serologic response of pups to the low-passage, modified-live canine parvovirus-2 component in a combination vaccine.thirty pups from a general pet population were vaccinated for canine parvovirus-2 (cpv-2), using a low-passage, modified-live cpv-2 in a combination vaccine, every 3 weeks until the pups were between 11 and 18 weeks old. canine parvovirus-2 antibody titers were measured by means of serum neutralization (sn) immediately before each vaccination and > or = 2 weeks after final vaccination. thirteen pups that were initially seronegative (sn titer < 2 for cpv-2) developed protective titers (sn titer > ...19948014088
antigenic relationships between canine parvovirus type 2, feline panleukopenia virus and mink enteritis virus using conventional antisera and monoclonal antibodies.the antigenic relationships between three similar parvoviruses, canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv), feline panleukopenia virus (fpv) and mink enteritis virus (mev) were investigated. antisera against all 3 viruses and monoclonal antibodies (mab) to cpv were prepared and the viruses compared using several serological methods. when conventional sera were used in the hemagglutination-inhibition and agar gel precipitin (agp) tests there were no differences between the cpv viral isolates studied, but ant ...19826180709
[immunopathogenesis of virus diseases of cats and dogs].immunopathological reactions may determine the pathogenesis of some viral infections of cats and dogs. three pathomechanisms may aggravate the viral disease or may ultimately cause death. some viruses cause transient or persistent immunosuppression (feline immunodeficiency, feline leukemia, feline panleukopenia virus, canine parvovirus-2, canine distemper virus). in other viral infections cells and tissues are destroyed as a sequela of cell-mediated cytotoxicity reactions (demyelinating encephal ...19948165663
minute virus of canines (mvc, canine parvovirus type-1): pathogenicity for pups and seroprevalence estimate.minute virus of canines (mvc, canine parvovirus type-1) caused inapparent to severe illness in neonatal specific-pathogen-free pups exposed by the oronasal route. the experimental disease was generally mild. four of 21 infected pups had clinical signs of respiratory illness, but only 2 pups, not euthanized during the early postinoculation period, developed severe illness or died. principal pathologic changes included bronchitis and interstitial pneumonia with various degrees of lymphadenitis. in ...19948068747
comparison of the viral proteins of canine parvovirus-2, mink enteritis virus and feline panleukopenia virus.canine parvovirus-2 (cpv-2), mink enteritis virus (mev) and feline panleukopenia virus (fpv) were produced using identical cell culture and purification techniques. the distributions of the haemagglutinating activity of the three different parvoviruses in a cscl gradient were similar with haemagglutinating peaks identified at 1.48-1.49, 1.42, 1.36 and 1.30-1.31 g cm-3. the number and distribution of the viral proteins and the equivalent protein molecular weights are similar for all three viruses ...19836316627
detection and genomic analysis of canine parvovirus by the polymerase chain reaction.prevalence of canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2) in japanese dogs and genomic variations among the virus strains were examined. two-step polymerase chain reaction with double-nested primer pairs designed in the ns and vp1/vp2 genes of cpv-2 was developed for the detection of the viral genome in faecal samples. a total of 74 samples obtained from diarrhoeal house dogs between 1993 and 1995 were tested by the pcr. the virus-positive rate was 54.1%, showing that cpv-2 is still involved in many cases ...19968976619
pathogenesis of canine parvovirus-2 in dogs: haematology, serology and virus recovery.the pathogenesis of canine parvovirus-2 (cpv-2) was studied in orally inoculated conventional dogs using haematological, serological and virological techniques. virus was first isolated from mesenteric lymph nodes on day 2 after exposure, tonsil on day 3 and small intestine on day 3. viraemia occurred subsequently and was present in most dogs on days 4 and 5 after exposure. cpv-2 could be isolated from all tissues during viraemia. relative pyrexia, lymphopenia and neutropenia occurred on days 5, ...19852988089
response of mink, skunk, red fox and raccoon to inoculation with mink virus enteritis, feline panleukopenia and canine parvovirus and prevalence of antibody to parvovirus in wild carnivores in ontario.mink virus enteritis, feline panleukopenia and canine parvovirus-2 were inoculated separately into groups of raccoon, mink, red fox and striped skunk. raccoons were highly susceptible to mink virus enteritis and feline panleukopenia, with animals developing clinical illness, and several dying within six to ten days of inoculation with lesions typical of parvovirus infection. both viruses were shed in high titre in the feces of infected raccoons, and high antibody titres were stimulated. raccoons ...19836309349
antigenic structure and variation of canine parvovirus type-2, feline panleukopenia virus, and mink enteritis virus.the antigenic structure and variation of canine parvovirus type-2 (cpv), feline panleukopenia virus (fpv), mink enteritis virus (mev), and a closely related virus of raccoons (rpv) was investigated using a panel of 13 monoclonal antibodies (mab) formed against cpv and 8 mab formed against fpv. each mab both neutralized and inhibited the hemagglutination of the homologous virus. all mab tested immunoprecipitated the two capsid proteins. five mab were specific for the cpv isolates and one reacted ...19836194613
pathogenesis of canine parvovirus-2 in dogs: histopathology and antigen identification in tissues.the pathogenesis of canine parvovirus-2 was studied in orally inoculated conventional dogs using histopathological and peroxidase anti-peroxidase staining techniques. lymphoid necrosis and depletion of lymphocytes from lymphoid tissues were most notable on days 5 and 6 after exposure. lymphocyte hyperplasia occurred following day 7. epithelial cell changes in segments of the small intestine were more severe on days 6 to 9 after exposure in areas associated with peyer's patches and in the upper s ...19852988090
canine parvovirus: environmental effects on infectivity.effects of various environments on the infectivity of canine parvovirus-2 (cpv-2) were studied. when cpv-2 was subjected to several controlled indoor environments, the virus remained infective at approximate initial inoculation amount (median tissue culture infective dose [tcid50] = 10(5.5)/ml) for 12 months at temperatures less than -20 c, decreased to tcid50 of 10(2.3)/ml by 12 months at 4 c, and had a tcid50 of less than 10(1)/ml at room temperature (20 c) or higher in less than 2 months. the ...19863017161
the global spread and replacement of canine parvovirus strains.canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2) became widespread during 1978 and was reported in many countries during 1978 and 1979. earlier studies showed that cpv-2 was replaced in the u.s.a. around 1980 by an antigenically and genetically variant virus (cpv-2a). here we show that cpv-2 was present in the u.s.a., japan, belgium and australia prior to 1980, but that between 1979 and 1982 cpv-2 was replaced by cpv-2a in all of those countries as well as in france and denmark. examination of sera collected be ...19882836554
