infested with the cattle tick, boophilus annulatus; a few hyalomma anatolicum excavatum ticks were also collected. in five ibexes kept in two ...199910392972
[electron microscope studies on development stages of theileria annulata (dschunkowsky, luhs, 1904) in the intestine and haemolymph of hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (koch, 1844) (author's transl)].for the first time developmental stages of theileria within the intestine and haemolymph of ticks were studied by electron microscopy. on the 1st-6th day post repletionem the intestine of the ticks contained humerous tages, which were very similar to microgamonts and microgametes of haemosporidia. later, on the 14th-19th day p.r. ookinete-like stages ere found in the haemolymph of ticks. from these results it seemed likely that gamogony of theileria takes place in the intestine of ticks. in more ...1975814733
[light microscopic studies on the development of theileria annulata (dschunkowsky and luhs, 1904) in hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (koch, 1844). i. the development in the gut of engorged nymphs (author's transl)].a laboratory strain of h. a. excavatum was selected on high susceptibility for t. annulata through several generations. giemsa-stained smears and wet smears of gut and gut content were studied. after engorgement of erythrocytic stages of t. annulata by the nymphs the following development was observed: 1. erythrocytic merozoites developed to slender, spindleshaped "microgamonts" in the gut 24 to 96 hours after repletion (p. repl.). spherical stages with a conspicuous spike developed at the same ...1975814732
on the life cycle of theileria annulata (dschunkowsky and luhs, 1904) in the midgut and hemolymph of hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (koch, 1844). 1975810989
experimental transmission of field anaplasma marginale and the a. centrale vaccine strain by hyalomma excavatum, rhipicephalus sanguineus and rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus ticks.the cattle rickettsia anaplasma marginale is distributed worldwide and is transmitted by about 20 tick species, but only rhipicephalus simus, a strictly african tick species, has been shown to transmit the vaccine strain of a. centrale. the aim of the present study was to examine transmission of field strains of a. marginale and of the vaccine strain of a. centrale by three tick species -hyalomma excavatum, rhipicephalus sanguineus and rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus - to susceptible calves. ...200918823724
characterization of the glycoproteins of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus.crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) virus is the cause of an important tick-borne disease of humans throughout regions of africa, europe, and asia. like other members of the genus nairovirus, family bunyaviridae, the cchf virus m genome rna segment encodes the virus glycoproteins. sequence analysis of the cchf virus (matin strain) m rna segment revealed one major open reading frame that potentially encodes a precursor polyprotein 1,689 amino acids (aa) in length. comparison of the deduced ami ...200212072526
reverse genetics for crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus.the widespread geographical distribution of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) virus (more than 30 countries) and its ability to produce severe human disease with high mortality rates (up to 60%) make cchf a major public health concern worldwide. we describe here the successful establishment of a reverse genetics technology for cchf virus, a member of the genus nairovirus, family bunyaviridae: the rna polymerase i (pol i) system was used to generate artificial viral rna genome segments (mini ...200312719591
mortality rate of adult ticks due to infection by entomopathogenic nematodes.the mortality of boophilus annulatus, hyalomma excavatum, rhipicephalus bursa, and rhipicephalus sanguineus adult ticks was recorded after their exposure in petri dishes to 5 entomopathogenic nematode strains. the strains used were dt and mexican of steinernema carpocapsae, hb hp88 of heterorhabditis bacteriophora, and is-3 and is-5 of heterorhabditis sp. the most rapid killing rates (lt50 and lt90) were observed for b. annulatus ticks (0.8-5.0 days). most unfed males died 0.3-2.8 days after the ...200010958439
simultaneous detection of "rickettsia mongolotimonae" in a patient and in a tick in greece.rickettsia conorii, a spotted fever group rickettsia which is transmitted by rhipicephalus sp. complex ticks, was considered until now the only pathogenic rickettsia prevalent in greece. here, we report the presence of "rickettsia mongolotimonae" (proposed name) detected simultaneously in a patient and in a hyalomma anatolicum excavatum tick, sampled on the patient.200516000506
cellular localization and antigenic characterization of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus glycoproteins.crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv), a member of the genus nairovirus of the family bunyaviridae, causes severe disease with high rates of mortality in humans. the cchfv m rna segment encodes the virus glycoproteins g(n) and g(c). to understand the processing and intracellular localization of the cchfv glycoproteins as well as their neutralization and protection determinants, we produced and characterized monoclonal antibodies (mabs) specific for both g(n) and g(c). using these mabs, w ...200515858000
