first report of acanthocheilonema spirocauda in the mediterranean monk seal (monachus monachus).the mediterranean monk seal (monachus monachus) is one of the world's most endangered marine mammals. the largest population is located mainly throughout the aegean and ionian islands and along the coastline of southern continental greece. we report the findings of a necropsy and discuss their potential importance to the conservation of the species. the adult female monk seal appeared to be in a good nutritional state. the main necropsy findings were injuries consistent with a violent and sudden ...201020688652
visceral leishmaniosis and parapoxvirus infection in a mediterranean monk seal (monachus monachus).a mediterranean monk seal was shown by immunohistochemical and polymerase chain reaction techniques to be dually infected with a leishmania sp. and parapoxvirus. the pathological findings included a deep ulcer on the side of the head, ulcers on the gingival and inner aspect of the lower lip, enlarged lymph nodes and tonsils, and respiratory lesions (pulmonary consolidation, oedema, haemorrhages and emphysema; tracheal and bronchial congestion, exudates and haemorrhage). amastigotes were demonstr ...200717459405
morbilliviruses in mediterranean monk seals.two morbilliviruses were isolated from mediterranean monk seals (monachus monachus), one from a stranded animal in greece and the other one from carcasses washed ashore during a mass die-off in mauritania. from both viruses n and p gene fragments were sequenced and compared to those of other known morbilliviruses. the monk seal morbilliviruses most closely resembled previously identified cetacean morbilliviruses, indicating that interspecies transmission from cetaceans to pinnipeds has occurred.199910515264
the impact of parasites on marine mammals: a review.the design and implementation of conservation plans for marine mammals is a matter of public concern. however, very little is known about the role of parasites in the dynamics of marine mammal populations. this is probably due to methodological constraints concerning sampling biases, poor knowledge of the biology of the hosts and parasites and difficulty and costy of experimental studies. however, current evidence supports the theory that parasites may regulate marine mammal populations. crassic ...19979802082
prevalence of morbilliviruses among pinniped and cetacean species.since 1987, morbillivirus infections have caused serious disease outbreaks with high mortality among aquatic mammals. baikal seals (phoca sibirica) in siberia were involved in an outbreak caused by a virus closely related to canine distemper virus (cdv) in 1987. harbour seals (phoca vitulina) and grey seals (halichoerus grypus) in north-western europe were struck by a newly recognised morbillivirus of seals (pdv1). a serological survey has indicated that these morbillivirus infections frequently ...19938518442
morbillivirus threat to mediterranean monk seals? 19921557882
identification of morbilliviruses of probable cetacean origin in carcases of mediterranean monk seals (monachus monachus).two morbilliviruses were isolated from carcases of mediterranean monk seals (monachus monachus) which had died in coastal areas of greece and mauritania. they were characterised as being closely related to the previously identified dolphin and porpoise morbilliviruses on the basis of their serological cross-reactivities in immunofluorescence assays, and sequence homologies in their n and p genes. the results suggest that morbilliviruses of aquatic mammals may cross barriers between species of di ...200010887981
molecular systematics of pinniped hookworms (nematoda: uncinaria): species delimitation, host associations and host-induced morphometric variation.hookworms of the genus uncinaria have been widely reported from juvenile pinnipeds, however investigations of their systematics has been limited, with only two species described, uncinaria lucasi from northern fur seals (callorhinus ursinus) and uncinaria hamiltoni from south american sea lions (otaria flavescens). hookworms were sampled from these hosts and seven additional species including steller sea lions (eumetopias jubatus), california sea lions (zalophus californianus), south american fu ...201324162075
the lipid composition of selected tissues from a mediterranean monk seal, monachus monachus.the lipid composition of blubber, brain, muscle and heart from a mediterranean monk seal monachus monachus (an endangered species) were examined to allow comparisons with more common species of seals. only neutral lipids (mainly triacylglycerols) were detectable in the blubber lipids, whereas polar lipids predominated in the heart and in the brain. neutral and polar lipids comprised almost equal proportions in both liver and muscle. choline glycerophospholipids (cgp) were the major polar lipids, ...19947990665
integrating conservation and development at the national marine park of alonissos, northern sporades, greece: perception and practice.available information on the socioeconomic implications of marine protected areas (mpas) for the socioculturally diverse mediterranean region is scant. the national marine park of alonissos, northern sporades (nmpans), greece was established in 1992 as a foundation for the conservation of the endangered mediterranean monk seal monachus monachus. the evolution of the degree of acceptance of and satisfaction from the nmpans by involved stakeholder groups (fishermen, tourism operators, hoteliers an ...200818626688
age classes and sex differences in the skull of the mediterranean monk seal, monachus monachus (hermann, 1779). a study based on bone shape and density.this study analyzes morphometrically 17 skulls of the mediterranean monk seal monachus monachus housed in different italian museums and collections. we considered several morphometric variables (31 linear, 1 volumetric and 1 surface area measurements). in addition, we identified, measured and compared two nonmorphometric variables, namely, the bone densities of selected areas obtained using a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (dxa) device. the high correlation coefficient of all variables indicat ...200919301280
a landmark analysis-based approach to age and sex classification of the skull of the mediterranean monk seal (monachus monachus) (hermann, 1779).this work aimed at applying geometric morphometric analysis techniques to the skull of the mediterranean monk seal (monachus monachus, hermann, 1779). inferential analyses were performed using a non-parameteric permutation framework based on a series of skulls of different age classes belonging to individuals of both sexes. our goal was to establish whether a statistical approach based on osteometric measurements and surface analysis of photographs of the left lateral plane of the skull may lead ...200919694647