seroprevalence of canine parvovirus in wild coyotes from texas, utah, and idaho (1972 to 1983).the prevalence of serum antibodies against canine parvovirus-2 (cpv-2), as measured by a standard hemagglutination-inhibition test, was determined in serum samples collected from 1,184 coyotes (canis latrans) in texas, utah, and idaho from 1972 to 1983. no evidence of parvoviral infection was found before 1979, after which seroprevalence rapidly increased to greater than 70% at all sites by 1982. there were minor differences in prevalence between age groups and among sites, but no consistent dif ...19846096323
rapid detection of viral-specific antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa).the development of three separate rapid elisas for detecting antibodies in host serum to three different viruses is described. these include: 1. a direct antigen assay using enzyme labelled anti-canine ig for detecting antibodies to canine parvovirus, 2. a competitive elisa using a feline infectious peritonitis virus-specific monoclonal antibody labelled with enzyme, and 3. a competitive elisa using an equine infectious anemia virus-specific monoclonal antibody and enzyme labelled antigen, p. 26 ...19872829416
serologic survey for selected microbial pathogens of wolves in alaska, 1975-1982.serum samples were collected from 116 wolves which were captured in southcentral alaska during 1975 through 1982. antibodies to the following infectious disease agents were found: infectious canine hepatitis virus-72 of 87 (81%), canine parvovirus type 2-0 of 55 (0%) through 1979 and 10 of 32 (31%) after 1979, francisella tularensis-16 of 67 (25%), canine distemper virus-10 of 83 (12%), coxiella burnetti-5 of 95 (5%), rabies virus-1 of 88 (1%), brucella spp.-1 of 67 (1%), leptospira interrogans- ...19873029442
characterization of minute virus of canines (mvc) and its pathogenicity for pups.minute virus of canines (mvc, canine parvovirus-1), originally isolated in 1970 from the feces of normal dogs, was compared with canine parvovirus type-2 (cpv-2). the two viruses, which differ in their host cell ranges and spectra of hemagglutination, also were found distinct in their antigenic and genomic properties. we demonstrated that the mvc replicates in dogs and is capable of producing pathologic changes that were most prominent in oronasally-exposed neonatal pups. macroscopic and microsc ...19882836128
[antigen localization in canine parvovirus type 2 infection using the avidin-biotin complex method (abc) and direct immunofluorescence]. 19882851238
[experimental parvovirus infection of puppies: immunohistological findings].formalin-fixed tissue samples obtained from puppies experimentally infected with canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2) were investigated immunohistologically with the direct immunoperoxidase method. besides cardiac muscle and lymphatic tissues, bone marrow, intestine, liver, kidney, pancreas and to a lesser degree lung stained positive for viral antigen and are considered as sites of viral replication. the distribution of viral antigen reveals a tropism of cpv-2 to numerous organs in puppies infected ...19901964045
fatal disease in nursing puppies associated with minute virus of canines.thirteen cases of a previously undescribed parvoviral infection affecting puppies ranging in age from 5 to 21 days is described. the cases were originally thought to represent an unusual pathologic manifestation of canine parvovirus-2 (cpv-2) infection. however, failure to confirm cpv-2 infection in any of the cases suggested a different parvovirus was involved. minute virus of canines (mvc) was subsequently isolated from a case by using the walter reed canine cell line, the only cell line which ...19921313305
serologic survey for selected viral pathogens in brown bears from italy.blood samples were collected from six captive bears and nine free-ranging marsican brown bears (ursus arctos marsicanus) in the abruzzo national park, italy, between 1991 and 1995. sera were tested for evidence of exposure to canine distemper virus (cdv), canine adenovirus type 2, canine coronavirus, and canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2). serologic evidence of cdv and cpv-2-exposure was found in both captive and free-ranging bears. this may be the first report of cdv exposure in free-ranging bear ...19979131563
pseudocytoplasmic inclusions in tongue epithelium of dogs with canine parvovirus-2 infections. 19989526874
antibody responses of red wolves to canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus vaccination.twenty captive red wolves (canis rufus), including 16 intended for release into great smoky mountains national park, cades cove, tennessee (usa), and four housed at knoxville zoological gardens, inc., knoxville, tennessee, were evaluated for immunologic response to vaccination between june 1994 and april 1995. wolves were vaccinated with modified-live (mlv) canine distemper virus (cdv) and canine parvovirus type-2 (cpv2). sera were collected, and immunofluorescent staining was performed for dete ...19979249706
serologic survey for selected viral and rickettsial agents of brown bears (ursus arctos) in croatia.sera from 22 (13 wild and nine captive) european brown bears (ursus arctos) from croatia were tested to 18 viral and rickettsial agents. serologic evidence of exposure was found to the following agents (number positive/number examined): bhanja virus (3/15), tahyna virus (3/15), west nile virus (4/15), naples sandfly fever virus (1/15), human adenovirus (1/22), influenza a (1/22) and b (1/22) virus, cytomegalovirus (1/22), parainfluenza virus 1 (2/22), chlamydia psittaci (1/22), coxiella burnetii ...19938258856
antigenic and genomic variabilities among recently prevalent parvoviruses of canine and feline origin in japan.canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2) and feline panleukopenia (flp) virus (fplv) are well known and ubiquitous diarrhea-causing pantropic viruses. a "new" antigenic variant of cpv-2 (designated as cpv-2a) has been also prevalent among dogs in japan. in the present study, 24 canine and 8 feline isolates collected during 1987-1991 were compared with 17 cpv-2 or cpv-2a and 7 fplv strains that had been characterized previously. genomic properties were determined by the restriction cleavage patterns of a ...19938128593
experimental challenge of dogs with canine parvovirus-2. 19807456298
subacute massive necrotizing myocarditis by canine parvovirus type 2 infection with diffuse leukoencephalomalacia in a puppy.severe necrotizing myocarditis associated with canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2) infection and diffuse leukoencephalomalacia was recognized in a 4-week-old mongrel puppy. the cardiac lesions were characterized by severe diffuse myocardial degeneration and necrosis with occasional massive mineralization and distinct intranuclear inclusion bodies. immunohistochemical examination revealed the presence of cpv-2 antigens in both the cytoplasm and nuclei of the myocytes. in the white matter of the cere ...19999921761