intracellular localization of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) virus glycoproteins.crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv), a member of the genus nairovirus, family bunyaviridae, is a tick-borne pathogen causing severe disease in humans. to better understand the cchfv life cycle and explore potential intervention strategies, we studied the biosynthesis and intracellular targeting of the glycoproteins, which are encoded by the m genome segment.200515850490
egyptian fever of cattle the transmission of theileria annulata (dzchunkowsky & luhz 1904) by hyalomma excavatum, koch, 1884. 195114911217
[maintenance of coxiella burnetii in nature by the association of the wild rabbit, oryctolagus cuniculus (l), and the tick, hyalomma excavatum c. l. k..]. 195313094841
association of pathogen strain-specific gene transcription and transmission efficiency phenotype of anaplasma marginale.efficient transmission of pathogens by an arthropod vector is influenced by the ability of the pathogen to replicate and develop infectiousness within the arthropod host. while the basic life cycle of development within and transmission from the arthropod vector are known for many bacterial and protozoan pathogens, the determinants of transmission efficiency are largely unknown and represent a significant gap in our knowledge. the st. maries strain of anaplasma marginale is a high-transmission-e ...201020308303
rickettsial agents in egyptian ticks collected from domestic assess the presence of rickettsial pathogens in ticks from egypt, we collected ticks from domestic and peridomestic animals between june 2002 and july 2003. dna extracts from 1019 ticks were tested, using pcr and sequencing, for anaplasma spp., bartonella spp., coxiella burnetii, ehrlichia spp., and rickettsia spp. ticks included: 29 argas persicus, 10 hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, 55 hyalomma anatolicum excavatum, 174 hyalomma dromedarii, 2 hyalomma impeltatum, 3 hyalomma marginatum rufipe ...200617004028
ultrastructural demonstration of succinic dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase activity in sporozoites of babesia ovis and theileria annulata (apicomplexa: piroplasmea) in salivary glands of tick vectors (rhipicephalus bursa, hyalomma anatolicum excavatum).salivary gland stages ("sporozoites") of babesia ovis and theileria annulata (apicomplexa: piroplasmea) in female ixodid ticks were studied for ultracytochemical activity of the respiratory enzymes, succinic dehydrogenase (sdh), and cytochrome oxidase. both sdh and cytochrome oxidase were demonstrated in the sporozoites and the mitochondria in these stages. identified in this way the final reaction product of sdh was located mainly at the inner side of the mitochondrial boundary, though it was a ...19806260921
prevalence of ixodid ticks on cattle in mazandaran province, iran.a survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence of hard tick species (acari: ixodidae) on cattle in mazandaran province, iran. a total of 953 ticks were collected from 86 infested cattle during activating seasons of ticks during 2004-2005. nine species were identified: boophilus annulatus (51.3%), rhipicephalus bursa (16.8%), haemaphysalis punctata (6.3%), ixodes ricinus (6.8%), hyalomma marginatum (12.5%), hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (5.2%), hyalomma asiaticum (0.6%), hyalomma detritum ...200718165714
crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus glycoprotein precursor is cleaved by furin-like and ski-1 proteases to generate a novel 38-kilodalton glycoprotein.crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (genus nairovirus, family bunyaviridae) genome m segment encodes an unusually large (in comparison to members of other genera) polyprotein (1,684 amino acids in length) containing the two major structural glycoproteins, gn and gc, that are posttranslationally processed from precursors pregn and pregc by ski-1 and ski-1-like proteases, respectively. the characteristics of the n-terminal 519 amino acids located upstream of the mature gn are unknown. a highly c ...200616352575
[differentiation of closely related species hyalomma anatolicum and h. excavatum (acari: ixodidae) based on a study of all life cycle stages, throughout entire geographical range].species status is stated for hyalomma anatolicum and h. excavatum, based on numerous material from the territory of their distribution. the differentiation of species is recovered for all stages of the life cycle. diagnosis of hyalomma anatolicum. female: small tick--length of scutum commonly less than 2 mm; width of scutum commonly less than 1.9 mm; color of scutum, gnathosoma and coxae light, yellowish- or reddish-brown; whitish enameled pigment on scutum absent; posterolateral ledges of scutu ...200314515505
flying ticks: anciently evolved associations that constitute a risk of infectious disease spread.ticks are important vectors of emerging zoonotic diseases affecting human and animal health worldwide. ticks are often found on wild birds, which have been long recognized as a potential risk factor for dissemination of ticks and tick-borne pathogens (tbp), thus raising societal concerns and prompting research into their biology and ecology. to fully understand the role of birds in disseminating some ticks species and tbp, it is important to consider the evolutionary relationships between birds, ...201526467109
