reassortment of influenza a viruses in wild birds in alaska before h5 clade outbreaks.sampling of mallards in alaska during september 2014-april 2015 identified low pathogenic avian influenza a virus (subtypes h5n2 and h1n1) that shared ancestry with highly pathogenic reassortant h5n2 and h5n1 viruses. molecular dating indicated reassortment soon after interhemispheric movement of h5n8 clade, suggesting genetic exchange in alaska or surrounds before outbreaks.201728322698
identification of two novel reassortant avian influenza a (h5n6) viruses in whooper swans in korea, 2016.on november 20, 2016 two novel strains of h5n6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (hpaivs) were isolated from three whooper swans (cygnus cygnus) at gangjin bay in south jeolla province, south korea. identification of hpaivs in wild birds is significant as there is a potential risk of transmission of these viruses to poultry and humans.201728327168
human monoclonal antibody 81.39a effectively neutralizes emerging influenza a viruses of group 1 and 2 hemagglutinins.the pandemic threat posed by emerging zoonotic influenza a viruses necessitates development of antiviral agents effective against various antigenic subtypes. human monoclonal antibody (hmab) targeting the hemagglutinin (ha) stalk offers a promising approach to control influenza virus infections. here, we investigated the ability of the hmab 81.39a to inhibit in vitro replication of human and zoonotic viruses, representing 16 ha subtypes. the majority of viruses were effectively neutralized by 81 ...201627630240
genetic versus antigenic differences among highly pathogenic h5n1 avian influenza a viruses: consequences for vaccine strain selection.highly pathogenic h5n1 avian influenza a viruses display a remarkable genetic and antigenic diversity. we examined to what extent genetic distances between several h5n1 viruses from different clades correlate with antigenic differences and vaccine performance. h5-specific antisera were generated, and cross-reactivity and antigenic distances between 12 different viruses were determined. in general, antigenic distances increased proportional to genetic distances although notable exceptions were ob ...201728135661
vaccine efficacy of inactivated, chimeric hemagglutinin h9/h5n2 avian influenza virus and its suitability for the marker vaccine order to produce a dually effective vaccine against h9 and h5 avian influenza viruses that aligns with the diva (differentiating infected from vaccinated animals) strategy, we generated a chimeric h9/h5n2 recombinant vaccine that expressed the whole ha1 region of a/ck/korea/04163/04 (h9n2) and the ha2 region of recent highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) a/md/korea/w452/14 (h5n8) viruses. the chimeric h9/h5n2 virus showed in vitro and in vivo growth properties and virulence that were simi ...201728077631
experimental assessment of the pathogenicity of eight avian influenza a viruses of h5 subtype for chickens, turkeys, ducks and quail.clinical signs, death, virus excretion and immune response were measured in 2-week-old chickens, turkeys, quail and ducks infected by intramuscular, intranasal and contact routes with eight influenza viruses of h5 subtype. six of the viruses: a/chicken/scotland/59 (h5n1), ck/scot; a/tern/south africa/61 (h5n3), tern/sa; a/turkey/ontario/ 7732/66 (h5n9); ty/ont; a/chicken/pennsylvania/1370/83 (h5n2); pa/1370; a/turkey/ireland/83 (h5n8); ty/ireland, and a/duck/ireland/ 113/84 (hsn8); dk/ireland, w ...198618766567
improvements to the hemagglutination inhibition test for serological assessment of recombinant fowlpox-h5-avian-influenza vaccination in chickens and its use along with an agar gel immunodiffusion test for differentiating infected from noninfected vaccinated general, avian influenza (ai) vaccines protect chickens from morbidity and mortality and reduce, but do not completely prevent, replication of wild ai viruses in the respiratory and intestinal tracts of vaccinated chickens. therefore, surveillance programs based on serological testing must be developed to differentiate vaccinated flocks infected with wild strains of ai virus from noninfected vaccinated flocks in order to evaluate the success of vaccination in a control program and allow conti ...200717992929
experimental infection of mandarin duck with highly pathogenic avian influenza a (h5n8 and h5n1) viruses.a highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) h5n8 virus was first detected in poultry and wild birds in south korea in january 2014. here, we determined the pathogenicity and transmissibility of three different clades of h5 viruses in mandarin ducks to examine the potential for wild bird infection. h5n8 (clade replicated more efficiently in the upper and lower respiratory tract of mandarin ducks than two previously identified h5n1 virus clades (clades 2.2 and however, none of th ...201728062008
