experimental infection of monkeys with nanophyetus salmincola. 19744206881
nanophyetus salmincola infections in kippered salmon. 19744209689
prevalence of nanophyetus salmincola in ocean-caught salmon. 19744426872
biology of nanophyetus salmincola and "salmon poisoning" disease. 19704934030
"salmon poisoning" disease. v. definitive hosts of the trematode vector, nanophyetus salmincola. 19685757666
survey of parasites in threatened stocks of coho salmon (oncorhynchus kisutch) in oregon by examination of wet tissues and histology.abstract we are conducting studies on the impacts of parasites on oregon coastal coho salmon (oncorhynchus kistuch). an essential first step is documenting the geographic distribution of infections, which may be accomplished by employing different methods for parasite detection. thus, the objectives of the current study were: (1) identify parasite species infecting these stocks of coho salmon and document their prevalence, density, and geographic distribution; (2) assess the pathology of these i ...201121668345
effect of nanophyetus salmincola and bacterial co-infection on mortality of juvenile chinook salmon.the freshwater trematode nanophyetus salmincola has been demonstrated to impair salmonid immune function and resistance to the marine pathogen vibrio anguillarum, potentially resulting in ocean mortality. we examined whether infection by the parasite n. salmincola similarly increases mortality of juvenile chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha when they are exposed to the freshwater pathogens flavobacterium columnare or aeromonas salmonicida, two bacteria that juvenile salmonids might encounter ...201526671546
Mortality of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) associated with burdens of multiple parasite species.Multiple analytical techniques were used to evaluate the impact of multiple parasite species on the mortality of threatened juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) from the West Fork Smith River, Oregon, USA. We also proposed a novel parsimonious mathematical representation of macroparasite distribution, congestion rate, which (i) is easier to use than traditional models, and (ii) is based on Malthusian parameters rather than probability theory. Heavy infections of Myxobolus insidiosus (Myxo ...201121855547
neorickettsia helminthoeca and salmon poisoning disease: a review.neorickettsia helminthoeca is an obligate intra-cytoplasmic bacterium that causes salmon poisoning disease (spd), an acute, febrile, fatal disease of dogs. the complex life-cycle of this pathogen involves stages in an intestinal fluke (nanophyetus salmincola), a river snail (oxytrema silicula), in fish, and in fish-eating mammals. this complexity has created confusion with respect to the various bacterial and parasitic infections associated with the disease and its significance in dogs in specif ...201120044285
salmon poisoning disease in two malayan sun bears.2 captive sun bears (helarctos malayanus) were evaluated because of acute onset of vomiting, mucoid diarrhea, lethargy, and anorexia 1 week after eating live trout from a northern california reservoir.200818279100
salmon poisoning disease in dogs on southern vancouver island.salmon poisoning disease in dogs has previously been reported in north america only along the western coast of the u.s.a. this paper presents the findings from eight affected dogs recently diagnosed on vancouver island, canada. the clinical signs shown by these dogs were lethargy, anorexia, pyrexia and lymph node enlargement. the causative agent, neorickettsia helminthoeca was observed in macrophages obtained from lymph node aspirates. this organism is transmitted to dogs in cysts of the fluke n ...198417422349
persistence of neorickettsiae helminthoeca in an endoparasite of the pacific salmon.silver salmon (oncorhynchus kisutch) infected with the metacercariae of the "salmon poisoning" fluke (nanophyetus salmincola) remain infected after they have migrated to sea. metacercariae remain viable in such salmon for at least 33(1/2) months. these metacercariae are capable of transmitting salmon disease (neorickettsiae helminthoeca) to susceptible dogs throughout this period.196414171553
the life history of the salmonpoisoning fluke, nanophyetus salmincola (chapin). 196013798970
[the epizootiological problems of trematodiases in the maritime territory].five species of trematodes: metagonimus yokogawai, m. katsuradai, centrocestus armatus, nanophyetus salmincola schikhobalowi and paragonimus westermani ichunensis which are able to infect man have been found to develop with the participation of mollusks of the juga genus from the rivers of the maritime territory. some epizootiological aspects of the infections caused by these trematodes are considered in the paper.19947799852