serologic survey of selected viral agents in recently captured wild north american river otters (lontra canadensis).blood samples were collected from 64 wild north american river otters (lontra [lutra] canadensis) from northern and eastern new york state and analyzed for serologic evidence of exposure to selected viral agents during a 1995 1996 translocation program. no clinical signs of disease nor lesions suggestive of prior viral exposure were seen. titers were detected for antibodies against canine distemper virus, canine herpesvirus-1, and canine parvovirus-2 but not for antibodies against canine adenovi ...200010982127
clinical effects of the recombinant feline interferon-omega on experimental parvovirus infection in beagle dogs.the clinical effects of recombinant feline interferon-omega (rfeifn-omega), produced in silkworm by recombinant baculovirus, were examined in 3-4 month-old beagle dogs given an experimental canine parvovirus type-2 (cpv-2) infection. clinical symptoms, such as pyrexia, vomiting, anorexia and diarrhea, were observed on day 4 after oral inoculation of 10(7) tcid50 of cpv-2 (cc 238 strain) in almost all the inoculated dogs. from day 4, rfeifn-omega (1 mega units/kg/day) or physiological saline was ...19989764403
pediatric intensive provide optimal care, a veterinarian in a pediatric intensive care situation for a puppy or kitten should be familiar with normal and abnormal vital signs, nursing care and monitoring considerations, and probable diseases. this article is a brief discussion of the pediatric intensive care commonly required to treat puppies or kittens in emergency situations and for canine parvovirus type 2 enteritis.199910390796
antigenic analysis of canine parvovirus strains isolated in italy.eighty-two canine parvovirus type 2 strains isolated in italy from pups with severe enteritis were characterizated using four monoclonal antibodies. sixty-eight isolates resulted cpv-2a, whereas the other fourteen were a cpv-2b variant. the diffusion of cpv-2 variants in the italian dog population is quite similar to that reported in the united kingdom and australia (cpv-2a more prevalent) and different from the epidemiological conditions of the usa and other countries where cpv-2b is more wides ...200010946411
successful experimental challenge of dogs with canine parvovirus-2.withholding food from dogs for 24 hours prior to, and for 48 hours following oral challenge with a gut mucosal homogenate of canine parvovirus-2, was a successful means of reproducing gastroenteric signs of canine parvovirus-2 infection. twenty-one of 24 dogs, which had previously received various vaccine preparations of mink enteritis virus or were unvaccinated, and which were starved at challenge, developed soft or liquid feces with large or without large clots of mucus. altered feces were mos ...19826280819
the failure of an inactivated mink enteritis virus vaccine in four preparations to provide protection to dogs against challenge with canine parvovirus-2.four experimental vaccine preparations comprising a strain of mink enteritis virus inactivated by either formalin or beta-propiolactone, and either adjuvanted or nonadjuvanted, failed to stimulate a consistent serum antibody response in 20 vaccinated dogs and failed to protect all but one of these dogs against oral challenge with canine parvovirus-2.19826280820
feline panleukopenia virus revisited: molecular characteristics and pathological lesions associated with three recent isolates.the low incidence of clinical signs or pathological lesions compatible with feline panleukopenia in cats has created the perception among practitioners that the disease has disappeared since the emergence of canine parvovirus type 2 in the late 1970s. three parvoviruses that were recently isolated from a domestic cat and 2 cheetahs in cell culture or detected by means of the polymerase chain reaction were shown to be typical feline parvoviruses. phylogenetic comparison with other fpv isolates di ...200011205160
antibody testing against canine coronavirus by immunoperoxidase plaque staining.the application of the immunoperoxidase (ip) plaque staining procedure (ip test) to the diagnosis of canine coronavirus (ccv) infection was investigated. the ip test did not react with sera from either 15 specific pathogen-free (spf) dogs or 7 spf dogs immunized with a multivalent vaccine, including canine parvovirus type 2, canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus type 2, and canine parainfluenza virus. to compare the ip test with the neutralizing test (nt), sera from 240 healthy dogs and from ...200111432433
parvovirus infection of keratinocytes as a cause of canine erythema multiforme.erythema multiforme major was diagnosed in a dog with necrotizing parvoviral enteritis. skin lesions consisted of ulceration of the footpads, pressure points, mouth, and vaginal mucosa; vesicles in the oral cavity; and erythematous patches on the abdomen and perivulvar skin. microscopic examination of mucosal and haired skin specimens revealed lymphocyte-associated keratinocyte apoptosis at various levels of the epidermis. basophilic cytoplasmic inclusions were seen in basal and suprabasal kerat ...200011105954
characterization of antigenic variation among mink enteritis virus isolates.three antigenic forms of natural field isolates of mink enteritis virus were revealed with a panel of monoclonal antibodies generated against the closely studied feline panleukopenia virus and canine parvovirus-2 virus. two types (types 2 and 3) were shown to be closely related by agar-gel precipitin tests and by restriction enzyme mapping. however, types 2 and 3 differed from the type 1 isolates in the same tests. in cross-protection studies, inactivated viral vaccines made from any one of the ...19846084433
evidence for evolution of canine parvovirus type 2 in italy.two isolates of canine parvovirus (cpv) were obtained from dogs affected with severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea. type 2b antigenic specificity was predicted by both antigenic analysis with monoclonal antibodies and pcr characterization with type-specific primers. nevertheless, sequence analysis of the capsid protein-encoding gene revealed two amino acid changes. one of the changes affected position 426 (asp to glu), in a major antigenic site of the viral capsid, determining the replacement of a resi ...200111714979
canine parvovirus infection: which diagnostic test for virus?five laboratory tests for diagnosis of canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2) infection were employed to test 89 faecal samples collected from dogs with diarrhoea. the tests analysed were immunochromatography (ic), haemagglutination (ha), virus isolation (vi), conventional and real-time pcr. ic, ha, vi and conventional or real-time pcr were able, respectively, to detect cpv-2 antigen or nucleic acid in 41, 50, 54, 68 and 73 of the samples. the best correlation was found between conventional and real-t ...200515847935
a survey of canine parvovirus-2 in albania.observations were made on 97 dogs that had clinical signs of enteritis and on another group of 68 unvaccinated clinically healthy dogs for detecting the prevalence of serum hemagglutination inhibiting antibody to cpv. canine parvovirus antigens agglutinating cat rbc were detected in feces or rectal swabs from 72 of 97 dogs. an elisa to detect cpv antigen in feces and virus isolation on cell culture were also performed. thirty-one of 72 dogs died. mortality was exclusively observed in the age gro ...19979429323
