masking, de lange curves and integration time as revealed by the electroretinogram of a tree shrew (tupaia chinensis).dynamical characteristics of the electroretinogram (erg) of a tree shrew were measured. since this animal has a cone dominated receptor population (95%) comparison to human photopic vision is obvious. the light source was chosen to stimulate the red cones of this deuteranopic animal predominantly. masking experiments displayed a reasonable correspondence to human foveal psychophysics. de lange curves and cff values revealed a maximum sensitivity at 15-20 hz, which is higher than is found for hum ...1978416417
blood coagulation in the tree shrew, tupaia chinensis. 19694240734
transmission of hepatitis c virus infection to tree shrews.although hepatitis c virus (hcv) infection can be reproduced in chimpanzees, these animals are rare and expensive. tree shrews (tupaias) are small animals, closely related to primates, which adapt easily to a laboratory environment. in this work we have investigated the susceptibility of tupaia belangeri chinensis to hcv infection. tupaias caught in the wild in yunnan (china) were inoculated in china with hcv genotype 1b (study a) and in spain with a mixture of genotypes 1b, 1a, and 3 (study b). ...19989601519
reduction of aflatoxin b(1) adduct biomarkers by oltipraz in the tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis).the risk of liver cancer is greatest in people both infected with hepatitis b virus (hbv) and highly exposed to aflatoxin b(1) (afb(1)). the tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis) is a unique species that can be infected with human hbv, is susceptible to afb(1)-induced liver cancer, and shows a synergistic interaction between hbv and afb(1) for liver cancer. in this regard, the tree shrew may be useful for evaluating experimental chemoprevention strategies relevant to high-risk human population ...200010799742
genomic and evolutionary characterization of tt virus (ttv) in tupaias and comparison with species-specific ttvs in humans and non-human virus (ttv) was recovered from the sera of tupaias (tupaia belangeri chinensis) by pcr using primers derived from the noncoding region of the human ttv genome, and its entire genomic sequence was determined. one tupaia ttv isolate (tbc-ttv14) consisted of only 2199 nucleotides (nt) and had three open reading frames (orfs), spanning 1506 nt (orf1), 177 nt (orf2) and 642 nt (orf3), which were in the same orientation as the orfs of the human prototype ttv (ta278). orf3 was presumed to arise from ...200111514713
differential expression of genes during aflatoxin b(1)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in tree shrews.through exploring the regulation of gene expression during hepatocarcinogenesis induced by aflatoxin b(1) (afb(1)), to find out the responsible genes for hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc) and to further understand the underlying molecular mechanism.200414966905
[studies of hereditary conditionality index on some morphological characters of tupaia belangeri chinensis].tree shrew is a kind of excellent experimental animal resource in medical science and biology. in this paper, 35 tupaia blangeri chinensises (tbcs) captured from kunming,yunnan province were investigated. we analyzed hereditary conditionality index about some morphological characters. according to rife-buranamanas law, we analyzed the appearance characteristics with hereditary conditionality including color of fur, orbit etc. the results showed the following: wild fur with seasonal red spot, whi ...200415640044
[the expression of peroxiredoxin ii in hepatocellular carcinoma and its significance].to evaluate the mrna and protein expressions of peroxiredoxin ii (prxii) in hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc) and their significance.200717524271
[sero-epidemiology of six viruses natural infection in tupaia belangeri chinensis].tupaia (tupaia belangeris chinensis, tree shrew) as a new experiment animal in medicine are non-rodent, small animals and close to primates in evolution. experimental animals infected with viruses will affect the animal's health, interference experiment, and even endanger the operator's safety. therefore, the viral infection in experimental animals has long been considered an important part of quality control. lack of clearer viral natural infection information on the t. belangeris limits its us ...201121341379
metabolomic analysis of key regulatory metabolites in hepatitis c virus-infected tree shrews.metabolomics is a powerful new technology that allows the assessment of global low-molecular-weight metabolites in a biological system and which shows great potential in biomarker discovery. analysis of the key metabolites in body fluids has become an important part of improving the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of diseases. hepatitis c virus (hcv) is a major leading cause of liver disease worldwide and a serious burden on public health. however, the lack of a small-animal model has hampered ...201223264353
isolation and identification of symbiotic bacteria from the skin, mouth, and rectum of wild and captive tree shrews.endosymbionts influence many aspects of their hosts' health conditions, including physiology, development, immunity, metabolism, etc. tree shrews (tupaia belangeri chinensis) have attracted increasing attention in modeling human diseases and therapeutic responses due to their close relationship with primates. to clarify the situation of symbiotic bacteria from their body surface, oral cavity, and anus, 12 wild and 12 the third generation of captive tree shrews were examined. based on morphologic ...201425465085
suggestion of suitable animal models for in vivo studies of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1b (ptp1b) inhibitors using computational approaches.ptp1b is a prototypic enzyme of the superfamily protein tyrosine phosphatases (ptps) which are critical regulators of tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent signaling events. it is a highly plausible candidate for designing therapeutic inhibitors of obesity and type 2 diabetes (t2d). in this study, a detailed comparative analysis to reveal the evolutionary relationship of human ptp1b among related vertebrates has been addressed. the phylogenetic trees were constructed with maximum likelihood algorit ...201425133088
characterization of hepatitis e virus infection in tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis).hepatitis e virus (hev) is a major cause of hepatitis in developing countries and poses a threat to public health worldwide. tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis) is a useful animal model in studies on hepatitis viruses, such as hepatitis b and c viruses. however, the use of this animal model for hev research is yet to be developed.201626880187