experimental salmon poisoning disease in juvenile coyotes (canis latrans).salmon poisoning disease (spd) was experimentally induced in juvenile coyotes (canis latrans). the disease was lethal in 11 of 12 coyotes within 15 days after inoculation with 1,000 or 4,000 metacercariae of nanophyetus salmincola. clinical manifestations of the disease included lymph node enlargement, anorexia, pyrexia, diarrhea and death. coccoid bodies indistinguishable from rickettsiae were observed in macrophages of spleen, liver, lymph nodes, and duodenum. percentage recovery of adult trem ...19827097880
"salmon poisoning" disease. iv. transmission of the disease to dogs by nanophyetus salmincola eggs. 19676068188
histopathological and histochemical effects of the trematode nanophyetus salmincola (chapin) on the hepatopancreas of its snail host, oxytrema siliqua (gould). 19676047197
"salmon poisoning" disease. 3. effect of experimental nanophyetus salmincola infection on the fish host. 19676026843
a new experimental second intermediate host of nanophyetus salmincola with evidence of transmission of neorickettsia helminthoeca. 19705421098
effect of the "salmon poisoning" trematode, nanophyetus salmincola, on the swimming ability of juvenile salmonid fishes. 19715105973
[infestation of the humpback salmon oncorhynchus gorbuscha (walbaum) by the metacercariae of the trematode nanophyetus salmincola schikhobalowi skrjabin et podjapolskaya, 1931) n. comb. filimonova, 1967 (trematoda, nanophyetidae) in the amur basin]. 19863960002
salmon poisoning disease in juvenile coyotes: clinical evaluation and infectivity of metacercariae and rickettsiae.clinical salmon poisoning disease (spd), and survival of neorickettsia helminthoeca and metacercariae of nanophyetus salmincola in fish were evaluated experimentally in 12-wk-old coyotes (canis latrans) to determine the potential of spd for biological control of coyotes. coyotes readily ate fish that contained metacercariae and rickettsiae. they developed diarrhea, anorexia and lethargy within 7 days after feeding. infected coyotes lost 58% of their body weight when compared to uninfected contro ...19873625898
human intestinal infection with nanophyetus salmincola from salmonid fishes.between 1974 and 1985, 10 patients were studied who presented with either gastrointestinal complaints or unexplained peripheral blood eosinophilia, and had eggs typical for n. salmincola recovered from their stools. clinical findings in 8 of the 10 included increased frequency of bowel movements or diarrhea (6), peripheral blood eosinophilia (6), abdominal discomfort (5), nausea and vomiting (3), weight loss (2), and fatigue (2). two were asymptomatic. eight recalled eating fish prior to the ons ...19873578655
ineffectiveness of clorsulon against nanophyetus salmincola in coyotes.efficacy of clorsulon against the trematode nanophyetus salmincola was evaluated in coyotes. ten 16-week-old coyote pups were fed fish that contained metacercariae of n. salmincola. twenty-one days later, 5 of the coyotes were given a suspension of clorsulon (approx 16 mg/kg of body weight, orally). within 30 days after treatment, the numbers of fluke eggs in fecal specimens from the 5 treated coyotes had not decreased, and numbers of fluke eggs and flukes recovered from treated coyotes at necro ...19863505938
preliminary evaluation of praziquantel against metacercariae of nanophyetus salmincola in chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha).praziquantel at dosages of 10, 20 or 100 mg/kg of body weight was evaluated against metacercariae of nanophyetus salmincola in chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha). ten salmon were used in each of four treated groups and 10 salmon were nontreated controls. three wk after treatment, viability of metacercariae was determined by histologic evaluation, and by feeding the salmon to coyotes and subsequently determining the numbers of trematode eggs/g of feces and numbers of n. salmincola recovere ...19883411713
praziquantel for treatment of human nanophyetus salmincola (troglotrema salmincola) infection.human nanophyetiasis is a zoonotic disease recently recognized in the coastal us pacific northwest and is caused by the digenetic trematode nanophyetus salmincola. ten additional stool-proven cases from the same geographic area have been identified; five presented with histories of gastrointestinal complaints and five had eosinophilia. nine of 10 patients had histories of fish ingestion (incompletely cooked or home-smoked salmon or steelhead trout) and were treated with praziquantel. several ind ...19892809261