characterisation of the canine parvovirus type 2 variants using minor groove binder probe technology.two minor groove binder (mgb) probe assays were developed for rapid identification and quantitation of the canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2) variants in the faecal samples of dogs. the mgb probe assays using type-specific probes labeled with different fluorophores (fam and vic) were able to detect the single nucleotide polymorphisms existing between types 2a/2b and 2b/2c. both the mgb probe assays were found to be highly specific, sensitive and reproducible, ensuring a precise quantitation of the ...200616313976
clinical and virological findings in pups naturally infected by canine parvovirus type 2 glu-426 outbreak of canine parvovirus type 2 infection caused by the glu-426 mutant in 2 litters of pups is reported. the infected pups (n = 6) were monitored daily for evidence of clinical signs and hematological changes and for the evaluation of viral shedding in the feces. the disease induced by the glu-426 mutant was mild in all the infected pups. vomiting and hemorrhagic diarrhea were not observed; however, the pups developed mucoid diarrhea (3.5 median days), depression (1.5 median days), and r ...200515825493
new approaches for the molecular characterization of canine parvovirus type 2 strains.characterization of the canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2) is sometimes ambiguous, frequently requiring more than one technique for definitive prediction of the viral type. taking into account the single-nucleotide polymorphisms encountered in the vp2-protein gene between types 2a and 2b and between type 2b and glu-426 mutant (type 2c), two different minor groove binder (mgb) probe assays were developed for rapid identification of the cpv-2 variants. a total of 315 samples collected from dogs with ...200516316391
antibody levels and protection to canine parvovirus type 2.the relationship between maternally derived antibody (mda) levels and protection to canine parvovirus (cpv) infection in pups is reported. twelve pups with a wide range of haemagglutination inhibiting (hi) titres of mda to cpv were divided into four groups, with each group balanced for antibody titres. the dogs were inoculated with a field cpv-2b strain and clinical signs, virus shedding and antibody response were assessed. the cpv was not detected in the faeces of dogs with hi titres of 320 at ...200516316392
an annotated historical account of canine parvovirus.a brief annotated history of canine parvovirus-type 2 (cpv-2) and its variants is summarized with emphasis on the most significant contributions of individuals involved in the initial recognition of cpv-2 and subsequent discoveries that have advanced our knowledge of the nature and evolution of this novel canine virus. time has obscured the observations of many veterinary clinicians and researchers throughout the world who sensed the presence of a new disease when cpv-2 first made its appearance ...200516316389
passive protection of dogs against clinical disease due to canine parvovirus-2 by specific antibody from chicken egg yolk.the protective effect of immunoglobulins derived from chicken egg yolk (igy) against infection by canine parvovirus 2 (cpv-2) was evaluated in 10 beagle dogs orally challenged with a strain of the virus. the 2-mo-old dogs were divided into 3 groups and treated with powders containing cpv-2 igy or normal egg yolk for 7 d after the challenge. the 4 dogs receiving normal egg yolk (control group) demonstrated mild symptoms typical of cpv-2 infection, such as vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. no s ...200616548334
antigenic characterization of canine parvovirus strains isolated in italy.28 isolates of canine parvovirus type-2 (cpv-2) were obtained from dogs with hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in italy. the antigenic structure of cpv-2 isolates was characterized, using four discriminating monoclonal antibodies. in addition, four vaccinal strains were examined. similar to reports from australia and the united kingdom, a much higher prevalence of cpv-2a (25/28 isolates) was observed than the other variant type, cpv-2b (3/28 isolates). dna fragments (2.2 kbp) of representative strains ...19989766890
a serologic survey for antibodies to three canine viruses in wolverines (gulo gulo) from the brooks range, alaska.canine distemper virus (cdv), canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2), and canine adenovirus type 1 (cav-1) are pathogens that are typically associated with canids but may cause serious disease in a wide range of other carnivores. from 1998 to 2002, serum samples from 64 wolverines (gulo gulo) from the brooks range, alaska, were tested for antibodies to cdv, cpv-2, and canine adenovirus (cav). four animals tested positive for antibodies to cdv (7%), one for antibodies to cpv-2 (2%), and none for antibo ...200516456170
occurrence of severe gastroenteritis in pups after canine parvovirus vaccine administration: a clinical and laboratory diagnostic dilemma.a total of 29 faecal samples collected from dogs with diarrhoea following canine parvovirus (cpv) vaccination were tested by minor groove binder (mgb) probe assays for discrimination between cpv vaccine and field strains and by diagnostic tests for detection of other canine pathogens. fifteen samples tested positive only for cpv field strains; however, both vaccine and field strains were detected in three samples. eleven samples were found to contain only the vaccine strain, although eight of th ...200717092616
diagnostic tools based on minor groove binder probe technology for rapid identification of vaccinal and field strains of canine parvovirus type 2b.taqman-based diagnostic tests have been developed for the identification of canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2) strains in the faeces of dogs with diarrhoea, including a minor groove binder (mgb) probe assay for identification of type 2-based vaccines and field strains (types 2a, 2b and 2c). since type 2b vaccines have been licensed recently in europe, two novel mgb assays were developed for discrimination between type 2b vaccines and field strains of cpv. such assays have been found to be highly s ...200616911835
neutralizing antibodies against feline parvoviruses in nondomestic felids inoculated with commercial inactivated polyvalent vaccines.the virus neutralization (vn) antibody titers of serum samples from 18 individuals representing 8 carnivore species vaccinated with commercial polyvalent vaccines optimized for domestic cats containing inactivated feline panleukopenia virus (fplv) were evaluated against canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv2). in addition, the titers among 5 individuals from 4 carnivore were evaluated against antigenic variants of feline parvoviruses; fplv, cpv2, cpv2a, cpv2b, cpv2c, mink enteritis virus type 1 (mev1) a ...200617146178
