toxoplasmosis in naturally infected deer from brazil.serum samples from 107 cervids were examined for toxoplasma gondii antibodies using indirect hemagglutination (iha), indirect immunofluorescence (ifa), enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and dot-elisa. samples were obtained from 66 marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus) in the state of são paulo (brazil) and from 41 pampas deer (ozotocerus bezoarticus) in the state of goiás (brazil). antibodies to t. gondii were found in 23 (22%) of the deer, with 18 and 5 positive samples, respectively, for ...19979391980
cat flea (ctenocephalides felis) infestation in quarantined marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus) populations.marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus) were captured for a research program in brazil and maintained in quarantine stations. after 60 days, fleas were detected on animals and identified as ctenocephalides felis felis. elimination of the infestation was difficult. animal treatment with a fipronil-based compound was effective, and subsequently captured animals were treated prophylactically. some animals remained infested, and some died from the infestation.200011428409
tuberculosis survey of free-ranging marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus) in brazil.esophageal-pharyngeal fluids from 53 free-ranging marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus) captured for a research program in the state of mato grosso do sul, brazil, were assayed for tuberculosis. total dna was extracted. amplified by polymerase chain reaction using specific primers for mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (m. tuberculosis, m. bovis, m. microti, and m. africanum), and observed by agarose gel electrophoresis stained with ethidium bromide. all samples were negative. this, along with nec ...200315080086
transferability of microsatellite loci from cervidae species to the endangered brazilian marsh deer, blastocerus dichotomus.blastocerus dichotomus, the marsh deer, is the largest brazilian cervidae species. the species is endangered because of hunting and loss of its natural habitat, i.e., flood plain areas, because of hydroelectric power station construction and agricultural land expansion. in the present study, we tested 38 microsatellite loci from four cervidae species: odocoileus virginianus (7), rangifer tarandus (17), capreolus capreolus (7), and mazama bororo (7). eleven loci showed clear amplification, openin ...200717573663
a technique for the capture of free-ranging marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus).the marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus) is an endangered species from the marshlands of central south america. its population has declined in several regions due to the loss of available habitat caused by human activities, especially the construction of hydroelectric dams. the capture of individual deer is critical for research programs and population management. this report describes a novel live-capture technique, which uses a helicopter to drive the animals into a terrain that restricts their ...200819110702
observations of sylvatic rabies in northern argentina during outbreaks of paralytic cattle rabies transmitted by vampire bats (desmodus rotundus).during rabies outbreaks in cattle (paralytic rabies) in argentina associated with the common vampire bat desmodus rotundus, rabies was observed in marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus), red brocket deer (mazama americana), capybara (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), savanna fox (cerdocyon thous), and great fruit-eating bat (artibeus lituratus). rabies could constitute a threat to the survival of marsh deer in places where they live in small groups, and infection of both great fruit-eating bats and savan ...200919901391
[genetic variability in neotropical deer genera (mammalia: cervidae) according to dna microsatellite loci].species conservation programs are highly based on analyses of population genetics. we compared eight neotropical cervidae (mazama americana, m. gouzaoubira, m. rufina, odocoileus virginianus, hippocamelus antisensis, pudu mephistopholes, ozotoceros bezoarticus and blastoceros dichotomus) and some european and asian cervidae (cervus elaphus, c. nippon, capreolus capreolus, c. pygargus and dama dama). the european species c. elaphus was our standard for a high degree of genetic variability: we use ...200919928479
survey for foot-and-mouth disease in the endangered marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus) from marshlands of the parana river basin, brazil.habitat fragmentation and diseases have resulted in a decline of the marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus) throughout its south american range. our objectives were to determine whether marsh deer intended for translocation from a region of the rio paraná basin had been infected previously by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and whether they were carrying virus. we captured marsh deer from june to october 1998 and collected blood from 108 animals and esophageal-pharyngeal fluid from 53. serum wa ...201020688701
prevalence and molecular characterization of anaplasmataceae agents in free-ranging brazilian marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus).anaplasmataceae organisms comprise a group of obligate intracellular gram-negative, tick-borne bacteria that can infect both animals and humans. in the present work we investigate the presence of ehrlichia, anaplasma, and neorickettsia species in blood samples from brazilian marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus), using both molecular and serologic techniques. blood was collected from 143 deer captured along floodplains of the paraná river, near the porto primavera hydroelectric power plant. before ...201222381686
occurrence of antibodies anti -toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and leptospira interrogans in a captive deer herd in southern brazil.a large number of brazilian zoos keep many endangered species of deer, however, very few disease surveillance studies have been conducted among captive cervids. blood samples from 32 brazilian deer (blastocerus dichotomus, mazama nana and mazama americana) kept in captivity at bela vista biological sanctuary (foz do iguaçu, brazil) were investigated for 10 ruminant pathogens, with the aims of monitoring deer health status and evaluating any potential zoonotic risk. deer serum samples were tested ...201526689185