rickettsia africae and candidatus rickettsia barbariae in ticks in israel.dna of several spotted fever group rickettsiae was found in ticks in israel. the findings include evidence for the existence of rickettsia africae and candidatus rickettsia barbariae in ticks in israel. the dna of r. africae was detected in a hyalomma detritum tick from a wild boar and dna of c. rickettsia barbariae was detected in rhipicephalus turanicus and rhipicephalus sanguineus collected from vegetation. the dna of rickettsia massiliae was found in rh. sanguineus and haemaphysalis erinacei ...201424615133
demonstration of strain-specific cd8 t cell responses to theileria annulata.the present study set out to examine the nature and specificity of the bovine cd8 t cell response at the clonal level in a group of eight animals immunized with a cloned population of theileria annulata. the results demonstrated that immunized animals generated parasite-specific cd8 t cells that produced ifn in response to parasite stimulation but had highly variable levels of cytotoxicity for parasitized cells. the study also demonstrated that these parasite-specific cd8 t cells could be propag ...200818498311
ovarian tumor domain-containing viral proteases evade ubiquitin- and isg15-dependent innate immune responses.ubiquitin (ub) and interferon-stimulated gene product 15 (isg15) reversibly conjugate to proteins and mediate important innate antiviral responses. the ovarian tumor (otu) domain represents a superfamily of predicted proteases found in eukaryotic, bacterial, and viral proteins, some of which have ub-deconjugating activity. we show that the otu domain-containing proteases from nairoviruses and arteriviruses, two unrelated groups of rna viruses, hydrolyze ub and isg15 from cellular target proteins ...200718078692
cattle infestation by hyalomma ticks and prevalence of theileria in hyalomma species in the east of turkey.a total of 2388 cattle and 442 shelters, from two provinces (elazig and malatya) endemic for tropical theileriosis in the east of turkey, were studied for hyalomma tick populations from july 1993 to july 1995 in elazig and from may 1998 to january 1999 in malatya. four thousand five hundred and eighty one of 7455 hyalomma ticks were collected from cattle, the other ticks (2874) were collected from shelters. all of the ticks collected from shelters were hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum. two thousan ...200415036571
biological activities of chamomile (matricaria chamomile) flowers' extract against the survival and egg laying of the cattle fever tick (acari ixodidae).in the present work, the potential of acaricidal activity of chamomile flowers' extract was studied against engorged rhipicephalus annulatus tick under laboratory condition. for this purpose, the engorged females of rhipicephalus annulatus were exposed to two-fold serial dilutions of chamomile flowers' extract (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 4.0% and 8.0%) using "dipping method" in vitro. the engorged ticks were immersed in different plant dilutions (five ticks for each dilution) for 1 min and they were imme ...200717726752
prevalence of ixodid ticks on cattle and sheep southeast of iran.a survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence of hard tick species (acari: ixodidae) on cattle and sheep southeast of iran. a total of 972 ticks were collected from 280 infested cattle and 1,207 ticks were collected from 632 infested sheep during activating seasons of ticks in 2008-2009. the species collected from cattle were hyalomma marginatum marginatum (50.92%), hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (25.61%), hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (8.12%), hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum (1.85%), and ...201021113660
theileria annulata and babesia ovis: ultracytochemical lactic dehydrogenase activity of sporozoites in salivary glands of female ticks, hyalomma anatolicum excavatum and rhipicephalus bursa. 19826806115
mass-rearing devices for hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (acari: ixodidae) on calves and rodents exposed to whole-body infestation. 19827120298
the susceptibility of different species and stages of ticks to entomopathogenic fungi.boophilus annulatus, hyalomma excavatum and rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks were shown to be susceptible to different entomopathogenic fungi under laboratory conditions. comparative results of bioassays using five different fungal species showed that some strains of metarhizium anisopliae are highly pathogenic against various tick stages tested. in contrast to to their activity against insects, fungi also affected tick eggs. all tested tick stages including those feeding on a host were found to b ...200214570142
a study about tick vectors of bovine theileriosis in an endemic region of iran.the aim of this study was to determine the population of ticks in infected cattle and to identify the tick vectors of bovine theileriosis in an endemic area of iran from 1998 to 1999. a total of 120 suspected cattle suffering from theileriosis were clinically examined and investigated for the presence of theileria annulata in blood smears and the presence of any tick species on the body of cattle. in this study, 680 ticks were collected from 107 cattle infected with t. annulata. the prevalence o ...200314629004