herpes simplex virus 1 infection of tree shrews differs from that of mice in the severity of acute infection and viral transcription in the peripheral nervous system.studies of herpes simplex virus (hsv) infections of humans are limited by the use of rodent models such as mice, rabbits, and guinea pigs. tree shrews (tupaia belangeri chinensis) are small mammals indigenous to southwest asia. at behavioral, anatomical, genomic, and evolutionary levels, tree shrews are much closer to primates than rodents are, and tree shrews are susceptible to hsv infection. thus, we have studied herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) infection in the tree shrew trigeminal ganglion (t ...201526512084
positively selected genes of the chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis) locomotion system.while the recent release of the chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis) genome has made the tree shrew an increasingly viable experimental animal model for biomedical research, further study of the genome may facilitate new insights into the applicability of this model. for example, though the tree shrew has a rapid rate of speed and strong jumping ability, there are limited studies on its locomotion ability. in this study we used the available chinese tree shrew genome information and c ...201424866495
a study of epstein-barr virus infection in the chinese tree shrew(tupaia belangeri chinensis).epstein-barr virus (ebv) is closely associated with many human diseases, including a variety of deadly human malignant tumours. however, due to the lack of ideal animal models,the biological characteristics of ebv, particularly its function in tumourigenesis, have not been determined. chinese tree shrews (tupaia belangeri chinensis), which are similar to primates, have been used to establish a variety of animal models and have recently received much attention. here, we established tree shrews as ...201728985762
reactivation of hsv-1 following explant of tree shrew brain.herpes simplex virus type i (hsv-1) latently infects peripheral nervous system (pns) sensory neurons, and its reactivation leads to recurring cold sores. the reactivated hsv-1 can travel retrograde from the pns into the central nervous system (cns) and is known to be causative of herpes simplex viral encephalitis. hsv-1 infection in the pns is well documented, but little is known on the fate of hsv-1 once it enters the cns. in the murine model, hsv-1 genome persists in the cns once infected thro ...201626501779
direct projections from serotonergic neurons in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei of midbrain to the suprachiasmatic nucleus in tupaia belangeri chinensis.this study investigated the direct serotonergic projections to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (scn) from the dorsal and median raphe nuclei (dr/mr) of the midbrain in tupaia belangeri chinensis (tbc) by combined application of retrograde horseradish peroxidase (hrp) tract tracing, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscope techniques. the results provide evidence for the direct projections to the scn from serotonergic neurons distributed predominantly in the mr (mainly in its lateral portion) an ...200111496107
creating animal models, why not use the chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis)?the chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis), a squirrel-like and rat-sized mammal, has a wide distribution in southeast asia, south and southwest china and has many unique characteristics that make it suitable for use as an experimental animal. there have been many studies using the tree shrew (tupaia belangeri) aimed at increasing our understanding of fundamental biological mechanisms and for the modeling of human diseases and therapeutic responses. the recent release of a publicly avai ...201728585435
receptive field properties of optic tract fibres from on-center sustained and transient cells in a tree shrew (tupaia chinensis). 2000102077
hepatitis c virus infection of primary tupaia hepatocytes leads to selection of quasispecies variants, induction of interferon-stimulated genes and nf-kappab nuclear for in vitro culture of hepatitis c virus (hcv) are essential tools to analyse virus-cell interactions and to investigate relevant pathophysiological aspects of hcv infection. although the hcv replicon methodology has increased our understanding of hcv biology, this system does not reproduce the natural infection. recently, tupaia (tupaia belangeri chinensis) hepatocytes have been utilized for in vitro culture of hcv. in the present work, primary tupaia hepatocytes infected in vitro with ...200516227229
mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene in tree shrew hepatocellular carcinoma associated with hepatitis b virus infection and intake of aflatoxin b1.infection with hepadnaviruses and exposure to aflatoxin b1 (afb1) are considered to be major risk factors in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc) in humans. a high rate of p53 mutations at codon 249 has been reported in these tumors. the tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis) is a useful animal model for the development of hcc after human hepatitis b virus (hbv) infection or afb1 treatment. therefore, it was of particular interest to determine whether the p53 gene in tree shrew hcc ...200010863098
[studies on the isolation of endogenous sleep factors from tupaia belangeri chinensis (tbc) after sleep deprivation].the present study was undertaken to explore endogenous sleep factors isolated from 48-72 h sleep deprived (sd) male tupaia belangeri chinensis (tbc). only drink ad libitum (10% glucose) was available within 24 h before collection of urine. controlled "clean" urinary samples were pooled and stored at 20 c. fraction i-v from the urine were determined after ultrafiltration and sephadex-g15. amino-acid analysis of each fraction was automatically done by a 835 amino-acid analyzer, respectively. bioas ...19948085174
tree shrew, a potential animal model for hepatitis c, supports the infection and replication of hcv in vitro and in vivo.the tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis), a small animal widely distributed in southeast asia and southwest china, has the potential to be developed as an animal model for hepatitis c. to determine the susceptibility of the tree shrew to hepatitis c virus (hcv) infection in vitro and in vivo, a well-established hcv, produced from the j6/jfh1-huh7.5.1 culture system, was used to infect cultured primary tupaia hepatocytes (pths) and tree shrews. the in vitro results showed that hcv genomic rna ...201728758632
[analysis of the molecular characteristics and cloning of full-length coding sequence of interleukin-2 in tree shrews].while the tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis) is an excellent animal model for studying the mechanisms of human diseases, but few studies examine interleukin-2 (il-2), an important immune factor in disease model evaluation. in this study, a 465 bp of the full-length il-2 cdna encoding sequence was cloned from the rna of tree shrew spleen lymphocytes, which were then cultivated and stimulated with cona (concanavalin). clustal w 2.0 was used to compare and analyze the sequence and molecular ch ...201323572362