canine parvovirus (cpv) vaccination: comparison of neutralizing antibody responses in pups after inoculation with cpv2 or cpv2b modified live virus vaccine.canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv2) emerged in 1978 as causative agent of a new disease of dogs. new antigenic variants (biotypes), designated cpv2a and cpv2b, became widespread during 1979 to 1980 and 1984, respectively. at the present time the original cpv2 has disappeared in the dog population and has been replaced by the two new viruses. in the present study the comparison of neutralizing antibody titers in two groups of pups (18 pups in each group) inoculated with cpv2 and cpv2b modified live v ...200111329467
recent epidemiological status of canine viral enteric infections and giardia infection in japan.epidemiology of canine enteric infections was studied. rectal swabs collected from 95 dogs presented at animal hospitals during a period from january to june of 2000 were examined for enteric pathogens, including viruses and giardia lamblia (g. lamblia). most frequently detected in both diarrheal and normal feces were canine coronavirus (55.4%) and g. lamblia (48.2%). canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2) was specifically associated with diarrheal cases and cpv-2b was the predominant antigenic type. ...200111411507
evidence of parvovirus replication in cerebral neurons of cats.the correlation between parvovirus infections and lesions in the central nervous system other than cerebellar hypoplasia was studied in 100 cats. the animals were necropsied with a history of various diseases, one third showing typical clinical and pathomorphological signs of panleukopenia. in 18 cats polyclonal antiserum against canine parvovirus consistently labeled neurons mainly in diencephalic regions, whereas the cerebellar cortex remained negative in all cases. in situ hybridization with ...200312904392
a real-time pcr assay for rapid detection and quantitation of canine parvovirus type 2 in the feces of dogs.we describe a rapid, sensitive and reproducible real-time pcr assay for detecting and quantifying canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2) dna in the feces of dogs with diarrhea. an exogenous internal control was added to control the assay performance from extraction to amplification. the method was demonstrated to be highly specific and sensitive, allowing a precise cpv-2 dna quantitation over a range of eight orders of magnitude (from 10(2) to 10(9) copies of standard dna). the reproducibility of the ...200415607080
a canine parvovirus mutant is spreading in antigenic and genetic characterization of canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2) strains collected in 2001 and 2002 in italy, it was possible to observe the spread of viruses with an unusual mutation, glu-426, affecting a major antigenic epitope of cpv-2. out of 67 strains analyzed, 49 (73.13%) were characterized as cpv-2a, 6 (8.95%) were characterized as cpv-2b, and 12 (17.91%) were characterized as the glu-426 mutant.200415004112
the duration of immunity to an inactivated adjuvanted canine parvovirus vaccine. a 52 and 64 week postvaccination challenge study.dogs were successfully isolated for a period of either 52 or 64 weeks following vaccination with an inactivated, adjuvanted canine parvovirus-2 vaccine. antibody persisted in all ten vaccinated dogs, although in one case by 52 weeks postvaccination only virus neutralizing antibody, and not hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody, could be detected. sentinel unvaccinated dogs housed alongside the vaccinated dogs throughout the study remained free of canine parvovirus-2 antibody until challenged. upo ...198317422291
the seroprevalence of canine parvovirus-2 in a selected sample of the canine population in ontario.canine sera, collected from dogs presented to the ontario veterinary college between 1976 and 1980, were assessed for canine parvovirus-2 antibody using a microtitre hemagglutination-inhibition test. special emphasis was made on the period from september 1979 to october 1980 (2892 samples). no antibody was detected in samples collected in 1976 or 1977. the first positive sera were obtained in january 1978. by the end of 1978 antibodies to canine parvovirus-2 were widespread in ontario dogs and i ...198417422418
evaluation of lactogenic immunity to canine parvovirus in pups.maternally-derived antibodies (mda) transferred to pups through colostrum and milk are known as lactogenic immunity. in this report, we describe the kinetics of transfer of lactogenic immunity to canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2) from two bitches (a and b) to their offspring. at day 7 before parturition, bitches a and b had high serum antibody titers, which decreased rapidly within a few hours after parturition, in concomitance with the appearance of high hi titers in colostrum. subsequently, the ...200415646052
evaluation of tongue as a complementary sample for the diagnosis of parvoviral infection in dogs and cats.diagnosis of canine parvovirus type 2 and feline panleukopenia virus infection in dogs and cats may be hampered by the severity of enteric lesions, secondary bacterial overgrowth, and rapid onset of autolysis. in contrast to small intestine, tongue epithelium is less sensitive to postmortem changes. sections of tongue and small intestine from 11 dogs and 11 cats with a clinical history and gross and microscopic lesions compatible with canine and feline parvoviral infection were examined for parv ...200717609353
first detection of canine parvovirus type 2c in south america.since its sudden emergence in the early 1970s, canine parvovirus type-2 (cpv-2) has been evolving through the generation of novel genetic and antigenic variants (cpv-2a/b/c and a number of additional mutations) that are unevenly distributed throughout the world. in order to develop strategies to control the spread of these variants and to understand virus evolution is fundamental to genotype field isolates from different geographic locations. in the present paper we have examined 25 isolates of ...200717531408
virological and molecular characterization of a mammalian orthoreovirus type 3 strain isolated from a dog in italy.a mammalian orthoreovirus (mrv) strain was isolated from a pup with fatal diarrhea, which had a concurrent infection by canine parvovirus type 2. the reovirus isolate showed an atypical hemagglutination pattern and a retarded electrophoretic mobility of the s1 segment, which is characteristic of mrv type 3 (mrv-3). assignment of the isolated virus to mrv-3 was confirmed by type-specific rt-pcr assays, targeting the s1 gene, and by subsequent sequence analysis of the pcr product. by phylogeny bas ...200515964158
co-infection with multiple variants of canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2). 200717682877
detection of infectious canine parvovirus type 2 by mrna real-time rt-pcr.a taqman real-time rt-pcr assay was developed for detection of rna transcripts produced by replicating cpv-2. a pair of primers and a taqman probe targeting the spliced ns2 mrna were designed. a synthetic dna fragment was constructed to mimic the spliced ns2 mrna by pcr-based gene assembly and was used for generation of standard rnas. the detection limit of the assay was 1x10(2) rna copies and standard curve displayed a linear range from 1x10(2) to 1x10(9) copies and a good reproducibility. the ...200717692932