detection and identification of ehrlichia spp. in ticks collected in tunisia and morocco.a broad-range 16s rrna gene pcr assay followed by partial sequencing of the 16s rrna gene was used for the detection of members of the family anaplasmataceae in ticks in north africa. a total of 418 questing ixodes ricinus ticks collected in tunisia and morocco, as well as 188 rhipicephalus ticks from dogs and 52 hyalomma ticks from bovines in tunisia, were included in this study. of 324 adult i. ricinus ticks, 16.3% were positive for ehrlichia spp., whereas only 3.4 and 2.8% of nymphs and larva ...200515750072
identification of tick-borne pathogens in ticks feeding on humans in turkey.the importance of tick-borne diseases is increasing all over the world, including turkey. the tick-borne disease outbreaks reported in recent years and the abundance of tick species and the existence of suitable habitats increase the importance of studies related to the epidemiology of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in turkey. the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of and to determine the infection rates of some tick-borne pathogens, including babesia spp., borrelia burgdorferi se ...201425101999
control of theileria annulata in iran.tropical theileriosis or mediterranean coast fever - caused by theileria annulata - is a disease of cattle widely distributed across southern europe, north africa and central asia. its distribution broadly corresponds with that of its main ixodid tick vectors hyalomma excavatum and h. detritum (fig. 1). 'exotic' cattle (bos taurus) are particularly susceptible with mortalities up to 40-80% in some areas, whereas indigenous cattle (b. indicus) generally suffer much lower mortalities (about 10%) c ...198815463034
morphological and molecular identification of the brown dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus and the camel tick hyalomma dromedarii (acari: ixodidae) vectors of rickettsioses in egypt.rickettsioses have an epidemiological importance that includes pathogens, vectors, and hosts. the dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus and the camel tick hyalomma dromedarii play important roles as vectors and reservoirs of rickettsiae. the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of rickettsiae in ixodid ticks species infesting dogs and camels in egypt, in addition to, the morphological and molecular identification of r. sanguineus and h. dromedarii.201627847418
crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus in livestock ticks and animal handler seroprevalence at an abattoir in ghana.crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv) is a zoonotic virus transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) disease in humans with up to 50 % mortality rate.201627392037
assessment of theileria equi and babesia caballi infections in equine populations in egypt by molecular, serological and hematological approaches.equine piroplasmosis (ep) caused by theileria equi, babesia caballi, or both, contributes to significant economic loss in the equine industry and remains uncontrolled in egypt. this study focuses on surveying t. equi and b. caballi infections and hematological disorders in equine populations in egypt.201627146413
genomic characterization of yogue, kasokero, issyk-kul, keterah, gossas, and thiafora viruses: nairoviruses naturally infecting bats, shrews, and ticks.the genus nairovirus of arthropod-borne bunyaviruses includes the important emerging human pathogen, crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv), as well as nairobi sheep disease virus and many other poorly described viruses isolated from mammals, birds, and ticks. here, we report genome sequence analysis of six nairoviruses: thiafora virus (tfav) that was isolated from a shrew in senegal; yogue (yogv), kasokero (kkov), and gossas (gosv) viruses isolated from bats in senegal and uganda; issyk- ...201526324724
crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus activates endothelial cells.crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv) causes viral hemorrhagic fever with high case fatality rates and is geographically widely distributed. . due to the requirement of a biosafety level 4 (bsl-4) laboratory and the lack of an animal model, the knowledge behind the pathogenesis of this virus is limited. crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) is characterized by hemorrhage and vascular permeability indicating the involvement of endothelial cells in pathogenesis. the interplay between ecs ...201121632768
a molecular survey of theileria and babesia parasites in cattle, with a note on the distribution of ticks in tunisia.between october and november 2006, a total of 278 bovine blood samples were examined, and 104 (37.4%) were positive for piroplasms by microscopy. a reverse line blot hybridisation with polymerase chain reaction detected theileria annulata, t. buffeli, babesia bovis and b. bigemina in cattle accounting for 48.6% of positive samples. the most frequently found species was t. buffeli, which was present in 39.2% of the samples. t. annulata was found in 48 samples (17.3%). babesia infections were less ...200818458949