parasites and associated pathology observed in pinnipeds stranded along the oregon coast.forty-two seals and sea lions found dead along the oregon coast were examined for parasites and associated pathology. nematode infections of the lung and/or gastrointestinal tract were the primary cause of death in 5 of 42 animals examined. new distribution records were established for pricetrema zalophi and zalophotrema hepaticum. new host records include z. hepaticum and diphyllobothrium cordatum in the steller's sea lion (eumetopias jubatus); nanophyetus salmincola in the california sea lion ...1978567698
pathogenicity attributed to massive infection of nanophyetus salmincola in a estimated 650,000 nanophyetus salmincola were recovered from the small intestine of a wild female cougar kitten (felis concolor). the trematodes stimulated marked mucosal thickening in the duodenum and jejunum and caused a marked enteritis. malnutrition was listed as the cause of death due to impaired nutrient absorption resulting from the combined effects of the diarrhea and thickening of the intestine.1979501847
sensitivity and specificity of histology for diagnoses of four common pathogens and detection of nontarget pathogens in adult chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in fresh water.histology is often underutilized in aquatic animal disease screening and diagnostics. the agreement between histological classifications of infection and results using diagnostic testing from the american fisheries society's blue book was conducted with 4 common salmon pathogens: aeromonas salmonicida, renibacterium salmoninarum, ceratomyxa shasta, and nanophyetus salmincola. adult chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in oregon were evaluated, and agreement between tests was calculated. liv ...201323536613
persistence of infection by metacercariae of apophallus sp., neascus sp., and nanophyetus salmincola plus two myxozoans (myxobolus insidiosus and myxobolus fryeri) in coho salmon oncorhynchus kisutch.we evaluated the ability of 5 muscle- or skin-dwelling parasites to persist in naturally infected coho salmon, oncorhynchus kisutch, from the west fork smith river, oregon, by holding them in captivity from late summer to early spring (parr stage to the typical time of smoltification). these parasites included metacercariae of 3 digeneans, nanophyetus salmincola, apophallus sp., and neascus sp., and 2 myxozoans, myxobolus insidiosus and myxobolus fryeri. two groups of wild-caught fish were evalu ...201019954261
evaluation of praziquantel against induced nanophyetus salmincola infections in coyotes and dogs.efficacy of praziquantel against nanophyetus salmincola, the trematode vector of salmon poisoning disease, was determined in coyotes (n = 29) and dogs (n = 25). the 10- to 14-week-old animals were fed fish or fish kidneys that contained metacercariae of n salmincola. to prevent salmon poisoning disease, all animals were treated with tetracycline on days 8 and 9 after they were fed fish. ten days after ingestion of infected fish, 19 coyotes and 12 dogs were treated once with praziquantel, adminis ...19883377318
human nanophyetiasis: transmission by handling naturally infected coho salmon (oncorhynchus kisutch).the first us case of human nanophyetiasis that does not involve ingestion of raw or undercooked salmonid fishes is reported. the patient worked with highly infected fish. hand contamination with the infectious metacercariae of the digenetic trematode nanophyetus salmincola (family troglotrematidae) occurred during the handling of fresh-killed, juvenile coho salmon, oncorhynchus kisutch. diagnosis of nanophyetiasis was based on the clinical findings of chronic diarrhea, nausea, abdominal discomfo ...19902295848
[pathogens of human trematodiases in the primorye territory].the primorye territory of russia is part of a natural habitat for pathogens of four human trematodiases: metagonimiasis (caused by the two worms metagonimus yokogawai and m. katsuradai in the region), nanophyetiasis (nanophyetus salmincola schikhobalowi), paragonimiasis (paragonimus westermani ishunensis), and clonorchiasis (clonorchis sinensis). the tensest situation in the region has emerged with clonorchiasis, the pathogen of which is extending its area due to anthropogenic sources. in additi ...201526152030
genetic divergence of human pathogens nanophyetus spp. (trematoda: troglotrematidae) on the opposite sides of the pacific rim.human and animal nanophyetiasis is caused by intestinal flukes belonging to the genus nanophyetus distributed on both north american and eurasian coasts of northern pacific. in spite of the wide geographical distribution and medical and veterinary importance of these flukes, the intra-generic taxonomy of nanophyetus spp. remains unresolved. the two most widely distributed nominal species, nanophyetus salmincola and nanophyetus schikhobalowi, both parasitizing humans and carnivorous mammals, were ...201727903316