biogeography and taxonomy of extinct and endangered monk seals illuminated by ancient dna and skull morphology.extinctions and declines of large marine vertebrates have major ecological impacts and are of critical concern in marine environments. the caribbean monk seal, monachus tropicalis, last definitively reported in 1952, was one of the few marine mammal species to become extinct in historical times. despite its importance for understanding the evolutionary biogeography of southern phocids, the relationships of m. tropicalis to the two living species of critically endangered monk seals have not been ...201424899841
stable isotopes confirm a coastal diet for critically endangered mediterranean monk seals.understanding the ecology and behaviour of endangered species is essential for developing effective management and conservation strategies. we used stable isotope analysis to investigate the foraging behaviour of critically endangered mediterranean monk seals (monachus monachus) in greece. we measured carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (expressed as δ(13)c and δ(15)n values, respectively) derived from the hair of deceased adult and juvenile seals and the muscle of their known prey to quantify th ...201425014121
are mediterranean monk seals, monachus monachus, being left to save themselves from extinction?mediterranean monk seals (monachus monachus), amongst the most endangered marine mammals, are showing localised signs of recovery warranting their recent down-listing, from critically endangered to endangered, on the international union for the conservation of nature (iucn) red list. this, however, cannot be taken as a reason for complacency, as the species' condition is still very critical, having been extirpated from most of its historical range. monk seals within the mediterranean, a 'unit to ...201727770990
trace element concentrations in the mediterranean monk seal (monachus monachus) in the eastern mediterranean sea.the mediterranean monk seal (monachus monachus) is one of the most endangered marine mammals in the world. the biggest sub-population of the species survives in greece, where understanding the effects of pollution on the survival of the species has been identified as a national research and conservation priority. from 1990 to 2013 we collected tissue samples from 59 deceased monk seals in order to: (i) define the concentration of trace elements (as, pb, cd, hg, se, cr, ni) in three different mat ...201727810742
morbillivirus infection in a bottlenosed dolphin and a mediterranean monk seal from the atlantic coast of west africa. 200111266000
low genetic variability in the highly endangered mediterranean monk seal.genetic variability is an important component in the ability of populations to adapt in the face of environmental change. here we report the first description of nuclear genetic variability in the only remaining sizable colony of the mediterranean monk seal (monachus monachus), located at cap blanc (western sahara, mauritania), whose estimated size during the study period (1994-may 1997) was about 320 individuals. we tested 42 microsatellite loci isolated from five pinniped species in a sample o ...200815247308
concentrations and patterns of organochlorine pesticides and pcbs in mediterranean monk seals (monachus monachus) from western sahara and greece.blubber from mediterranean monk seals (monachus monachus) from the western sahara coast (atlantic), sampled during 1996-1999, and from the greek coast (mediterranean), sampled during 1995-1999, was analyzed for organochlorine pollutants (ocs). in both populations, no significant difference was found between sexes. in the atlantic population, mature females presented greater percentages of higher chlorinated pcb (polychlorinated biphenyl) congeners in relation to total pcbs (sum of 25 congeners) ...200717499843
first report of filarial nematodes in free-living pitheciid primates.although little studied, infections with nematodes of the onchocercidae leiper, 1911, predominated by the genera dipetalonema diesing, 1861 and mansonella faust, 1929, are frequent in wild primates and human populations in the neotropical forest areas. this study reports natural infections with dipetalonema freitasi bain, diagne & muller, 1987 and d. gracile (rudolphi, 1809) in two free-living species of pitheciid primates, extending the known geographical distribution of these species to the fo ...201930747402
diversity of late neogene monachinae (carnivora, phocidae) from the north atlantic, with the description of two new species.while the diversity of 'southern seals', or monachinae, in the north atlantic realm is currently limited to the mediterranean monk seal, monachus monachus, their diversity was much higher during the late miocene and pliocene. although the fossil record of monachinae from the north atlantic is mainly composed of isolated specimens, many taxa have been erected on the basis of fragmentary and incomparable specimens. the humerus is commonly considered the most diagnostic postcranial bone. the resear ...201829657825
monk seal mortality: virus or toxin?during the past few months, more than half of the total population of about 300 highly endangered mediterranean monk seals (monachus monachus) on the western saharan coast of africa, died in a mysterious disease outbreak. epizootiological and postmortem findings were reminiscent of similar outbreaks amongst pinniped and cetacean species in recent years, which were caused by an infection with newly discovered morbilliviruses (for review see osterhaus et al.). virological, as well as toxicological ...19989682347
marine mammals in the mediterranean sea: an overview.despite being a small part of the world's oceans, the mediterranean sea hosts a diverse marine mammal fauna, with a total of 28 different species known to occur, or to have occurred, in the region. species currently recognised as regular in the mediterranean-the mediterranean monk seal (monachus monachus) and 11 cetaceans (fin whale, balaenoptera physalus; sperm whale, physeter macrocephalus; cuvier's beaked whale, ziphius cavirostris; short-beaked common dolphin, delphinus delphis; long-finned ...201727770981
identification and quantification of polybrominated hexahydroxanthene derivatives and other halogenated natural products in commercial fish and other marine samples.during routine analysis of commercial fish on halogenated pollutants, an unknown tribromo component (tribhd) was initially detected as an abundant peak in sample extracts from the mediterranean sea. the molecular formula was established to be c16h19br3o by gas chromatography with electron ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (gc/ei-hrms). gc/ei-ms data were virtually identical with a polybrominated hexahydroxanthene derivative (pbhd) previously isolated from an australian sponge species ...200616569057
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