highly pathogenic avian influenza a(h5n8) outbreaks: protection and management of exposed people in europe, 2014/15 and 2016.introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) virus a(h5n8) into europe prompted animal and human health experts to implement protective measures to prevent transmission to humans. we describe the situation in 2016 and list public health measures and recommendations in place. we summarise critical interfaces identified during the a(h5n1) and a(h5n8) outbreaks in 2014/15. rapid exchange of information between the animal and human health sectors is critical for a timely, effective and e ...201627983512
overlapping cytotoxic t-lymphocyte and b-cell antigenic sites on the influenza virus h5 define the recognition site of cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctls) on influenza virus h5 hemagglutinin (ha), an h5 ha-specific ctl clone was examined for the ability to recognize monoclonal antibody-selected ha variants of influenza virus a/turkey/ontario/7732/66 (h5n9). on the basis of 51cr release assays with the variants, a ctl epitope was located near residue 168 of h5 ha. to define the epitope more precisely, a series of overlapping peptides corresponding to this region was synthesized and te ...19901700833
phylogenetic analysis and pathogenicity of h3 subtype avian influenza viruses isolated from live poultry markets in china.h3 subtype influenza a virus is one of the main subtypes that threats both public and animal health. however, the evolution and pathogenicity of h3 avian influenza virus (aiv) circulating in domestic birds in china remain largely unclear. in this study, seven h3 aivs (four h3n2 and three h3n8) were isolated from poultry in live poultry market (lpm) in china. phylogenetic analyses of full genomes showed that all viruses were clustered into eurasian lineage, except n8 genes of two h3n8 isolates fe ...201627270298
importance of conserved amino acids at the cleavage site of the haemagglutinin of a virulent avian influenza a virus.the virulence of avian influenza a viruses depends on the cleavability of the haemagglutinin (ha) by an intracellular protease at multiple basic amino acids. although previous studies have demonstrated the importance of these amino acids for processing by the cellular protease, with emphasis on conserved residues near the cleavage site, the minimal requirements for cleavage remain unknown. by expressing site-specific mutants of the ha of a virulent avian influenza virus, a/turkey/ireland/1378/85 ...19938429306
protection of chickens from lethal influenza infection by vaccinia-expressed study the immune response of the chicken to specific influenza proteins, we have constructed a recombinant vaccinia virus containing the hemagglutinin gene of influenza a/turkey/ireland/1378/83 (h5n8). in mammalian cell culture the hemagglutinin expressed by this recombinant virus was full-length, cleaved into ha1 and ha2 in the absence of trypsin, and transported to the cell surface, confirming that other virus products are not required for cleavage activation. chickens inoculated through th ...19883264429
changes in adaptation of h5n2 highly pathogenic avian influenza h5 clade viruses in chickens and mallards.h5n2 highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) viruses caused a severe poultry outbreak in the united states (u.s.) during 2015. in order to examine changes in adaptation of this viral lineage, the infectivity, pathogenicity and transmission of poultry h5n2 viruses were investigated in chickens and mallards in comparison to the wild duck 2014 u.s. index h5n2 virus. the four poultry isolates examined had a lower mean bird infectious dose than the index virus but still transmitted poorly to direct ...201627632565
pathogenicity and transmission of h5 and h7 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in mallards.wild aquatic birds have been associated with the intercontinental spread of h5 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) viruses of the a/goose/guangdong/1/96 (gs/gd) lineage during 2005, 2010, and 2014, but dispersion by wild waterfowl has not been implicated with spread of other hpai viruses. to better understand why gs/gd h5 hpai viruses infect and transmit more efficiently in waterfowl than other hpai viruses, groups of mallard ducks were challenged with one of 14 different h5 and h7 ...201627558429
cross-protective efficacies of highly-pathogenic avian influenza h5n1 vaccines against a recent h5n8 investigate cross-protective vaccine efficacy of highly-pathogenic avian influenza h5n1 viruses against a recent hpai h5n8 virus, we immunized c57bl/6 mice and ferrets with three alum-adjuvanted inactivated whole h5n1 vaccines developed through reverse-genetics (rg): [vietnam/1194/04xpr8 (clade 1), korea/w149/06xpr8 (clade 2.2), and korea/es223n/03xpr8 (clade 2.5)]. although relatively low cross-reactivities (10-40 hi titer) were observed against heterologous h5n8 virus, immunized animals wer ...201627543757
pathogenesis and transmission of novel highly pathogenic avian influenza h5n2 and h5n8 viruses in ferrets and mice.a novel highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) h5n8 virus, first detected in january 2014 in poultry and wild birds in south korea, has spread throughout asia and europe and caused outbreaks in canada and the united states by the end of the year. the spread of h5n8 and the novel reassortant viruses, h5n2 and h5n1 (h5nx), in domestic poultry across multiple states in the united states pose a potential public health risk. to evaluate the potential of cross-species infection, we determined the pa ...201526223637