tick-borne diseases in turkey: a review based on one health perspective.the importance of tick-borne diseases is increasing all over the world, including turkey. global warming, environmental and ecological changes and the existence of suitable habitats increase the impact of ticks and result in frequent emergence or re-emergence of tick-borne diseases (tbds) with zoonotic characteristics. in turkey, almost 19 tbds have been reported in animals and men, involving four protozoa (babesiosis, theileriosis, cytauxzoonosis, hepatozoonosis), one filarial nematode (acantho ...201627977689
molecular survey of anaplasma species in small ruminants reveals the presence of novel strains closely related to a. phagocytophilum in tunisia.a survey of anaplasma species in small ruminants is still lacking in north african countries. in this study, the presence of a. phagocytophilum, a. phagocytophilum-related species, and a. ovis was investigated in a total of 563 healthy small ruminants (303 goats and 260 sheep), from 25 randomly selected flocks sampled in tunisia. anaplasma spp. and a. ovis overall infection rates were 95.0% and 93.8% in sheep and 69.6% and 65.3% in goats, respectively. a. phagocytophilum was not detected in any ...201526394065
tick-borne bacteria in mouflons and their ectoparasites in cyprus.the cypriot mouflon (ovis orientalis ophion), a once almost extirpated species of wild sheep, is under strict surveillance because it can be threatened by likely transmission of pathogenic bacteria, such as anaplasma spp., rickettsia spp., and coxiella burnetii, primarily from domestic ungulates. we collected 77 blood samples from cypriot mouflons and 663 of their ectoparasites (rhipicephalus turanicus, rhipicephalus sanguineus, rhipicephalus bursa, hyalomma anatolicum excavatum, hyalomma margin ...201121441182
hard ticks on one-humped camel (camelus dromedarius) and their seasonal population dynamics in southeast, iran.the primary objective of this study was to determine the diversity and intensity of ticks found on camels (camelus dromedarius) and their seasonal population dynamics in kerman, southeast of iran. for this purpose, a total of 426 tick specimens were collected from 217 infested camels in southeast of iran during activating seasons of ticks (april 2009 to march 2010). the species collected from camel were hyalomma dromedarii (84.7%), hyalomma marginatum (8.7%), hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (5.4%) ...201121720786
biogeography of tick-borne bhanja virus (bunyaviridae) in europe.bhanja virus (bhav) is pathogenic for young domestic ruminants and also for humans, causing fever and affections of the central nervous system. this generally neglected arbovirus of the family bunyaviridae is transmitted by metastriate ticks of the genera haemaphysalis, dermacentor, hyalomma, rhipicephalus, boophilus, and amblyomma. geographic distribution of bhav covers southern and central asia, africa, and southern (partially also central) europe. comparative biogeographic study of eight know ...201020182535
update on tick-borne rickettsioses around the world: a geographic approach.tick-borne rickettsioses are caused by obligate intracellular bacteria belonging to the spotted fever group of the genus rickettsia. these zoonoses are among the oldest known vector-borne diseases. however, in the past 25 years, the scope and importance of the recognized tick-associated rickettsial pathogens have increased dramatically, making this complex of diseases an ideal paradigm for the understanding of emerging and reemerging infections. several species of tick-borne rickettsiae that wer ...024092850
a global genomic characterization of nairoviruses identifies nine discrete genogroups with distinctive structural characteristics and host-vector associations.nairoviruses are primarily tick-borne bunyaviruses, some of which are known to cause mild-to-severe febrile illness in humans or livestock. we describe the genome sequences of 11 poorly characterized nairoviruses that have ecological associations with either birds (farallon, punta salinas, sapphire ii, zirqa, avalon, clo mor, taggert, and abu hammad viruses), rodents (qalyub and bandia viruses), or camels (dera ghazi khan virus). global phylogenetic analyses of proteins encoded in the l, m, and ...201626903607
climate niches of tick species in the mediterranean region: modeling of occurrence data, distributional constraints, and impact of climate this study, we used ecological niche factor analysis (enfa) and principal components analysis (pca) of climate variables to define the climate niches and areas of potential colonization of six species of ticks in the mediterranean region: dermacentor marginatus sulzer, rhipicephalus bursa canestrini & fanzago, rhipicephalus turanicus pomerantsev, matikashvili & lototsky, hyalomma marginatum koch, hyalomma excavatum koch, and boophilus annulatus (say). enfa generated distribution models that v ...200718047215
comments on controversial tick (acari: ixodida) species names and species described or resurrected from 2003 to 2008.there are numerous discrepancies in recent published lists of the ticks of the world. here we review the controversial names, presenting evidence for or against their validity and excluding some altogether. we also address spelling errors and present a list of 17 species described or resurrected during the years 2003-2008. we consider the following 35 tick species names to be invalid: argas fischeri audouin, 1826, ornithodoros boliviensis kohls and clifford, 1964, ornithodoros steini (schulze, 1 ...200919169832
spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks collected from wild animals in israel.we report molecular evidence for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae (sfgr) in ticks collected from roe deer, addax, red foxes, and wild boars in israel. rickettsia aeschlimannii was detected in hyalomma marginatum and hyalomma detritum while rickettsia massiliae was present in rhipicephalus turanicus ticks. furthermore, a novel uncultured sfgr was detected in haemaphysalis adleri and haemaphysalis parva ticks from golden jackals. the pathogenicity of the novel sfgr for humans is unk ...201122049050
pathogenicity of metarhizium anisopliae (hypocreales: clavicipitaceae) to tick eggs and the effect of egg cuticular lipids on conidia development.the ovicidal efficacy of two entomopathogenic hyphomycetes fungi--metarhizium anisopliae variety acridum (m. an. ac.) driver and milner (hypocreales: clavicipitaceae) and metarhizium anisopliae variety anisopliae (m. an. an.) (metschn.) sorokin (hypocreales: clavicipitaceae)--was evaluated against eggs of three tick species (acari: ixodidae)--hyalomma excavatum (koch), rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus (say), and rhipicephalus sanguineus (latereille)--by placing eggs, laid by surface-sterilize ...200919496424
propagation of the israeli vaccine strain of anaplasma centrale in tick cell lines.anaplasma centrale has been used in cattle as a live blood vaccine against the more pathogenic anaplasma marginale for over 100 years. while a. marginale can be propagated in vitro in tick cell lines, facilitating studies on antigen production, immunisation and vector-pathogen interaction, to date there has been no in vitro culture system for a. centrale. in the present study, 25 cell lines derived from 13 ixodid tick species were inoculated with the israeli vaccine strain of a. centrale and mon ...201526210950
novel technique for quantifying adhesion of metarhizium anisopliae conidia to the tick cuticle.the present study describes an accurate quantitative method for quantifying the adherence of conidia to the arthropod cuticle and the dynamics of conidial germination on the host. the method was developed using conidia of metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (metschn.) sorokin (hypocreales: clavicipitaceae) and engorged rhipicephalus annulatus (say) (arachnida: ixodidae) females and was also verified for m. anisopliae var. acridum driver et milner (hypocreales: clavicipitaceae) and alphitobius ...201020363785
action on the surface: entomopathogenic fungi versus the insect cuticle.infections mediated by broad host range entomopathogenic fungi represent seminal observations that led to one of the first germ theories of disease and are a classic example of a co-evolutionary arms race between a pathogen and target hosts. these fungi are able to parasitize susceptible hosts via direct penetration of the cuticle with the initial and potentially determining interaction occurring between the fungal spore and the insect epicuticle. entomogenous fungi have evolved mechanisms for a ...201326462424
neem oil and crop protection: from now to the future.a major challenge of agriculture is to increase food production to meet the needs of the growing world population, without damaging the environment. in current agricultural practices, the control of pests is often accomplished by means of the excessive use of agrochemicals, which can result in environmental pollution and the development of resistant pests. in this context, biopesticides can offer a better alternative to synthetic pesticides, enabling safer control of pest populations. however, l ...201627790224
identification of a novel uncultured rickettsia species strain (rickettsia species strain tselenti) in a previous study conducted in cyprus, various spotted fever group rickettsia species were detected and identified in ticks by molecular analysis. among them, a partially characterized rickettsia species was detected in hyalomma anatolicum excavatum and rhipicephalus turanicus ticks. we report characterization of this rickettsial strain by using polymerase chain reaction sequencing analysis of partial citrate synthase a, outer membrane protein a, outer membrane protein b, and 17-kd protein gen ...201323438767
serological and virological evidence of crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever virus circulation in the human population of borno state, northeastern nigeria.despite several studies on the seroprevalence of antibodies against crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv) from humans and cattle in nigeria, detailed investigation looking at igg and igm have not been reported. additionally, there have been no confirmed cases of human cchfv infection reported from nigeria.201627926935
native strains of beauveria bassiana for the control of rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato.rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks are widespread worldwide due to their adaptability to survive under different environmental conditions. they may act as vectors of a wide range of pathogens to humans and animals and their control is based on the use of chemical products on dogs and in the environment. alternative control strategies, such as the use of entomopathogenic fungi as bio-control agents have also been investigated. the ability of native strains of beauveria bassiana sensu lato ...201525651851