canine parvovirus type 2 vaccine protects against virulent challenge with type 2c virus.the ability of dogs vaccinated with a live attenuated cpv type 2 (nobivac intervet) vaccine to resist challenge with a current cpv2c isolate was investigated. six spf beagle dogs were given the minimum recommended course of vaccination, comprising a single inoculation of vaccine (nobivac lepto+nobivac pi) at 8-10 weeks of age followed 3 weeks later with a parvovirus vaccine in combination with distemper, adenovirus and parainfluenza virus (nobivac dhppi) and a repeat leptospirosis vaccine. six c ...200818006253
three-year serologic immunity against canine parvovirus type 2 and canine adenovirus type 2 in dogs vaccinated with a canine combination vaccine.a group of client-owned dogs and a group of dogs at a commercial kennel were evaluated for duration of antibody responses against canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2) and canine adenovirus type 1 (cav-1) after receiving a combination vaccine containing recombinant canarypox-vectored canine distemper virus (cdv) and modified-live cpv-2, cav-2, and canine parainfluenza virus, with (c6) or without (c4) two serovars of leptospira (recombitek c4 or c6, merial). duration of antibody, which correlates with ...200718183549
duration of immunity for canine and feline vaccines: a our studies aimed at assessing the minimum duration of vaccinal immunity (doi), approximately 1000 dogs have been vaccinated with products from all the major us veterinary biological companies. the doi for the various products is determined by antibody titers for all dogs and, by challenge studies in selected groups of dogs. recently, all major companies that make canine vaccines for the u.s. market have completed their own studies; published data show a 3 years or longer minimum doi for the ...200616707236
comparison of the pathogenicity in three different korean canine parvovirus 2 (cpv-2) isolates.canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2) is a major pathogen inducing acute hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in dogs. despite the identification of numerous cpv-2 variants (from cpv-2a to cpv-2c), the pathogenic differences among the cpv-2 variants in dogs have not been evaluated. the aim of this study was to compare the pathogenicity of cpv-2 variants (cpv-2a-i, cpv-2a-v and cpv-2b) isolated mainly from korea. we evaluated the pathogenicity of three different cpv-2 variants, by performing clinical, hematolo ...200818400421
do two current canine parvovirus type 2 and 2b vaccines provide protection against the new type 2c variant?three groups (n=9 or 10) of 12-week-old canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2) antibody-negative puppies were vaccinated: one group with a product containing modified-live cpv-2b (galaxy da2ppv; schering-plough animal health), one group with a product containing modified-live cpv-2 (continuum dap, intervet), and one group (controls) with sterile saline. all puppies receiving cpv-2 and cpv-2b vaccines developed antibody as determined by the hemagglutination inhibition assay. all groups of puppies were ...200818597247
first detection of canine parvovirus type 2c in pups with haemorrhagic enteritis in spain.canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2), the aetiological agent of haemorrhagic enteritis in dogs, includes three antigenic variants, types 2a, 2b and 2c. cpv-2c has been detected initially in italy and subsequently in vietnam. we report the first identification of this novel antigenic variant in spain, where it caused an outbreak of fatal enteritis in basset hound pups in association with canine coronavirus type i and type ii. we suggest that this new antigenic variant of cpv-2 could spread throughout ...200617123424
genetic analysis of feline panleukopenia viruses from cats with gastroenteritis.thirty-nine parvovirus strains contained in faecal samples collected in italy (n=34) and uk (n=5) from cats with feline panleukopenia were characterized at the molecular level. all viruses were proven to be true feline panleukopenia virus (fplv) strains by a minor groove binder probe assay, which is able to discriminate between fplv and the closely related canine parvovirus type 2. by using sequence analysis of the vp2 gene, it was found that the fplv strains detected in italy and uk were highly ...200818753239
chronological analysis of canine parvovirus type 2 isolates in japan.fifty-five canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv) samples, 12 fecal specimens and 43 cell culture isolates, were examined for their genetic characteristics of vp2 gene. they were collected from the diseased dogs at various districts of japan during 27 years from 1980 to 2006. a fragment of vp2 gene was analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism assay and dna sequencing. the original antigenic type 2 of cpv (cpv-2) was no longer found in the samples since 1984, and two antigenic variants cpv-2a ...200818772550
tissue distribution of the antigenic variants of canine parvovirus type 2 in dogs.twelve dogs dead as consequence of natural infection caused by canine parvovirus (cpv) type 2a (n=4), type 2b (n=4) or type 2c (n=4) were investigated for determining the viral dna loads in different tissue samples. by means of a real-time pcr assay, cpv dna was detected in all tissues examined, with the highest titres observed in the lymphoid tissue and the lowest loads in the urinary tract. surprisingly, the nervous tissue was found to contain considerable amounts of cpv nucleic acid. similar ...200717169509
serological and molecular evidence that canine respiratory coronavirus is circulating in italy.canine respiratory coronavirus (crcov) is a group ii coronavirus that was firstly identified in lung samples of dogs with canine infectious respiratory disease (cird) in uk in 2003. we report for the first time the identification of crcov in italy, together with serological evidence that the virus has been circulating in the italian dog population as from 2005. serological investigations on 216 dog sera, carried out by an elisa test using the strictly related bovine coronavirus (bcov) as antigen ...200717215093
a cryptic promoter in potato virus x vector interrupted plasmid construction.potato virus x has been developed into an expression vector for plants. it is widely used to express foreign genes. in molecular manipulation, the foreign genes need to be sub-cloned into the vector. the constructed plasmid needs to be amplified. usually, during amplification stage, the foreign genes are not expressed. however, if the foreign gene is expressed, the construction work could be interrupted. two different viral genes were sub-cloned into the vector, but only one foreign gene was suc ...200717338823
recombination between vaccine and field strains of canine parvovirus is revealed by isolation of virus in canine and feline cell cultures.canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv) is a pathogen that causes severe hemorrhagic gastroenteritis with a high fatality rate in pups worldwide. since cpv emerged in the late 1970s, its origin has been explored with the conclusion that cpv originated from feline panleukopenia virus or a closely related virus. both high mutation rate and recombination are assumed to be key factors in the evolution of parvoviruses. here we provide evidence for natural recombination in cpv isolated from dogs in cell cultur ...200819122396