high level of protection induced by two fowlpox vector vaccines against a highly pathogenic avian influenza h5n1 challenge in specific-pathogen-free chickens.the objective of the study was to compare efficacy of two fowlpox (fp) vector vaccines (fp-ai) against h5n1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai): one (vfp89) expressing the native hemagglutinin (ha) gene from h5n8 a/turkey/ ireland/1378/83 and the other (vfp2211) expressing a modified synthetic ha gene from h5n1 a/chicken/indonesia/7/2003. four groups of 20 1-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were made: groups 1 and 2 were immunized with 3 log10 tissue-culture infectious dose 50% (tcid ...201020521642
avian influenza in north and south america, the caribbean, and australia, 2006-2008.between 2006 and 2008, only one outbreak of highly pathogenic notifiable avian influenza (ai) was reported from the americas, the caribbean, and australia. the outbreak, caused by h7n3, occurred in september 2007 in a multiage broiler breeder facility (approximately 49,000 birds) near regina beach in southern saskatchewan, canada. the disease was confined to a single farm; the farm was depopulated. all other reports of infections in poultry or wild birds involved low pathogenicity ai viruses. a ...201020521630
the enigma of the apparent disappearance of eurasian highly pathogenic h5 clade influenza a viruses in north american of the major unresolved questions in influenza a virus (iav) ecology is exemplified by the apparent disappearance of highly pathogenic (hp) h5n1, h5n2, and h5n8 (h5nx) viruses containing the eurasian hemagglutinin clade from wild bird populations in north america. the introduction of eurasian lineage hp h5 clade h5n8 iav and subsequent reassortment with low-pathogenic h?n2 and h?n1 north american wild bird-origin iavs in late 2014 resulted in widespread hp h5nx iav infections ...201627457948
novel highly pathogenic avian a(h5n2) and a(h5n8) influenza viruses of clade from north america have limited capacity for replication and transmission in mammals.highly pathogenic influenza a(h5n8) viruses from clade were introduced to north america by migratory birds in the fall of 2014. reassortment of a(h5n8) viruses with avian viruses of north american lineage resulted in the generation of novel a(h5n2) viruses with novel genotypes. through sequencing of recent avian influenza viruses, we identified pb1 and np gene segments very similar to those in the viruses isolated from north american waterfowl prior to the introduction of a(h5n8) to nort ...201727303732
highly sensitive sandwich-type spr based detection of whole h5nx viruses using a pair of this research, we report highly sensitive and specific sandwich-type spr-based biosensor for the detection h5nx whole viruses. a few of aptamers, for the first time, were successfully screened and characterized for whole avian influenza (ai) viruses, h5nx, by using multi-go-selex method. the affinities of the aptamers developed in this study were ranged from 8×10(4) to 1×10(4)eid50/ml, and the aptamers if22, if23 were found to be specific to h5n1 and h5n8, respectively. in addition, some flex ...201627387259
protective efficacy of an h5n1 inactivated vaccine against challenge with lethal h5n1, h5n2, h5n6, and h5n8 influenza viruses in chickens.the goose/guangdong-lineage h5 viruses have evolved into diverse clades and subclades based on their hemagglutinin (ha) gene during their circulation in wild birds and poultry. since late 2013, the clade viruses have become widespread in poultry and wild bird populations around the world. different subtypes of the clade h5 viruses, including h5n1, h5n2, h5n6, and h5n8, have caused vast disease outbreaks in poultry in asia, europe, and north america. in this study, we developed a ...201627309064
phylogenetic analysis of influenza a viruses (h6n8, h1n8, h4n2, h9n2, h10n7) isolated from wild birds, ducks, and ostriches in south africa from 2007 to 2009.influenza a strains emerging from wild birds are a constant threat to south africa's valuable ostrich industry. in 2004 and again in 2006, low pathogenicity avian influenza h5n2 strains introduced from a wild bird reservoir mutated in ostriches to high pathogenicity avian influenza (hpai), with serious economic consequences and export bans imposed by the european union. although no outbreaks of notifiable avian influenza have occurred in south africa since 2006, the h9n2 virus caused a localized ...201020521652
widespread detection of highly pathogenic h5 influenza viruses in wild birds from the pacific flyway of the united states.a novel highly pathogenic avian influenza virus belonging to the h5 clade variant viruses was detected in north america in late 2014. motivated by the identification of these viruses in domestic poultry in canada, an intensive study was initiated to conduct highly pathogenic avian influenza surveillance in wild birds in the pacific flyway of the united states. a total of 4,729 hunter-harvested wild birds were sampled and highly pathogenic avian influenza virus was detected in 1.3% (nā€‰=ā€‰6 ...201627381241
