identification of nosema bombi fantham and porter 1914 (microsporidia) in bombus impatiens and bombus sandersoni from great smoky mountains national park (usa).ninety three bumble bees belonging to the genus bombus, subgenus pyrobombus (three bombus vagans, seven bombus bimaculatus, 17 b. sandersoni and 68 b. impatiens) from great smoky mountains national park were examined for microsporidia. light microscopy of calcoflour and trichrome-stained smears, and pcr revealed infection with n. bombi in one specimen each of b. sandersoni and b. impatiens. sizes and shapes of spores in both n. bombi isolates were similar to those described for european isolates ...201019835879
floral constancy in bumble bees: handling efficiency or perceptual conditioning?individual bees often prefer flowers of the same species that they are already foraging on, and other individual bees prefer other flowers. this "floral constancy" has classically been explained as a learned behavior by which bees avoid wasting time switching between handling techniques. choice trails were given to bombus vagans workers that were freely foraging in mixed and pure fields of trifolium pratense, t. repens, viccia cracca, and prunella vulgaris. contrary to expectation, (1) bees show ...199628307449
temperature regulation in the bumblebee bombus vagans: a field study.bombus vagans forages for nectar at 5 degrees c in shade and at 31 degrees c in sunshine. the production of heat while the bumblebee is on flowers, at ambient temperatures below 24 degrees c, helps to maintain a thoracic temperature that is near the minimum for flight between flowers. however, at ambient temperatures above 24 degrees c the thoracic temperature is no longer regulated at 32 degrees to 33 degrees c and rises.197217771803
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