age and long-term protective immunity in dogs and cats.vaccination can provide an immune response that is similar in duration to that following a natural infection. in general, adaptive immunity to viruses develops earliest and is highly effective. such anti-viral immune responses often result in the development of sterile immunity and the duration of immunity (doi) is often lifelong. in contrast, adaptive immunity to bacteria, fungi or parasites develops more slowly and the doi is generally short compared with most systemic viral infections. steril ...201019959181
an outbreak of canine coronavirus in puppies in a greek kennel.canine coronavirus (ccov) is usually the cause of mild gastroenteritis in dogs and is known to have spread worldwide. however, to date, no ccov cases have been confirmed in greece. in the present work, the authors investigated an outbreak of enteritis in puppies from a greek kennel for the presence of ccov. dogs were presented with clinical signs of diarrhea, anorexia, weakness, depression, dehydration, and 1 death. canine coronavirus type ii was detected by reverse transcription nested polymera ...201020224103
isolation of a virus related to canine parvovirus type 2 from a raccoon (procyon lotor). 201020045856
characterisation of canine parvovirus strains isolated from cats with feline panleukopenia.unlike the original canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2), cpv-2 variants have gained the ability to replicate in vivo in cats but there is limited information on the disease patterns induced by these variants in the feline host. during 2008, two distinct cases of parvoviral infection were diagnosed in our laboratories. a cpv-2a variant was identified in a 3-month-old persian kitten displaying clinical sign of feline panleukopenia (fpl) (acute gastroenteritis and marked leukopenia) and oral ulceratio ...201020334885
immunodeficiencies caused by infectious diseases.immunodeficiencies caused by infectious agents may result from disruption of normal host barriers or dysregulation of cellular immunity, the latter serving to promote survival of the infectious agent through immune evasion. such infections may be followed by opportunistic infections with a variety of other microorganisms. classic infectious causes of immunodeficiency in companion animals are the immunodeficiency retroviruses, including feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus. oth ...201020471525
molecular characterisation and nucleotide sequence analysis of canine parvovirus strains in vaccines in india.canine parvovirus 2 (cpv-2) is one of the most important viruses that causes haemorrhagic gastroenteritis and myocarditis of dogs worldwide. the picture has been complicated further due to the emergence of new mutants of cpv, namely: cpv-2a, cpv-2b and cpv-2c. in this study, the molecular characterisation of strains present in the cpv vaccines available on the indian market was performed using polymerase chain reaction and dna sequencing. the vp1/vp2 genes of two vaccine strains and a field stra ...201020391369
genetic analysis of canine parvovirus from dogs in determine the genetic variants of canine parvovirus-2 (cpv) present in domestic dogs in australia and to investigate 26 cases of apparent vaccine failure.200717903125
evaluation of the antigenic relationships among canine parvovirus type 2 variants.the antigenic relationships among the original canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2) and the variants cpv-2a, -2b, and -2c were evaluated. cross-antigenic evaluation revealed clear differences among the cpv variants, which were more appreciable by serum neutralization (sn) than by hemagglutination inhibition. antigenic differences were found mostly between the original cpv-2 and the variants, but they were also observed among the variants cpv-2a, -2b, and -2c. the variant cpv-2c exhibited a unique an ...200818160619
leukoencephalopathy associated with parvovirus infection in cretan hound puppies.leukoencephalopathies in dogs encompass presumably inherited conditions such as leukodystrophies, hypomyelination or spongiform degeneration, but other causes, such as virus infections and toxic or nutritional factors, might also play a contributory role. in this report, we provide evidence of parvovirus infection and replication in the brains of five 6-week-old cretan hound puppies suffering from a puppy shaker syndrome and leukoencephalopathy. although these puppies belonged to two different l ...201020592142
isolation, molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of canine parvovirus.canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2) causes acute haemorrhagic enteritis in dogs. canine parvovirus is prone to genetic evolution and has undergone several mutations that produced different strains like cpv-2a, cpv-2b, new cpv-2a, new cpv-2b and cpv-2c in the past three decades. mutations affecting the vp2 gene of cpv have been responsible for evolution of different antigenic variants. sequence analysis of vp2 gene of the virus and subsequent characterization is important for molecular epidemiology. ...201020723622
molecular typing of canine parvovirus variants by polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme analysis.canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2) is a pathogen of dogs, which causes acute gastroenteritis and lymphopenia mostly in young pups. this paper reports the incidence of cpv-2 infection in diarrhoeic dogs with an aim to define the involvement of various variants of canine parvovirus circulating in india. cpv-2a, a variant of cpv-2 was differentiated from cpv-2b by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the samples positive for cpv-2b were further analysed by pcr and restriction endonuclease (re) analysis u ...201021117274
contamination of infectious rd-114 virus in vaccines produced using non-feline cell lines.all domestic cats have a replication-competent endogenous retrovirus, termed rd-114 virus, in their genome and several feline cell lines produce rd-114 viruses. recently, we found that a portion of live attenuated feline and canine vaccines produced using feline cell lines was contaminated with infectious rd-114 viruses. in this study, we expanded our survey and examined canine vaccines produced using 'non-feline' cell lines. consequently, we found two vaccines containing rd-114 viral rna by rev ...201021145255
canine parvovirus epidemiology in bulgaria.canine parvovirus 2 (cpv-2) emerged in 1978 as one of the most pathogenic etiologic agents in dogs. under the influence of evolution, the original cpv-2 was replaced, a few years later, by 2 variants, cpv-2a and cpv-2b. in 2000, a new variant, cpv-2c, was detected first in italy and later in other countries. the current study was conducted to provide data about the cpv types circulating in bulgaria. forty-two fecal samples from dogs with clinical signs of parvovirosis, collected between june 200 ...201121217049
antibodies to parvovirus, distemper virus and adenovirus conferred to household dogs using commercial combination vaccines containing leptospira examine how the inclusion (+) or exclusion (-) of inactivated leptospira antigens in a vaccine for canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2), canine distemper virus (cdv) and canine adenovirus type 2 (cadv-2) affects antibody titres to cpv-2, cdv and cadv-1 antigens, household dogs were vaccinated with commercially available vaccines from one of three manufacturers. cpv-2, cdv and cadv-1 antibody titres were measured 11 to 13 months later and compared within three different age groups and three differ ...201021262693