replication of influenza a viruses of high and low pathogenicity for chickens at different sites in chickens and ducks following intranasal inoculation.ten specific pathogen free light breed chickens and 10 commercial layer ducks were inoculated intranasally with one of five avian influenza a viruses which had been characterised as showing high or low pathogenicity for chickens. recovery of the two viruses of low pathogenicity was restricted to the respiratory tract and gut of both species. highly pathogenic viruses were recovered from all organs sampled. with two of the highly pathogenic viruses, a/duck/ireland/113/83 (h5n8) and a/chicken/vict ...199518645810
efficacy of a fowlpox-vectored avian influenza h5 vaccine against asian h5n1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus challenge.a recombinant fowlpox-avian influenza (ai) h5 vaccine (rfp-aiv-hs) expressing the hemagglutinin of the a/turkey/ireland/1378/83 h5n8 ai isolate has been used in central america since 1998 to control h5n2 low pathogenicity ai. previously, this vaccine was shown to induce full protection against a panel of h5 highly pathogenic (hp) ai isolates, including hpai h5n1. here, we evaluate the efficacy of rfp-aiv-h5 against escalating doses of hpai h5n1 a/chicken/ southkorea/es/03 isolate and against the ...200717494618
highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses and generation of novel reassortants, united states, 2014-2015.asian highly pathogenic avian influenza a(h5n8) viruses spread into north america in 2014 during autumn bird migration. complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 32 h5 viruses identified novel h5n1, h5n2, and h5n8 viruses that emerged in late 2014 through reassortment with north american low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses.201627314845
high rates of detection of clade highly pathogenic avian influenza h5 viruses in wild birds in the pacific northwest during the winter of 2014, clade h5n8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) viruses spread across the republic of korea and ultimately were reported in china, japan, russia, and europe. mortality associated with a reassortant hpai h5n2 virus was detected in poultry farms in western canada at the end of november. the same strain (with identical genetic structure) was then detected in free-living wild birds that had died prior to december 8, 2014, of unrelated causes in whatcom county, washington, u. s. ...201627309079
protection afforded by a recombinant turkey herpesvirus-h5 vaccine against the 2014 european highly pathogenic h5n8 avian influenza strain.a highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) h5n8 (clade virus, circulating in asia (south korea, japan, and southern china) since the beginning of 2014, reached the european continent in november 2014. germany, the netherlands, the united kingdom, italy, and hungary confirmed h5n8 infection of poultry farms of different species and of several wild bird species. unlike the asian highly pathogenic (hp) h5n1, this hp h5n8 also went transatlantic and reached the american west coast by the en ...201627309056
novel highly pathogenic avian h5 influenza a viruses in live poultry markets, wuxi city, china, 2013-2014.during 12 recent months of periodic influenza virus surveillance at 9 live poultry markets in wuxi city china, we identified multiple highly pathogenic h5n6, h5n8, h5n2, and h5n1 avian influenza viruses. the variety of potentially pandemic viruses in this low-risk area is disconcerting and portends an increased pandemic threat.201627186580
highly pathogenic avian influenza h5n6 viruses exhibit enhanced affinity for human type sialic acid receptor and in-contact transmission in model ferrets.since may 2014, highly pathogenic avian influenza h5n6 virus has been reported to cause six severe human infections three of which were fatal. the biological properties of this subtype, in particular its relative pathogenicity and transmissibility in mammals, are not known. we characterized the virus receptor-binding affinity, pathogenicity, and transmissibility in mice and ferrets of four h5n6 isolates derived from waterfowl in china from 2013-2014. all four h5n6 viruses have acquired a binding ...201627122581
lack of chicken adaptation of newly emergent eurasian h5n8 and reassortant h5n2 high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses in the u.s. is consistent with restricted poultry outbreaks in the pacific flyway during 2014-2015, the u.s. experienced an unprecedented outbreak of eurasian clade h5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) virus, initially affecting mainly wild birds and few backyard and commercial poultry premises. to better model the outbreak, the pathogenesis and transmission dynamics of representative eurasian h5n8 and reassortant h5n2 clade hpai viruses detected early in the north american outbreak were investigated in chickens. high mean chicken infectious doses and lack ...201627110710