experimental mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in the chinese tree recent years, the chinese tree shrew has been considered to be a promising experimental animal for numerous diseases. yet the susceptibility of mycobacterium tuberculosis (mtb) in chinese tree shrew is still unknown. we infected chinese tree shrews with a high dose (2.5 × 10(6) cfu) or a low dose (2.5 × 10(3) cfu) of the h37rv strain via the femoral vein to cause severe or mild disease. disease severity was determined by clinical signs, pathologic changes and bacteria distribution in organs. ...201425296288
identification and characterization of toll-like receptors (tlrs) in the chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis).in mammals, the toll-like receptors (tlrs) play a major role in initiating innate immune responses against pathogens. comparison of the tlrs in different mammals may help in understanding the tlr-mediated responses and developing of animal models and efficient therapeutic measures for infectious diseases. the chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis), a small mammal with a close relationship to primates, is a viable experimental animal for studying viral and bacterial infections. in this s ...201626923770
tree shrew models: a chronic social defeat model of depression and a one-trial captive conditioning model of learning and memory.recent genome studies indicate that tree shrew is in the order or a closest sister of primates, and thus may be one of the best animals to model human diseases. in this paper, we report on a social defeat model of depression in tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis). two male tree shrews were housed in a pair-cage consisting of two independent cages separated by a wire mesh partition with a door connecting the two cages. after one week adaptation, the connecting door was opened and a brief figh ...201121341381
sarcocystis tupaia, sp. nov., a new parasite species employing treeshrews (tupaiidae, tupaia belangeri chinensis) as natural intermediate hosts.the range of vertebrates that serve as intermediate hosts for parasites in the genus sarcocystis remains incompletely defined. here, we provide the first report of infections in treeshrews, describe the morphology of encysted parasites using light and transmission electron microscopy, and place this agent within a phylogenetic context by sequencing and comparing its 18s ribosomal dna to that of related parasites. muscle infections were diagnosed in four of 45 wild treeshrews captured in the vici ...201020026242
proteome analysis of aflatoxin b1-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis) and functional identification of candidate protein peroxiredoxin order to explore the proteins responsible for hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc), aflatoxin b(1)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis) was analyzed with 2-de and ms. by comparing hcc samples with their own precancerous biopsies and hcc-surrounding tissues, a group of candidate proteins that differentially expressed in hcc were obtained. peroxiredoxin (prx) ii, one of the candidates with distinct alteration, was further investigated and validated. western blot and ...200818318006
toxic effect of chloromycetin on the ultrastructures of the motor neurons of the chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri).this paper describes the toxic effects of chloromycetin on the motor neurons of the chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis) with horse radish peroxidase (hrp) as the labeling enzyme. when chloromycetin was administered orally at 2.5 mg/kg (body weight)/day for 3 days, chinese tree shrews showed evidence of neurotoxicity. this included damage in cortical motor neuron synapses ending on neurons of the red nucleus and the ultrastructural changes in the mitochondria such as swelling of these ...200415181466
[differentially expressed genes in hepatocellular carcinoma of tree shrew induced by different factors].previous studies on differentially expressed genes in hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc) used to perform with para-cancerous tissues as normal control. however, the para-cancerous tissue of hcc is actually abnormal because they frequently contain hepatitis, cirrhosis, hyperplastic nodules or foci, etc. in order to explore the molecular mechanism and the responsible genes for hepatocarcinogenesis, through applying the hcc model of tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis), this study was designed to co ...200314558942
synergistic effect of hepatitis b virus and aflatoxin b1 in hepatocarcinogenesis in tree animal experiment with tree shrews was performed to detect the synergistic effects of hepatitis b virus (hbv) infection and dietary aflatoxin b1 (afb1) in hepatocarcinogenesis. adult healthy tree shrews (tupaia belangeri chinensis) were divided into four groups: group a (hbv + afb1)--animals were infected with human hbv serum at first, then fed afb1 diluted with milk, 150 ug/, 6 days/week for 105 weeks. group b (hbv)--animals were infected with human hbv as group a, but no afb1 treat ...199910374028
characterization and phylogenetic analysis of krüppel-like transcription factor (klf) gene family in tree shrews (tupaia belangeri chinensis).krüppel-like factors (klfs) are a family of zinc finger transcription factors regulating embryonic development and diseases. the phylogenetics of klfs has not been studied in tree shrews, an animal lineage with a closer relationship to primates than rodents. here, we identified 17 klfs from chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis). klf proteins are highly conserved among humans, monkeys, rats, mice and tree shrews compared to zebrafish and chickens. the ctbp binding site, sin3a binding si ...201728032601
loss of rig-i leads to a functional replacement with mda5 in the chinese tree shrew.the function of the rig-i-like receptors (rlrs; including rig-i, mda5, and lgp2) as key cytoplasmic sensors of viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (pamps) has been subjected to numerous pathogenic challenges and has undergone a dynamic evolution. we found evolutionary evidence that rig-i was lost in the chinese tree shrew lineage. along with the loss of rig-i, both mda5 (tmda5) and lgp2 (tlgp2) have undergone strong positive selection in the tree shrew. tmda5 or tmda5/tlgp2 could sense ...201627621475
[factors influencing long-term hepatitis b virus infection of the tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis) as an in vivo model of chronic hepatitis b].to determine the methods for establishing an in vivo model of long-term hepatitis b virus (hbv) infection in the chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis).201223207228
chronic hepatitis b virus infection and occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in tree shrews (tupaia belangeri chinensis).hepatitis b virus (hbv) infection has been believed as a major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc) for a long time, however, the evidences of which are mostly from clinical and epidemiological investigations while there is no evidence from animal experiments. tree shrew (tupaia) is a small animal closely related to primates evolutionarily, with about 8 years of lifespan. our previous study proved that tree shrews can be chronically hbv-infected after being inoculated neonatally with hbv. the ...201525889678