rickettsial infection in animals, humans and ticks in paulicéia, brazil.a previous study in paulicéia municipality, south-eastern brazil, reported 9.7% of the amblyomma triste ticks to be infected by rickettsia parkeri, a bacterial pathogen that causes spotted fever in humans. these a. triste ticks were shown to be associated with marsh areas, where the marsh deer blastocerus dichotomus is a primary host for this tick species. during 2008-2009, blood serum samples were collected from 140 horses, 41 dogs, 5 opossums (didelphis albiventris) and 26 humans in farms from ...201525643912
marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus) reintroduction in the jataí ecological station (luís antônio, sp): spatial preferences.throughout the latter half of the twentieth century, wildlife habitat destruction and species extinctions have greatly increased. as the number of endangered species grows, the use of reintroduction as a conservation tool against species extinction increases. this study focuses on a 16-month study on marsh deer reintroduced in the jataí ecological station. the animals were radio tagged and tracked daily between december 1998 and april 2000. displacement activity and spatial preferences were moni ...200516097728
response of wild mammals to seasonal shrinking-and-expansion of habitats due to flooding regime of the pantanal, brazil.the pantanal is a large savanna wetland (138,183 km2 in brazil), important for its wildlife, fed by tributaries of the upper paraguay river, center of south america (brazil, touching bolivia and paraguay). uplands are plateaus (250-1,200 m high, 215,000 km2 in brazil) and flatland is the pantanal (80-150 m high, 147,574 km2 in brazil). rivers are slow moving when they meet the flatland (slope 0.3-0.5 m/km east-west; 0.03-0.15 m/km north-south), periodically overflowing their banks, creating a co ...200617299935
hematology of free-living marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus) from southeast brazil.this work reports basic hematologic values of a sample of a population of free-living marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus) living by the paraná river in southeast brazil. hematologic values are presented separately for male, female, and young animals as well as for anesthetized and nonanesthetized cervids. nonanesthetized deer restrained by physical means had significantly higher erythrocyte indices and total leukocyte counts. comparisons of blood parameters of anesthetized animals of different a ...200517312766
different responses to doxorubicin-induced chromosome aberrations in brazilian deer species.the tendency toward chromosome fragility is one of the theories that may explain chromosome variation in brocket deer species (genus mazama). we tested doxorubicin as an inducer of chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of three brocket deer species, mazama gouazoubira, m. americana and m. nana, compared to the marsh deer, blastocerus dichotomus. doxorubicin, at a concentration of 0.25 microg/ml, induced chromosome aberrations and fragile sites in all four species; the highest frequencies were se ...201020714996
anatomical description of arterial segments of the spleen of deer.with 2 figures201121426378
evaluation of the marsh deer stifle joint by imaging studies and gross anatomy.this study aimed to evaluate the stifle joint of marsh deer using imaging studies and in comparison with gross anatomy. ten hindlimbs from 5 marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus) were used. radiography, computed tomography (ct) and magnetic resonance imaging (mri) were performed in each stifle joint. two hindlimbs were dissected to describe stifle gross anatomy. the other limbs were sectioned in sagittal, dorsal or transverse planes. in the craniocaudal radiographic view, the lateral femoral condy ...201525376635
dating human occupation at toca do serrote das moendas, são raimundo nonato, piauí-brasil by electron spin resonance and optically stimulated luminescence.excavation of toca do serrote das moendas, in piauí state, brazil revealed a great quantity of fossil wild fauna associated with human remains. in particular, fossils of a cervid (blastocerus dichotomus) were found, an animal frequently pictured in ancient rock wall paintings. in a well-defined stratum, two loose teeth of this species were found in close proximity to human bones. the teeth were independently dated by electron spin resonance (esr) in two laboratories. the ages obtained for the te ...201425456825
natural infection by paramphistomoidea stiles and goldberger, 1910 trematodes in wild marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus illiger, 1815) from sérgio mottas's hydroelectric power station flooding area.studies on helminthfauna of marsh deer blastocerus dichotomus illiger, 1815 are rare, although helminthic diseases are an important cause of mortality in these animals. fifteen male and female adult marsh deer from sergio motta's hydroelectric power station flooding area at paraná river which died during the capture and quarantine procedures, between 1998 and 1999, were necropsied. three trematodes species, paramphistomum cervi, balanorchis anastrofus and zygocotyle lunatum, all belonging to sup ...200617196114
genetic structure of blastocerus dichotomus populations in the parana river basin (brazil) based on protein variability.the population structure of 147 marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus) from three areas in the paraná river basin, brazil, was studied by observing protein polymorphism at 17 loci. six loci were polymorphic and 11 monomorphic. the proportion of polymorphic loci (p) was 35.29% and the average heterozygosity (h) was 6.31%. wright's fst indicated that only 4.9% of the total variation in allelic frequencies was due to genetic differences between the three groups. the high value of f(is) (0.246) indicat ...200516144298