molecular characterizations of surface proteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase from recent h5nx avian influenza viruses.during 2014, a subclade highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) a(h5n8) virus caused poultry outbreaks around the world. in late 2014/early 2015, the virus was detected in wild birds in canada and the united states, and these viruses also gave rise to reassortant progeny, composed of viral rna segments (vrnas) from both eurasian and north american lineages. in particular, viruses were found with n1, n2, and n8 neuraminidase vrnas, and these are collectively referred to as h5nx viruses. ...201627053557
pathobiological characterization of a novel reassortant highly pathogenic h5n1 virus isolated in british columbia, canada, the current study, we describe the pathobiologic characteristics of a novel reassortant virus - a/chicken/bc/fav-002/2015 (h5n1) belonging to clade that was isolated from backyard chickens in british columbia, canada. sequence analyses demonstrate pb1, pa, na and ns gene segments were of north american lineage while pb2, ha, np and m were derived from a eurasian lineage h5n8 virus. this novel virus had a 19 amino acid deletion in the neuraminidase stalk. we evaluated the pathogenic po ...201626988892
a cationic liposome-dna complexes adjuvant (jvrs-100) enhances the immunogenicity and cross-protective efficacy of pre-pandemic influenza a (h5n1) vaccine in ferrets.influenza a (h5n1) viruses continue to pose a public health threat. as inactivated h5n1 vaccines are poorly immunogenic, adjuvants are needed to improve the immunogenicity of h5n1 vaccine in humans. here, we investigated the immunogenicity and cross-protective efficacy in ferrets of a clade 2.2-derived vaccine with addition of jvrs-100, an adjuvant consisting of cationic liposome-dna complexes (cldc). after the first vaccination, significantly higher levels of hemagglutination-inhibition (hai) a ...201626967975
evidence for common ancestry among viruses isolated from wild birds in beringia and highly pathogenic intercontinental reassortant h5n1 and h5n2 influenza a viruses.highly pathogenic clade h5n8, h5n2, and h5n1 influenza a viruses were first detected in wild, captive, and domestic birds in north america in november-december 2014. in this study, we used wild waterbird samples collected in alaska prior to the initial detection of clade h5 influenza a viruses in north america to assess the evidence for: (1) dispersal of highly pathogenic influenza a viruses from east asia to north america by migratory birds via alaska and (2) ancestral origins o ...201626944444
vaccination with virus-like particles containing h5 antigens from three h5n1 clades protects chickens from h5n1 and h5n8 influenza viruses.highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) viruses, especially h5n1 strains, represent a public health threat and cause widespread morbidity and mortality in domestic poultry. recombinant virus-like particles (vlps) represent a promising novel vaccine approach to control avian influenza including hpai strains. influenza vlps contain viral hemagglutinin (ha), which can be expressed in cell culture within highly immunogenic vlps that morphologically and antigenically resemble influenza virions, exce ...201626868083
pathogenicity of the korean h5n8 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in commercial domestic poultry 2014, the highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) virus h5n8 triggered outbreaks in wild birds and poultry farms in south korea. in the present study, we investigated the pathogenicity of the h5n8 hpai virus, belonging to the clade, in different species of poultry. for this, we examined clinical signs and viral shedding levels following intranasal inoculation of the virus in 3-week-old commercial layer chickens and quails, 10-week-old korean native chickens, and 8-week-old muscovy du ...201626814367
characterization of clade highly pathogenic h5 avian influenza viruses in ducks and chickens.worldwide dissemination of reassortant variants of h5 clade highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) viruses has posed a great threat to the poultry industry. here, we systematically characterized the h5n2, h5n6 and h5n8 influenza viruses in poultry and compared them with those of previous clade 2.3.4 h5n1 virus. all the three h5 subtype reassortants caused systematic infection in ducks, and exhibited efficient direct transmission in ducks. all of them were highly pathogenic in chickens; ...201626711037
how does sampling methodology influence molecular detection and isolation success in influenza a virus field studies?wild waterfowl are important reservoir hosts for influenza a virus (iav) and a potential source of spillover infections in other hosts, including poultry and swine. the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) viruses, such as h5n1 and h5n8, and subsequent spread along migratory flyways prompted the initiation of several programs in europe, north america, and africa to monitor circulation of hpai and low-pathogenicity precursor viruses (low-pathogenicity avian influenza [lpai] virus ...201526655759