experimental chronic hepatitis b infection of neonatal tree shrews (tupaia belangeri chinensis): a model to study molecular causes for susceptibility and disease progression to chronic hepatitis in humans.hepatitis b virus (hbv) infection continues to be an escalating global health problem. feasible and effective animal models for hbv infection are the prerequisite for developing novel therapies for this disease. the tree shrew (tupaia) is a small animal species evolutionary closely related to humans, and thus is permissive to certain human viral pathogens. whether tree shrews could be chronically infected with hbv in vivo has been controversial for decades. most published research has been repor ...201222913805
chronic clomipramine treatment reverses core symptom of depression in subordinate tree shrews.chronic stress is the major cause of clinical depression. the behavioral signs of depression, including anhedonia, learning and memory deficits, and sleep disruption, result from the damaging effects of stress hormones on specific neural pathways. the chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis) is an aggressive non-human primate with a hierarchical social structure that has become a well-established model of the behavioral, endocrine, and neurobiological changes associated with stress-induce ...201324312510
generation and characterization of a breast carcinoma model by pymt overexpression in mammary epithelial cells of tree shrew, an animal close to primates in evolution.the tree shrew is becoming an attractive experimental animal model for human breast cancer owing to a closer relationship to primates/humans than rodents. tree shrews are superior to classical primates because tree shrew are easier to manipulate, maintain and propagate. it is required to establish a high-efficiency tree shrew breast cancer model for etiological research and drug assessment. our previous studies suggest that 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (dmba) and medroxyprogesterone acetate (m ...201626296387
identification and characterization of liver micrornas of the chinese tree shrew via deep sequencing.chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis) is a small animal that possess many features, which are valuable in biomedical research, as experimental models. currently, there are numerous attempts to utilize tree shrews as models for hepatitis c virus (hcv) infection.201526587035
characterization of spontaneous breast tumor in tree shrews (tupaia belangeri chinenesis).breast cancer is a common malignant tumor. it is essential to develop suitable animal models for discovering novel preventive and therapeutic approaches. tree shrews (tupaia belangeri chinensis) have a closer evolutionary relationship with humans than do rodents, which have been widely used in laboratory research. spontaneous breast tumors were identified in tree shrews in 1960s; however, no detailed studies about tree shrew breast tumors have been conducted to date. here, we characterized a spo ...201222345009
motor function in mptp-treated tree shrews (tupaia belangeri chinensis).the tree shrew, a new experimental animal model, has been used to study a variety of diseases, especially diseases of the nervous system. 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (mptp) is the gold standard for toxin-based animal models of parkinson's disease (pd) because mptp treatment replicates almost all of the pathological hallmarks of pd. therefore, in this study, the effects of mptp on the motor function of the tree shrew were examined. after five daily injections of a 3 mg/kg dose of ...201323797325
evaluating the phylogenetic position of chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis) based on complete mitochondrial genome: implication for using tree shrew as an alternative experimental animal to primates in biomedical research.tree shrew (tupaia belangeri) is currently placed in order scandentia and has a wide distribution in southeast asia and southwest china. due to its unique characteristics, such as small body size, high brain-to-body mass ratio, short reproductive cycle and life span, and low-cost of maintenance, tree shrew has been proposed to be an alternative experimental animal to primates in biomedical research. however, there are some debates regarding the exact phylogenetic affinity of tree shrew to primat ...201222464472
pten/pik3ca genes are frequently mutated in spontaneous and medroxyprogesterone acetate-accelerated 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary tumours of tree shrews.tree shrew has increasingly become an attractive experimental animal model for human diseases, particularly for breast cancer due to spontaneous breast tumours and their close relationship to primates and by extension to humans. however, neither normal mammary glands nor breast tumours have been well characterised in the chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis). in this study, normal mammary glands from four different developmental stages and 18 spontaneous breast tumours were analysed. h ...201425457635
does the genetic feature of the chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis) support its potential as a viable model for alzheimer's disease research?alzheimer's disease (ad) is a neurodegenerative disease with increasing incidence across the world and no cure at the present time. an ideal animal model would facilitate the understanding of the pathogenesis of ad and discovery of potential therapeutic targets. the chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis) has a closer genetic affinity to primates relative to rodents, and can attain ages of 8 years or older, which represents another advantage for the study of neurodegenerative diseases su ...201829332044
[tree shrews under the spot light: emerging model of human diseases].animal models are indispensible in biomedical research and have made tremendous contributions to answer fundamental questions on human biology, disease mechanisms, and to the development of new drugs and diagnostic tools. due to the limitations of rodent models in translational medicine, tree shrews (tupaia belangeri chinensis), the closest relative of primates, have attracted increasing attention in modeling human diseases and therapeutic responses. here we discuss the recent progress in tree s ...201323572354
age-related changes of corneal endothelial cell in healthy chinese tree shrew measured by non-contact specular determine the impact of age on the morphology of endothelial cells and central corneal thickness (cct) in chinese tree shrew.201729259895