are brazilian cervids at risk of prion diseases?prion diseases are neurodegenerative fatal disorders that affect human and non-human mammals. chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a prion disease of cervids regarded as a public health problem in north america, and polymorphisms at specific codons in the prnp gene are associated with this disease. to assess the potential cwd susceptibility of south american free-ranging deer, the presence of these polymorphisms was examined in mazama gouazoubira, ozotoceros bezoarticus and blastocerus dichotomus. d ...201728281927
potential effects of climate change on the water level, flora and macro-fauna of a large neotropical wetland.possible consequences of climate change in one of the world's largest wetlands (ibera, argentina) were analysed using a multi-scale approach. climate projections coupled to hydrological models were used to analyse variability in wetland water level throughout the current century. two potential scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions were explored, both resulting in an increase in the inter-annual fluctuations of the water level. in the scenario with higher emissions, projections also showed a long ...201323874446
mycoplasma ovis in captive cervids: prevalence, molecular characterization and phylogeny.hemotrophic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) are bacteria that attach to red blood cells of mammals, leading to acute and/or subclinical disease in infected animals. it has been suggested that mycoplasma ovis, a hemoplasma that infects sheep and goats worldwide, may also infect deer. the aim of this study was to evaluate whether south american deer are infected with m. ovis. edta-anticoagulated blood samples from a herd of 32 captive south american deer were collected. dna extraction of blood samples w ...201121640523
detection of theileria and babesia in brown brocket deer (mazama gouazoubira) and marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus) in the state of minas gerais, brazil.intraerythrocytic protozoan species of the genera theileria and babesia are known to infect both wild and domestic animals, and both are transmitted by hard-ticks of the family ixodidae. the prevalences of hemoprotozoa and ectoparasites in 15 free-living mazama gouazoubira, two captive m. gouazoubira and four captive blastocerus dichotomus from the state of minas gerais, brazil, have been determined through the examination of blood smears and the use of nested polymerase chain reaction (npcr). t ...201021354704
detection of ehrlichia chaffeensis in brazilian marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus).ehrlichia chaffeensis was detected for the first time in blood samples from brazilian marsh deers (blastocerus dichotomus) captured in the marshes of parana river in southeast brazil in 1998. seven edta-blood samples from deers were analyzed by pcr and nested pcr for presence of ehrlichia chaffeensis, ehrlichia ewingii, ehrlichia canis, neoriickettsia risticii, anaplasma phagocytophilum and anaplasma marginale. three samples showed positive reactions for e. chaffeensis and anaplasma marginale. n ...200616621285
ticks (acari: ixodidae) on wild marsh-deer (blastocerus dichotomus) from southeast brazil: infestations before and after habitat loss.the lake from porto-primavera hydroelectric power station inundated an area of 2,200 km2 at the border of são paulo and mato-grosso do sul states, brazil. infestations by ticks were evaluated on 135 marsh deer, blastocerus dichotomus (illiger), captured before and after inundation. ticks were collected for identification, and infestation level of animals was assessed by scoring. deer were divided into four groups according to capture location and temporal relation to the inundation. groups 1, 2, ...200312943103
molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens of the family anaplasmataceae in brazilian brown brocket deer (mazama gouazoubira, fischer, 1814) and marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus, illiger, 1815).deer are important natural reservoir hosts of anaplasmataceae. the present study used nested pcr and nucleotide sequencing to evaluate the occurrence of anaplasmataceae species in 23 free-living and six captive specimens of the cervids mazama gouazoubira and blastocerus dichotomus in minas gerais state, brazil. blood samples were tested for the presence of ehrlichia and anaplasma spp. using npcr assays and sequencing of the msp4, msp1 and 16s rrna genes. the identity of each sequence was confirm ...201122136597
seasonal dynamics and hosts of amblyomma triste (acari: ixodidae) in argentina.the seasonal dynamics and host usage of amblyomma triste in argentina were analyzed. adults of a. triste were present from early winter to mid-summer, with the peak of abundance from late winter to mid-spring (august to october). larvae and nymphs were found from december to june, with the peak of abundance in summer. there were no differences among the biological parameters (pre-moult period of larvae and nymphs, pre-oviposition period of females, and minimum incubation period of eggs) of engor ...201121536384
species diversity and seasonality of free-living ticks (acari: ixodidae) in the natural habitat of wild marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus) in southeastern brazil.this study evaluated the presence and seasonal activity of free-living ticks in remaining marsh areas by the paraná river, in brazil. eight field trips (once per season) for collection of ticks were performed during 2 years. using co2 traps, dragging, and visual inspection of vegetation, five free-living tick species were collected, in the following order of abundance: amblyomma cajennense, amblyomma dubitatum, amblyomma triste, amblyomma coelebs, and amblyomma nodosum. the seasonal pattern of a ...200716962241
Prevalence and molecular characterization of Mycoplasma ovis in selected free-ranging Brazilian deer populations.Mycoplasma ovis is a hemoplasma that may cause anemia and mortality in small ruminants. Our aim was to determine whether M. ovis infects populations of free-ranging deer in Brazil. Buffy coat samples from 64 Blastocerus dichotomus from Porto Primavera, 18 Ozotocerus bezoarticus from Pantanal, and 21 O. bezoarticus from Emas National Park were tested. Using a M. ovis PCR protocol to amplify extracted DNA, 46/64 (72%) of deer from Porto Primavera, 10/18 (56%) from Pantanal, and 4/21 (19%) from Ema ...201122102675
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