dynamic changes in host gene expression associated with h5n8 avian influenza virus infection in mice.emerging outbreaks of newly found, highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) a(h5n8) viruses have been reported globally. previous studies have indicated that h5n8 pathogenicity in mice is relatively moderate compared with h5n1 pathogenicity. however, detailed mechanisms underlying avian influenza pathogenicity are still undetermined. we used a high-throughput rna-seq method to analyse host and pathogen transcriptomes in the lungs of mice infected with a/md/korea/w452/2014 (h5n8) and a/em/korea/w ...201526576844
new reassortant h5n8 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus from waterfowl in southern reassortant h5n8 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses were isolated from waterfowl in southern china. blast analysis demonstrated that the pb2 gene in these viruses were most closely related to a/wild duck/shangdong/628/2011 (h5n1), while their np genes were both more closely related to a/wild duck/shandong/1/2011 (h5n1) and a/duck/jiangsu/k1203/2010 (h5n8). however, the ha, na, pb1, pa, m, and ns genes had the highest identity with a/duck/jiangsu/k1203/2010 (h5n8). phylogenetic analysi ...201526557113
case series of turkey farms from the h5n2 highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak in the united states during 2015.between december 2014 and june 2015, an outbreak of h5n2 hpai caused the largest and most expensive agriculture emergency in u.s. department of agriculture-animal and plant health inspection service history. the outbreak affected 21 states; 232 poultry farms (211 commercial and 21 backyard) were affected, and approximately 49.6 million birds were depopulated on poultry farms. the majority of affected farms were commercial turkey operations (n = 160). this report is a case series describing 104 h ...201627309289
immunogenicity of fowlpox virus expressing the avian influenza virus h5 gene (trovac aiv-h5) in cats.vaccination of cats with fowlpox virus expressing the avian influenza (ai) virus h5 hemagglutinin gene (trovac ai) resulted in detectable hemagglutination inhibition (hi) antibody responses to the homologous a/turkey/ireland/1378/83 (h5n8) (a/tky/ire/83) ai virus antigen. the hi antibody responses to heterologous a/chicken/indonesia/7/03 (h5n1) (a/ck/indonesia/03) ai virus antigen were also detected in all vaccinated cats, but only after booster vaccinations. the vaccine described in this study ...200516275953
proprotein-processing endoproteases pc6 and furin both activate hemagglutinin of virulent avian influenza viruses.among the proprotein-processing subtilisin-related endoproteases, furin has been a leading candidate for the enzyme that activates the hemagglutinin (ha) of virulent avian influenza viruses. in the present study, we examined the cleavage activity of two other recently isolated ubiquitous subtilisin-related proteases, pace4 and pc6, using wild-type ha of a/turkey/ireland/1378/83 (h5n8) and a series of its mutant has. vaccinia virus-expressed wild-type ha was not cleaved in human colon adenocarcin ...19948057485
novel reassortant influenza a(h5n8) viruses among inoculated domestic and wild ducks, south korea, outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza, caused by a novel reassortant influenza a (h5n8) virus, occurred among poultry and wild birds in south korea in 2014. the aim of this study was to evaluate the pathogenesis in and mode of transmission of this virus among domestic and wild ducks. three of the viruses had similar pathogenicity among infected domestic ducks: the h5n8 viruses were moderately pathogenic (0%-20% mortality rate); in wild mallard ducks, the h5n8 and h5n1 viruses did not ...201525625281
h5n1 influenza virus-like particle vaccine protects mice from heterologous virus challenge better than whole inactivated virus.the highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) h5n1 virus has become highly enzootic since 2003 and has dynamically evolved to undergo substantial evolution. clades and 2.3.4 have become the most dominant lineage in recent years, and h5n8 avian influenza outbreaks have been reported asia. the current approach to generate influenza virus vaccines uses embryonated chicken eggs for large-scale production, although such vaccines have been poorly immunogenic to heterologous virus challenge. in ...201525599603
comparing introduction to europe of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses a(h5n8) in 2014 and a(h5n1) in 2005.since the beginning of november 2014, nine outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (hpaiv) a(h5n8) in poultry have been detected in four european countries. in this report, similarities and differences between the modes of introduction of hpaiv a(h5n1) and a(h5n8) into europe are described. experiences from outbreaks of a(h5n1) in europe demonstrated that early detection to control hpaiv in poultry has proven pivotal to minimise the risk of zoonotic transmission and prevention of hu ...201425597538