distribution of corticotropin-releasing factor in the tree shrew brain.corticotropin-releasing factor (crf) in the brain plays an important role in regulations of physiological and behavioral processes, yet crf distribution in tree shrew brain has not been thoroughly and systematically reported. here we examined the distribution of crf immunoreactivity in the brain of tree shrews (tupaia belangeri chinensis) using immunohistochemical techniques. crf-immunoreactive (-ir) cells and fibers were present in the rhinencephalon, telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, ...201526074350
distribution of vasopressin, oxytocin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the hypothalamus and extrahypothalamic regions of tree shrews.vasopressin (vp), oxytocin (oxt) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (vip) in the brain modulate physiological and behavioral processes in many vertebrates. day-active tree shrews, the closest relatives of primates, live singly or in pairs in territories that they defend vigorously against intruding conspecifics. however, anatomy concerning peptidergic neuron distribution in the tree shrew brain is less clear. here, we examined the distribution of vp, oxt and vip immunoreactivity in the hypoth ...201424486962
characterization of a mavs ortholog from the chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis).human mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (hmavs, also known as ips-1, visa, or cardif) is essential for antiviral innate immunity. the chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinenses), a close relative of primates, is emerging as a potential animal model for investigating viral infection. however, there is a lack of biological knowledge about the antiviral innate immunity of the tree shrew. in this study, we identified and characterized the function of the chinese tree shrew mavs gene (tma ...201525931429
two bacterial infection models in tree shrew for evaluating the efficacy of antimicrobial agents.animal models are essential for the development of new anti-infectious drugs. although some bacterial infection models have been established in rodents, small primate models are rare. here, we report on two bacterial infection models established in tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis). a burnt skin infection model was induced by dropping 5×10(6) cfu of staphylococcus aureus on the surface of a wound after a third degree burn. this dose of s. aureus caused persistent infection for 7 days and o ...201222345001
structural analysis of cd59 of chinese tree shrew: a new reference molecule for human immune system specific cd59 drug discovery.chinese tree shrews (tupaia belangeri chinensis) bear several characteristics that are considered to be very crucial for utilizing in animal experimental models in biomedical research. subsequent to the identification of key aspects and signaling pathways in nervous and immune systems, it is revealed that tree shrews acquires shared common as well as unique characteristics, and hence offers a genetic basis for employing this animal as a prospective model for biomedical research. cd59 glycoprotei ...201729149813
potassium oxonate induces acute hyperuricemia in the tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis).potassium oxonate, a selectively competitive uricase inhibitor, produced hyperuricemia (hua) in rodents in a previous study. in this study, we employed the tree shrew as an animal model to study potassium oxonate-induced hua. the effect of allopurinol (allo), a uric acid reducer, was also examined in this model. potassium oxonate at doses of 5, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 1,000 mg/kg was given intraperitoneally to tree shrews. the results showed that potassium oxonate can effectively increase the l ...201728302963
anatomical mri templates of tree shrew brain for volumetric analysis and voxel-based morphometry.tree shrews are close relatives of primates, and are increasingly used as models in the research of vision, social stress and neurological/psychiatric diseases. however, neuroimaging techniques, for example magnetic resonance (mr) imaging, are only rarely applied to this species to study the structure and function of the brain. a template mr image set, which is essential for morphometry/volumetric analysis, of tree shrew brain has been lacking in the literature.201324012828
microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity in thetupaia belangeri yaoshanensis.the chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri yaoshanensis) has long been proposed to serve as an animal model for studying human diseases. however, its overall genetic diversity and population structure remain largely unknown. in the present study, we investigated the genetic diversity of population microsatellite dna in wildtupaia belangeri yaoshanensis. sixteen microsatellite loci were assessed in 76 wildtupaia belangeri yaoshanensis. the target microsatellite dna fragments were amplified from the ...201729085630
rat-to-chinese tree shrew heart transplantation is a novel small animal model to study non-gal-mediated discordant xenograft humoral rejection.since α-1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout (galt-ko) pigs became available, there has been an increasing interest in non-gal natural antibody (nab)-mediated xenograft rejection. to better understand mechanisms of non-gal nab-mediated rejection, a simple small animal model without gene manipulation would be extremely valuable. here, we tested whether the chinese tree shrew (cts), which is a small-sized mammal that is phylogenetically close to primates, could serve as a model for discordant xenogr ...201726589781
[effects of the different living conditions on reproductive physiological functions of chinese tree shrews]. 201425571637
diverse interleukin-7 mrna transcripts in chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis).interleukin-7 (il7) is a pleiotropic cytokine that is actively involved in the immune system. the chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis) has been proposed as an alternative experimental animal to primates in biomedical research. however, there is a lack of biological knowledge about the immune system of the tree shrew. in this study, we cloned the il7 gene (til7) in the chinese tree shrew and quantified the expression of mrna transcripts in eight tissues (heart, liver, spleen, lung, kid ...201424945249
tree shrew database (treeshrewdb): a genomic knowledge base for the chinese tree shrew.the tree shrew (tupaia belangeri) is a small mammal with a close relationship to primates and it has been proposed as an alternative experimental animal to primates in biomedical research. the recent release of a high-quality chinese tree shrew genome enables more researchers to use this species as the model animal in their studies. with the aim to making the access to an extensively annotated genome database straightforward and easy, we have created the tree shrew database (treeshrewdb). this i ...201425413576
histopathological changes in the liver of tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis) persistently infected with hepatitis b animal model for hbv that more closely approximates the disease in humans is needed. the tree shrew (tupaia belangeri) is closely related to primates and susceptible to hbv. we previously established that neonatal tree shrews can be persistently infected with hbv in vivo, and here present a six year follow-up histopathological study of these animals.201324220021