nanophyetus salmincola, vector of the salmon poisoning disease agent neorickettsia helminthoeca, harbors a second pathogenic neorickettsia species.the trematode nanophyetus salmincola is known as the carrier of neorickettsia helminthoeca, an obligate intracellular endosymbiotic bacterium that causes salmon poisoning disease (spd), a fatal disease of dogs. the bacteria are maintained through the complex life cycle of n. salmincola that involves snails juga plicifera as the first intermediate host, salmonid fishes as the second intermediate host and fish-eating mammals as definitive hosts. n. salmincola was also found to harbor a second spec ...201627809964
[social bases for the functioning of nanophyetiasis foci in the amur region].parasitological examination of the population of the amur region has revealed that the nanophyetiasis foci affecting as high as 28.4% of the people are being preserved and functioning now; at the same time the highest rates of infection with the trematode nanophyetus salmincola schikhobalowi are seen in the dwellers of the populated areas situated on the banks of the mountain amur tributaries. it has been ascertained that the major season when the population is infected with nanophyetus is summe ...201525812403
occupancy modeling for improved accuracy and understanding of pathogen prevalence and dynamics.most pathogen detection tests are imperfect, with a sensitivity < 100%, thereby resulting in the potential for a false negative, where a pathogen is present but not detected. false negatives in a sample inflate the number of non-detections, negatively biasing estimates of pathogen prevalence. histological examination of tissues as a diagnostic test can be advantageous as multiple pathogens can be examined and providing important information on associated pathological changes to the host. however ...201525738709
[assessment of nanophyetus salmincola schikhobalowl (skrjiabin et podjiapolskaja, 1931) infestation of salmonlike fishes in the rivers of the khabarovsk territory].parasitological investigations of 529 specimens of 7 fish species from the water basins of the khabarovsk territory in 2009-2013 revealed the high extensity (11.7 to 100%) and intensity (as many as 9341 larvae per fish) of invasion with n. s. schikhobalowi metacercaria in salmonlike fishes from the mountain tributaries (khor, anyui, and manoma) of the amur river. the examined specimens of four salmonlike fish species (thymallus tugarinae, hucho taimen, brachymystax tumensis and b. lenok) showed ...201425286547
infections by renibacterium salmoninarum and nanophyetus salmincola chapin are associated with reduced growth of juvenile chinook salmon, oncorhynchus tshawytscha (walbaum), in the northeast pacific ocean.we examined 1454 juvenile chinook salmon, oncorhynchus tshawytscha (walbaum), captured in nearshore waters off the coasts of washington and oregon (usa) from 1999 to 2004 for infection by renibacterium salmoninarum, nanophyetus salmincola chapin and skin metacercariae. the prevalence and intensities for each of these infections were established for both yearling and subyearling chinook salmon. two metrics of salmon growth, weight residuals and plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1, were ...201524720546
[epizootological characterization of trematodiasis foci in the ecosystem of the amur river in the khabarovsk territory].investigations were conducted in late june to early june 2013. the population density of mollusks of the genus juga in the shoreline and littoral covered by meadow waters was 10 to 30 specimens/m2; there were solitary specimens of the genus parafossarulus. fourteen out of 39 fish species were invaded by metacercariae of clonorchis. manchurian spiny loaches (leptobotia) and light's bitterling (rhodeus lighti) are first registered to be hosts of clonorchis. the metacercariae of metagonimus yokogaw ...201526152032
detection of nanophyetus salmincola in water, snails and fish tissues by quantitative pcr.we report the development and validation of two quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qpcr) assays to detect n. salmincola dna in water samples and fish and snail tissues. analytical and diagnostic validation demonstrated good sensitivity, specificity and repeatability of both qpcr assays. n. salmincola dna copy number in kidney tissue was significantly correlated with metacercariae counts based on microscopy. extraction methods were optimized for the sensitive qpcr detection of n. salmincola ...201728806149
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