pathogenicity of h5n8 virus in chickens from korea in 2014, two genetically distinct h5n8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) viruses were isolated from poultry and wild birds in korea. the intravenous pathogenicity indices for the two representative viruses were both 3.0. mortality of chickens intranasally inoculated with the two h5n8 viruses was 100% with a mean death times of 2.5 and 4.5 days. mortality rates of the contact groups for the two h5n8 viruses were 33.3% and 66.6%. our study showed that transmissibility of the novel h5n8 viru ...201525549219
phylogenetic and biological characterization of three k1203 (h5n8)-like avian influenza a virus reassortants in china in 2014.three h5n8 avian influenza viruses isolated from domestic geese in china in 2014 were characterized phylogenetically and biologically. phylogenetic analysis of the complete genomic sequences of the three isolates from this study and those of 61 other h5n8 viruses retrieved from the gisaid platform indicated that, chronologically and geographically, all h5n8 viruses of the asian h5n1 ha lineage of clade are the direct descendents of the k1203 (h5n8)-like viruses first isolated in china in ...201626526148
protective efficacy of stockpiled vaccine against h5n8 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus isolated from a chicken in kumamoto prefecture, japan, in 2014.h5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) viruses have spread worldwide, and antigenic variants of different clades have been selected. in this study, the national stockpiled vaccine prepared from a/duck/hokkaido/vac-1/2004 (h5n1) strain was evaluated for the protective efficacy against h5n8 hpai virus isolated in kumamoto prefecture, japan, in april 2014. in the challenge test, all of the vaccinated chickens survived without showing any clinical signs and reduced virus shedding. it was conclu ...201626290130
prevalence of avian influenza virus in wild birds before and after the hpai h5n8 outbreak in 2014 in south korea.since 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) virus outbreaks have occurred five times in korea, with four hpai h5n1 outbreaks and one hpai h5n8 outbreak. migratory birds have been suggested to be the first source of hpai in korea. here, we surveyed migratory wild birds for the presence of ai and compared regional ai prevalence in wild birds from september 2012 to april 2014 for birds having migratory pathways in south korea. finally, we investigated the prevalence of ai in migratory bird ...201526115997
wild waterfowl migration and domestic duck density shape the epidemiology of highly pathogenic h5n8 influenza in the republic of korea.highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) viruses threaten human and animal health yet their emergence is poorly understood, partly because sampling of the hpai asian-origin h5n1 lineage immediately after its identification in 1996 was comparatively sparse. the discovery of a novel h5n8 virus in 2013 provides a new opportunity to investigate hpai emergence in greater detail. here we investigate the origin and transmission of h5n8 in the republic of korea, the second country to report the new stra ...201526079277
pathobiological features of a novel, highly pathogenic avian influenza a(h5n8) virus.the endemicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) a(h5n1) viruses in asia has led to the generation of reassortant h5 strains with novel gene constellations. a newly emerged hpai a(h5n8) virus caused poultry outbreaks in the republic of korea in 2014. because newly emerging high-pathogenicity h5 viruses continue to pose public health risks, it is imperative that their pathobiological properties be examined. here, we characterized a/mallard duck/korea/w452/2014 (mdk/w452(h5n8)), a repres ...201426038499
induction of influenza (h5n8) antibodies by modified vaccinia virus ankara h5n1 vaccine. 201525988813
nomenclature updates resulting from the evolution of avian influenza a(h5) virus clades, 2.2.1, and 2.3.4 during 2013-2014.the a/goose/guangdong/1/96-like hemagglutinin (ha) genes of highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) a(h5) viruses have continued to rapidly evolve since the most recent update to the h5 clade nomenclature by the who/oie/fao h5n1 evolution working group. new clades diverging beyond established boundaries need to be identified and designated accordingly.201525966311
emergence of novel clade 2.3.4 influenza a (h5n1) virus subgroups in yunnan province, china.from december 2013 to march 2014, a major wave of highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak occurred in poultry in yunnan province, china. we isolated and characterized eight highly pathogenic avian influenza a (h5n1) viruses from poultry. full genome influenza sequences and analyses have been performed. sequence analyses revealed that they belonged to clade 2.3.4 but did not fit within the three defined subclades. the isolated viruses were provisional subclade the provisional subclad ...201525917492