prevalence of tick infestation in dromedary camels (camelus dromedarius) brought for slaughter in mashhad abattoir, iran.this study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of tick infestation and identify tick species that parasitize dromedary camels. since april 2012 through march 2013, a total of 400 camels that brought for slaughter in mashhad abattoir were examined for tick infestation. out of the total 400 camels examined, 237 were infested and annual prevalence of tick infestation 59.25 % (95 % ci 54-64) was calculated. the higher prevalence rates were found in the summer and spring, especially the sum ...201326345051
acaricidal activity of ethanolic extract from aerial parts of tagetes patula l. (asteraceae) against larvae and engorged adult females of rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806).the tick rhipicephalus sanguineus is the species with the largest worldwide distribution and is proven to be involved in the transmission of pathogens such as babesia canis, ehrlichia canis, coxiella burnetii, rickettsia ricketsii, rickettsia conorii, among others. studies have demonstrated acquisition of resistance to some of the active principles used in commercial formulations of acaricides. tagetes patula (asteraceae) is a plant with highlighted economic and commercial importance due to the ...201223244493
basolateral entry and release of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus in polarized mdck-1 cells.crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv) is an etiological agent of a disease with mortality rates in patients averaging 30%. the disease is characterized by fever, myalgia, and hemorrhage. mechanisms underlying the hemorrhage have to our knowledge not been elucidated for cchfv. possibly, a direct or indirect viral effect on tight junctions (tj) could cause the hemorrhage observed in patients, as tj play a crucial role in vascular homeostasis and can cause leakage upon deregulation. moreove ...200717166898
importance of ticks and their chemical and immunological control in livestock.the medical and economic importance of ticks has long been recognized due to their ability to transmit diseases to humans and animals. ticks cause great economic losses to livestock, and adversely affect livestock hosts in several ways. loss of blood is a direct effect of ticks acting as potential vector for haemo-protozoa and helminth parasites. blood sucking by large numbers of ticks causes reduction in live weight and anemia among domestic animals, while their bites also reduce the quality of ...017048307
crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus in ticks collected from humans, livestock, and picnic sites in the hyperendemic region of turkey.abstract during june and july 2007, about 3125 adult ticks were collected from humans, animals, and vegetation in a hyperendemic region (sivas and tokat) of turkey. a total of 2193 ticks were pooled in 225 pools and screened for the crimean congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv) presence by antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. infection rates were calculated as the maximum likelihood estimation with 95% confidence intervals (ci). the dominant tick species was found to be hyalomma ma ...201121736490
dynamics of digestive proteolytic system during blood feeding of the hard tick ixodes ricinus.abstract:201021156061
a survey of ixodid tick species and molecular identification of tick-borne pathogens.this study was undertaken in two different climatic areas of turkey to determine the presence of tick-borne pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. the ticks were removed from humans, pooled according to species and developmental stages, and analyzed by pcr, reverse line blot (rlb) and sequencing. of the 2333 removed ticks from 10 species, 1238 (53.06%) were obtained from the arid cold zone, and the remaining 1095 (46.93%) were obtained from the humid zone. the removed ticks were identif ...201424424312
evaluation of prognostic values of tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever patients.crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) is a widespread disease in turkey, and was responsible for many deaths in endemic regions during the last decade. the pathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood yet.201526587219
prevalence of ixodid tick infestation of sheep in the arasbaran region of iran.this survey was carried out in sheep herds of arasbaran region in northwest of iran. the aims of this survey were assessment of occurrence hard ticks on sheep in this region and speciation and identification of detached ticks from sheep. in addition determination of tick distribution on sheep body surface was studied. in this study 330 sheep were examined and ticks from infested animals were collected. in parasitological laboratory speciation of ticks were done by stereomicroscope and using of t ...201224082534