functional classification of cells in the optic tract of a tree shrew (tupaia chinensis). 1976816664
g-and c-banded chromosomes of tupaia chinensis (mammalia, primates). 1976823130
a method for prolonged electrophysiological experiments with the tree shew (tupaia chinensis). 1975809941
immunohistochemical mapping of neuropeptide y in the tree shrew tree shrews are promising animals as research models for a variety of human disorders. neuropeptide y (npy) modulates many behaviors in vertebrates. here we examined the distribution of npy in the brain of tree shrews (tupaia belangeri chinensis) using immunohistochemical techniques. the differential distribution of npy-immunoreactive (-ir) cells and fibers were observed in the rhinencephalon, telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon, and myelencephalon of tree shrews ...201525327585
a novel 26rfa peptide containing both analgesic and anti-inflammatory functions from chinese tree shrew.26rfa is one of neuroendocrine peptide groups in the rfamide peptide family containing conserved arg-phe/tyr-nh2 motif at their c-terminus. they exert multiple biological functions in vertebrates. a novel 26rfa peptide (tc26rfa) with unique structure is identified from the tree shrew of tupaia belangeri chinensis in the present study. in structure, different from other 26rfa peptides containing conserved phe-arg-phe-nh2 motif at their c-terminus, there is a phe-arg-tyr-nh2 c-terminus in tc26rfa. ...201424632209
establishment of basal cell carcinoma animal model in chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis).basal cell carcinoma (bcc) is the most common skin cancer worldwide, with incidence rates continuing to increase. ultraviolet radiation is the major environmental risk factor and dysregulation of the hedgehog (hh) signaling pathway has been identified in most bccs. the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic bbcs is still a challenge and requires a better animal model than the widely used rodents for drug development and testing. chinese tree shrews (tupaia belangeri chinensis) are closely ...201728825448
dynamic changes in dna demethylation in the tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis) brain during postnatal development and aging.brain development and aging are associated with alterations in multiple epigenetic systems, including dna methylation and demethylation patterns. here, we observed that the levels of the 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmc) ten-eleven translocation (tet) enzyme-mediated active dna demethylation products were dynamically changed and involved in postnatal brain development and aging in tree shrews (tupaia belangeri chinensis). the levels of 5hmc in multiple anatomic structures showed a gradual increase ...201728409505
tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis), a novel non-obese animal model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (nafld) is becoming a severe public health problem that is affecting a large proportion of the world population. generally, nafld in patients is usually accompanied by obesity, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance (ir) and type 2 diabetes (t2d), for which numerous animal models have been generated in order to explore the pathogenesis and therapies of nafld. on the contrary, quite a number of nafld subjects, especially in asian regions, are non-obese and non-diabeti ...201627659689
relationships between body weight, fasting blood glucose concentration, sex and age in tree shrews (tupaia belangeri chinensis).the tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis) is a squirrel-like lower primate or a close relative of primates, commonly used as an animal model in biomedical research. despite more than three decades of usage in research, the clear relationships between body weight, fasting blood glucose concentration, sex and age among tree shrews remain unclear. based on an investigation of 992 tree shrews (454 males and 538 females) aged between 4 months and 4 years old, we found that male tree shrews have sig ...201323336608
whole-brain mapping of afferent projections to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in tree shrews.the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (bst) plays an important role in integrating and relaying input information to other brain regions in response to stress. the cytoarchitecture of the bst in tree shrews (tupaia belangeri chinensis) has been comprehensively described in our previous publications. however, the inputs to the bst have not been described in previous reports. the aim of the present study was to investigate the sources of afferent projections to the bst throughout the brain of tr ...201627436534
transcriptome profiles using next-generation sequencing reveal liver changes in the early stage of diabetes in tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis).determining the liver changes during the early stages of diabetes is critical to understand the nature of the disease and development of novel treatments for it. advances in the use of animal models and next-generation sequencing technologies offer a powerful tool in connection between liver changes and the diabetes. here, we created a tree shrew diabetes model akin to type 1 diabetes by using streptozotocin to induce hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. using rna-seq, we compiled liver transcripto ...201627069931
cholesterol induces lipoprotein lipase expression in a tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis) model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.animal models are indispensible to investigate the pathogenesis and treatments of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (nafld). altered cholesterol metabolism has been implicated into the pathogenesis of nafld. here, using high fat, cholesterol and cholate diet (hfhc), we generated a novel tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis) model of nafld, which displayed dyslipidemia with increased levels of plasma alanine aminotransferase (alt) and aspartate aminotransferase (ast), total cholesterol (tc), l ...201526522240
comparative pathogenicity and transmissibility of pandemic h1n1, avian h5n1, and human h7n9 influenza viruses in tree shrews.influenza a viruses (iavs) continuously challenge the poultry industry and human health. studies of iavs are still hampered by the availability of suitable animal models. chinese tree shrews (tupaia belangeri chinensis) are closely related to primates physiologically and genetically, which make them a potential animal model for human diseases. in this study, we comprehensively evaluated infectivity and transmissibility in chinese tree shrews by using pandemic h1n1 (a/sichuan/1/2009, pdmh1n1), av ...201931921093