vaccination with canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2) protects against challenge with virulent cpv-2b and cpv-2c.mutations in canine parvovirus (cpv) field isolates have created concerns regarding the ability of vaccines containing cpv-2 to protect against infection with the newly identified antigenic types cpv-2b and cpv-2c. to address this concern, the efficacy of cpv-2 strain nl-35-d currently in use as a commercial vaccine was demonstrated against an oral challenge with cpv-2b and cpv-2c, respectively. clinically healthy specific pathogen free beagle dogs were either vaccinated or treated with water fo ...201121306055
molecular characterization of canine parvovirus-2 variants circulating in tunisia.canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv2) emerged in 1978 as a highly contagious and very serious disease in dogs. the characterization of cpv2 antigenic types is exclusively based on the identification of the amino acid residue at position 426 of the capsid protein vp2. currently, three antigenic types cpv-2a (asparagine n(426)), cpv-2b (aspartic acid d(426)) and cpv-2c (glutamic acid e(426)) are circulating worldwide. in tunisia, despite the fact that many clinical and few serological investigations cle ...200919112611
Canine parvovirus-2b-associated erythema multiforme in a litter of English Setter dogs.Erythema multiforme (EM) was diagnosed in a litter of English Setter puppies. The puppies developed erythematous cutaneous lesions at the age of 2 weeks. Microscopically, there was individual keratinocyte apoptosis associated with lymphocyte exocytosis in all layers of the epidermis. Intranuclear viral inclusions were seen in multiple tissues and organs. Tissues from the tongue, lymph node, spleen, skin, and small intestine were positive for Canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2) and negative for Canine di ...201121908294
occurrence of canine parvovirus type 2c in the dogs with haemorrhagic enteritis in india.canine parvovirus 2 (cpv-2) causes a highly contagious and often fatal disease in dogs. since its sudden emergence in the early 1970s, cpv-2 has been evolving through the generation of novel genetic and antigenic variants (cpv-2a/b/c) that are unevenly distributed throughout the world. in the present study we have examined 36 clinical cases of dogs suspected of cpv collected during year 2006. a fragment of the vp2 gene of the virus was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (pcr), restriction ...201019552931
Role of multiple hosts in the cross-species transmission and emergence of a pandemic parvovirus.Understanding the mechanisms of cross-species virus transmission is critical to anticipating emerging infectious diseases. Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) emerged as a variant of a feline parvovirus when it acquired mutations that allowed binding to the canine transferrin receptor type 1 (TfR). However, CPV-2 was soon replaced by a variant virus (CPV-2a) that differed in antigenicity and receptor binding. Here we show that the emergence of CPV involved an additional host range variant virus tha ...201222072763
molecular insights into the phylogeny of canine parvovirus 2 (cpv-2) with emphasis on korean isolates: a bayesian approach.a bayesian approach was utilized to further investigate the molecular phylogeny of canine parvovirus 2 (cpv-2) with emphasis on korean isolates, and the complete vp2 gene sequences for 23 korean isolates in 2007 and two vaccine strains were determined. of the 44 korean cpvs, 40 were identified as cpv-2a, three as cpv-2b, and the remaining one as a cpv-2a variant having a gly300asp mutation. compared with cpv-2a, our findings also showed the presence of six additional amino acid substitutions (th ...200919590812
canine parvovirus-a review of epidemiological and diagnostic aspects, with emphasis on type 2c.canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2) emerged in late 1970s causing severe epizootics in kennels and dog shelters worldwide. soon after its emergence, cpv-2 underwent genetic evolution giving rise consecutively to two antigenic variants, cpv-2a and cpv-2b that replaced progressively the original type. in 2000, a new antigenic variant, cpv-2c, was detected in italy and rapidly spread to several countries. in comparison to the original type cpv-2, the antigenic variants display increased pathogenicity ...201121962408
study of canine parvovirus evolution: comparative analysis of full-length vp2 gene sequences from argentina and international field strains.the continuous emergence of new strains of canine parvovirus (cpv), poorly protected by current vaccination, is a concern among breeders, veterinarians, and dog owners around the world. therefore, the understanding of the genetic variation in emerging cpv strains is crucial for the design of disease control strategies, including vaccines. in this paper, we obtained the sequences of the full-length gene encoding for the main capsid protein (vp2) of 11 canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2) argentine re ...201121858463
recent spreading of a divergent canine parvovirus type 2a (cpv-2a) strain in a cpv-2c homogenous population.canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2), which causes acute hemorrhagic enteritis in dogs, is comprised of three antigenic variants (2a, 2b, and 2c) that are distributed worldwide with different frequencies. variant prevalence was analyzed in 150 cpv-2-positive samples collected from the uruguayan dog population in 2007-2010. samples were analyzed with polymerase chain reaction, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and sequencing of the coding region for the largest and most variable loop of the v ...201122014372
detection and genotyping of canine coronavirus rna in diarrheic dogs in clarify the prevalence of canine coronavirus (ccov) infection in japan, faecal samples from 109 dogs with diarrhoea were examined for ccov rna together with canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2) dna. the detection rates of ccov and cpv-2 for dogs aged less than 1 year were 66.3% and 43.8%, while those for dogs aged 1 year or older were 6.9% and 10.3%, respectively, which were significantly different (p<0.0001 and p=0.0003, respectively), indicating not cpv-2 but ccov is an important diarrhoea-caus ...201120557915
antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type-1 in adult household dogs.serum antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2 (cpv-2), canine distemper virus (cdv) and canine adenovirus type-1 (cav-1) were investigated in 1031 healthy adult household dogs (2 to 18 years old) given an annual inoculation in the previous 11 to 13 months. the number of dogs retaining significant titers of antibodies against cpv-2, cdv, and cav-1 were 888 (86%), 744 (72%), and 732 (71%), respectively. there were no differences between males and females in antibody titers against the 3 virus ...201122379198
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