molecular and serological detection of theileria equi and babesia caballi infection in horses and ixodid ticks in iran.equine piroplasmosis is a hemoprotozoan tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution that is caused by theileria equi and babesia caballi. however, the geographical distribution of equine piroplasmosis in iran is unknown. the aim of the current study was to determine the causative agents and vector ticks of equine piroplasmosis in horses in the north khorasan province. in the year 2011, 100 horses were randomly selected from 14 villages. blood samples and ixodid ticks were collected and examin ...201424556274
prevalence and genetic diversity of piroplasm species in horses and ticks from tunisia.the genetic diversity and prevalence of babesia and theileria species in the equine population of tunisia were studied using reverse line blot (rlb) hybridization on blood samples and unfed adult ticks collected from apparently healthy horses from three bioclimatic zones in tunisia. piroplasms were identified in 13 of 104 of the horse blood samples analyzed (12.5%) and five genotype groups were identified: theileria equi group a (nine animals, 8.7%), group c (one animal, 1.0%) and group d (three ...201323542456
detection of bartonella tamiae, coxiella burnetii and rickettsiae in arthropods and tissues from wild and domestic animals in northeastern recent years, the scope and importance of emergent vector-borne diseases has increased dramatically. in algeria, only limited information is currently available concerning the presence and prevalence of these zoonotic diseases. for this reason, we conducted a survey of hematophagous ectoparasites of domestic mammals and/or spleens of wild animals in el tarf and souk ahras, algeria.201626791781
association of environmental traits with the geographic ranges of ticks (acari: ixodidae) of medical and veterinary importance in the western palearctic. a digital data set.we compiled information on the distribution of ticks in the western palearctic (11°w, 45°e; 29°n, 71°n), published during 1970-2010. the literature search was filtered by the tick's species name and an unambiguous reference to the point of capture. records from some curated collections were included. we focused on tick species of importance to human and animal health, in particular: ixodes ricinus, dermacentor marginatus, d. reticulatus, haemaphysalis punctata, h. sulcata, hyalomma marginatum, h ...201222843316
spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks in two surveys conducted from march 1999 to march 2001 and from january 2004 to december 2006, a total of 3,950 ticks (belonging to ten different species) were collected from seven domestic and wild animals (goat, sheep, cattle, dog, fox, hare, and mouflon) from different localities throughout cyprus. in order to establish their infection rate with spotted fever rickettsiae (sfg), ticks were pooled and tested by polymerase chain reaction targeting glta and ompa genes, followed by sequencing anal ...201121833539
molecular detection of rickettsia africae, rickettsia aeschlimannii, and rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae in camels and hyalomma spp. ticks from this study, we aimed to identify and genetically characterize spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae in ticks, domestic one-humped camels, and horses from farms and bedouin communities in southern israel. a total of 618 ixodid ticks (hyalomma dromedarii, hyalomma turanicum, hyalomma excavatum, and hyalomma impeltatum) collected from camels and horses, as well as 152 blood samples from 148 camels and four horses were included in the study. initial screening for rickettsiae was carried out by ta ...201324107206
metarhizium anisopliae conidial responses to lipids from tick cuticle and tick mammalian host surface.conidial germination and the formation of appressoria are important events in the interactions between entomopathogenic fungi and their arthropod hosts. in this study, we demonstrate the effects of lipids extracted from tick epicuticle and the surface of a mammalian host (calf) on conidial germination and the development of appressoria in two subspecies of metarhizium anisopliae, m. anisopliae var. anisopliae ( and m. anisopliae var. acridum (, which have different levels o ...201020036669
molecular detection of spotted fever group rickettsiae associated with ixodid ticks in egypt.tick-borne diseases comprise a complex epidemiological and ecological network that connects the vectors, pathogens, and a group of host species. the aim of this study was to identify bacteria from the genus rickettsia associated with ixodid ticks infesting camels and cows in egypt. ticks were collected from 6 different localities: qina, giza, qalet el nakhl, new valley, el arish, and minufia, from july to october 2008. species were identified using pcr, followed by sequencing. the glta and rompa ...201222217182
scanning electron microscopy and morphometrics of nymph and larva of the tick hyalomma rufipes koch, 1844 (acari: ixodidae).the genus hyalomma comprises the most ixodid tick species that parasitize camels in egypt. although the immature stages of tick species play an important role in distribution of ticks and tick-borne diseases, the identification depends mainly on the adult stage. therefore, this study tries to identify the specific characteristics of both nymph and larva of hyalomma rufipes koch, 1844 using scanning electron microscopy and morphometric analysis in order to differentiate them easily from those of ...201627065590
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