[streptozotocin induction of type 2 diabetes in tree shrew].the aim of this study was to induce type 2 diabetes in tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis). streptozotocin (stz), a glucosamine derivative of nitrosourea and preferentially toxic to pancreatic beta cells, has been commonly used to induce type 1 and 2 diabetes in experimental animals. tree shrews were treated with different low doses of stz (60, 70, and 80 mg/kg), with six control tree shrews receiving citrate buffer. after stz injection, tree shrews displayed increased fasting blood and urin ...201323572360
genome of the chinese tree shrew.chinese tree shrews (tupaia belangeri chinensis) possess many features valuable in animals used as experimental models in biomedical research. currently, there are numerous attempts to employ tree shrews as models for a variety of human disorders: depression, myopia, hepatitis b and c virus infections, and hepatocellular carcinoma, to name a few. here we present a publicly available annotated genome sequence for the chinese tree shrew. phylogenomic analysis of the tree shrew and other mammalians ...201323385571
proteomic characteristics of the liver and skeletal muscle in the chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis).valid animal models are useful for studying the pathophysiology of specific disorders, such as neural disease, diabetes and cancer. previous molecular phylogeny studies indicate that the tree shrew is in the same order as (or a close sister to) primates, and thus may be an ideal model in which to study human disease. in this study, the proteome of liver and muscle tissue in tree the shrew was identified by combining peptide fractionation and lc-ms/ms identification. in total, 2146 proteins were ...201222886497
[molecular cloning of tupaia belangeri chinensis neuropeptide y and homology comparison with other analogues from primates].much attention has been payed to tree shrews for their close phylogenetic relationship with primates, small size, and short reproductive cycle. especially, they are considered as excellent experiential animals for medicine or/and disease research. a nucleotide sequence encoding neuropeptide y(npy) precursor has been cloned from the cdna library of tupaia belangeri chinensis. sequence alignment revealed that the sequence homology with primate npy was up to 96.9%. the phylogenetic analysis based o ...201222345012
[morphological characteristics and cryodamage of chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis) sperm].the tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis) is a small non-rodent mammal, which is a relatively new experimental animal in medicine due to its close evolutionary relationship to primates and its rapid propagation. sperm characteristics and cryopreservation in the tree shrew were the main contents of our spermatological research. epididymal sperm were surgically harvested from male tree shrews captured from the kunming area. the rate of testis weight to body weight was (1.05±0.07)%, volume of bot ...201222345005
the susceptibility of primary dermis fibroblasts from the chinese tree shrew to human cytomegalovirus a universal pathogen leading to neonatal defects and transplant failure, human cytomegalovirus (hcmv) has strict species specificity and this has prevented the development of a suitable animal model for the pathogenesis study. the mechanism of cross-species barrier remains elusive and there are so far no non-human cell culture models that support hcmv replication. the chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis) is a small laboratory animal and evolutionary closely related with primates. w ...201930989428
detection and genome characterization of two novel papillomaviruses and a novel polyomavirus in tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis) in china.papillomaviruses (pvs) and polyomaviruses (pyvs) infect diverse vertebrates including human and cause a broad spectrum of outcomes from asymptomatic infection to severe disease. there has been no pv and only one pyv detected in tree shrews, though the genomic properties of tree shrews are highly similar to those of the primates.201930885224
molecular identification and antiviral function of the guanylate-binding protein (gbp) genes in the chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinesis).following viral detection and interferons (ifns) production, several hundreds of ifn-stimulated genes (isgs) are subsequently induced to act as direct antiviral effectors or regulators of the ifn signaling. the guanylate-binding protein (gbp) family belongs to ifn-inducible gtpases defending the host against a diverse group of invading pathogens such as parasites, bacteria and viruses. the chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinese) has been increasingly used as an alternative experimental ani ...201930817937
[establishment of tree shrew chronic morphine dependent model].the clinical use of morphine to reduce pain is limited because of its drug tolerance, dependence and addiction. in the present study, the tree shrews (tupaia belangeri chinensis) developed morphine tolerance and chronic morphine dependence by morphine injections with increasing doses (5, 10, 15, 20 mg/kg body weight for 7 days). meanwhile, the naloxone (1.25 mg/kg body weight)-induced conditioned place aversion (cpa) and the withdrawal symptom were also found. the tree shrew model of chronic mor ...201222345003
genetic diversity and matrilineal structure in chinese tree shrews inhabiting kunming, china.due to their special phylogenetic position in the euarchontoglires and close affinity to primates, tree shrews have been proposed as an alternative experimental animal to primates in biomedical research. however, the population genetic structure of tree shrews has largely remained unknown and this has hindered the development of tree shrew breeding and selection. here we sampled 80 chinese tree shrews (tupaia belangeri chinensis) in kunming, china, and analyzed partial mtdna control region seque ...201121341380
[effects of simulated space rhythm (l:d = 0.75h:0.75h) on circadian rhythm in tree shrews (tupaia belangeri chinensis)].it is known that contemporary space station revolves at the altitude of 400-500 km in the outer space. the present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of simulated space rhythm (l:d = 0.75 h:0.75 h) at this altitude on circadian rhythm in tree shrews (tupaia belangeri chinensis) and the effects of endogenous sleep inducing neuropeptide asp5-alpha-dsip on the space-rhythm-entrained circadian rhythm. this primitive stock serves as one species of tupaiidae and is a unique native of sout ...19902278004
molecular characterization of the 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase family in the chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis).virus infection induces type i interferons (ifns) that in turn exert their pleiotropic effects through inducing a large number of interferon-stimulated genes (isgs). the ifn-induced 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetases (oass) have been identified as a member of the isgs family characterized by the ability to synthesize 2',5'-oligoadenylate (2-5a), which can induce the degradation of viral rna by activating rnase l within the infected cells to block viral replications. in this study, we characterized ...201930467096
[preliminary observation on the susceptibility of tupaia belangeri chinensis to malaria parasites]. 19846518646
evolution of acidic mammalian chitinase genes (chia) is related to body mass and insectivory in primates.insects are an important food resource for many primates, but the chitinous exoskeletons of arthropods have long been considered to be indigestible by the digestive enzymes of most mammals. however, recently mice and insectivorous bats were found to produce the enzyme acidic mammalian chitinase (amcase) to digest insect exoskeletons. here, we report on the gene chia and its paralogs, which encode amcase, in a comparative sample of nonhuman primates. our results show that early primates likely ha ...201729216399
drug target mining and analysis of the chinese tree shrew for pharmacological testing.the discovery of new drugs requires the development of improved animal models for drug testing. the chinese tree shrew is considered to be a realistic candidate model. to assess the potential of the chinese tree shrew for pharmacological testing, we performed drug target prediction and analysis on genomic and transcriptomic scales. using our pipeline, 3,482 proteins were predicted to be drug targets. of these predicted targets, 446 and 1,049 proteins with the highest rank and total scores, respe ...201425105297
intensity discrimination capacity of retinal ganglion cells of a tree shrew (tupaia chinensis). 19807434576
definition of neural response and incremental sensitivity of retinal ganglion cells in a tree shrew (tupaia chinensis). 1979117626
basal physiological parameters in domesticated tree shrews (tupaia belangeri chinensis).establishing non-human primate models of human diseases is an efficient way to narrow the large gap between basic studies and translational medicine. multifold advantages such as simplicity of breeding, low cost of feeding and facility of operating make the tree shrew an ideal non-human primate model proxy. additional features like vulnerability to stress and spontaneous diabetic characteristics also indicate that the tree shrew could be a potential new animal model of human diseases. however, b ...201323572369
characterization of 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers in the chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis).the chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis) is a small experimental animal with a close affinity to primates. this species has long been proposed to be an alternative experimental animal to primates in biomedical research. despite decades of study, there is no pure breed for this animal, and the overall genetic diversity of wild tree shrews remains largely unknown. in order to obtain a set of genetic markers for evaluating the genetic diversity of tree shrew wild populations and tracing ...201323572368
distribution of tyrosine-hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the hypothalamus of tree shrews.the tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis) is the closest living relative of primates. yet, little is known about the anatomical distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase (th)-immunoreactive (ir) structures in the hypothalamus of the tree shrew. here, we provide the first detailed description of the distribution of th-ir neurons in the hypothalamus of tree shrews via immunohistochemical techniques. th-ir neurons were widely distributed throughout the hypothalamus of tree shrew. the majority of hypot ...202031674014
tree shrew as a new animal model for the study of dengue virus.dengue virus is a significant public health threat worldwide; however, the pathogenesis of dengue disease remains poorly understood due to lack of appropriate small animal models. tree shrews are an emerging experimental animal model for the study of human diseases due to their resemblance of genetic characteristics to primate animals. herein we report that dengue infection in tree shrews elicits resemble clinical symptoms as in humans. dengue fever (△2°c> normal body temperature) developed in ~ ...202133841402
tupaia mavs is a dual target during hepatitis c virus infection for innate immune evasion and viral replication via nf-κb.hepatitis c virus (hcv) infection is the cause of severe liver disease in many people. the restricted species tropism of hcv hinders the research and development of drugs and vaccines. the chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis) is a close relative of primates and can be infected by hcv, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. in this study, we have characterized the functions of tree shrew mavs (tmavs) in response to hcv infection and defined the capacity of hcv replication. hcv was ...202032907995
establishment and transcriptomic features of an immortalized hepatic cell line of the chinese tree shrew.the chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinesis) is a rising experimental animal and has been used for studying a variety of human diseases, such as metabolic and viral infectious diseases.202032880691
identification, characterization and expression profiles of psen2 in the chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis).the gene psen2 encodes presenilin-2, a subunit of γ-secretase. mutations in psen2 are not only related to alzheimer's disease but are also involved in other diseases. the chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis) is a potential animal model for alzheimer's disease, although little is known about its cdna sequence, protein structure, and psen2 expression. to better understand psen2 in the tree shrew, we cloned this gene by rapid amplification of cdna ends technology. hence, we analyzed the ...202032706189
covid-19-like symptoms observed in chinese tree shrews infected with sars-cov-2.the coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) pandemic continues to pose a global threat to the human population. identifying animal species susceptible to infection with the sars-cov-2/ hcov-19 pathogen is essential for controlling the outbreak and for testing valid prophylactics or therapeutics based on animal model studies. here, different aged chinese tree shrews (adult group, 1 year old; old group, 5-6 years old), which are close relatives to primates, were infected with sars-cov-2. x-ray, viral ...202032701249
an alternative splicing of tupaia sting modulated anti-rna virus responses by targeting mda5-lgp2 and irf3.the stimulator of ifn genes (sting; also known as mita, tmem173, mpys, or eris) is generally regarded as a key adaptor protein for sensing pathogenic dna genomes. however, its role in rna viral signaling as part of the innate immunity system remains controversial. in this study, we identified two isoforms of sting (a full-length tupaia sting [tsting-fl] and a tupaia sting short isoform [tsting-mini]) in the chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis), a close relative of primates. tsting-fl ...202032376647
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