novel h5 clade reassortant (h5n1) virus from a green-winged teal in washington, usa.eurasian (ea)-origin h5n8 clade avian influenza viruses were first detected in north america during december 2014. subsequent reassortment with north american (am) low-pathogenic wild-bird-origin avian influenza has generated at least two reassortants, including an ea/am h5n1 from an apparently healthy wild green-winged teal, suggesting continued ongoing reassortment.201525838478
outbreaks of avian influenza a (h5n2), (h5n8), and (h5n1) among birds--united states, december 2014-january 2015.during december 15, 2014-january 16, 2015, the u.s. department of agriculture received 14 reports of birds infected with asian-origin, highly pathogenic avian influenza a (hpai) (h5n2), (h5n8), and (h5n1) viruses. these reports represent the first reported infections with these viruses in u.s. wild or domestic birds. although these viruses are not known to have caused disease in humans, their appearance in north america might increase the likelihood of human infection in the united states. human ...201525654614
sequence specificity of furin, a proprotein-processing endoprotease, for the hemagglutinin of a virulent avian influenza virus.the virulence of avian influenza viruses correlates with the sensitivity of their hemagglutinin (ha) to cellular proteases. furin, a proprotein-processing subtilisin-related endoprotease, is a leading candidate for the enzyme that cleaves the ha of virulent avian viruses. we therefore compared the specificity of furin with those of proteases in a variety of cultured cells and in a rat golgi fraction, using the ha cleavage mutants of a virulent avian influenza virus, a/turkey/ireland/1378/85 (h5n ...19948289354
persistence of highly pathogenic and low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in footbaths and poultry manure.a questionnaire was designed in order to gather information about bedding material and footbath preparation and maintenance in different productive units across the state of california.this information was used to plan two experiments. in the first experiment, we tested the effectiveness of footbaths in inactivating highly pathogenic (hp) and low pathogenic (lp) avian influenza viruses (aivs) on rubber boots. surprisingly, quaternary ammonia- and quaternary ammonia + glutaraldehyde-based footbat ...201728301246
characterization of clade h5n8 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses from wild birds possessing atypical hemagglutinin polybasic cleavage sites.since 2014, clade h5 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (hpaivs) have been distributed worldwide. these viruses, which were reported to be highly virulent in chickens by intravenous inoculation, have a consensus hpai motif plrerrrkr at the ha cleavage site. however, two-clade h5n8 viruses which we isolated from wild migratory birds in late 2014 in japan possessed atypical ha cleavage sequences. a swan isolate, tottori/c6, had a novel polybasic cleavage sequence, pl ...201727738904
phylogeographical characterization of h5n8 viruses isolated from poultry and wild birds during 2014-2016 in south korea.during 2014ā€“2016 hpai outbreak in south korea, h5n8 viruses have been mostly isolated in western areas of the country, which provide wintering habitats for wild birds and have a high density of poultry. analysis of a total of 101 korean isolates revealed that primitive h5n8 viruses (c0 group) have evolved into multiple genetic subgroups appearing from various epidemiological sources, namely, the viruses circulating in poultry farms (c1 and c5) and those reintroduced by migratory birds in late 20 ...201728316230
role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza h5n8.avian influenza viruses affect both poultry production and public health. a subtype h5n8 (clade virus, following an outbreak in poultry in south korea in january 2014, rapidly spread worldwide in 2014-2015. our analysis of h5n8 viral sequences, epidemiological investigations, waterfowl migration, and poultry trade showed that long-distance migratory birds can play a major role in the global spread of avian influenza viruses. further, we found that the hemagglutinin of clade viru ...201627738169
pathology and tissue distribution of an lpai h5n8 of north american lineage isolated from an outbreak in commercial japanese quail (coturnix c. japonica) in the central valley of california.this report describes the pathology and tissue distribution of avian influenza (ai) antigens by immunohistochemistry (ihc) in the tissues of commercial layer quail from a natural outbreak of low pathogenic avian influenza (lpai) h5n8. lpai virus h5n8 of north american lineage was diagnosed in commercial japanese quail hens ( coturnix coturnix japonica) in california based on serology, reverse-transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction, virus isolation, and sequencing. the sudden increase ...201728301241
surveillance of avian influenza viruses in south korea between 2012 and 2014.national surveillance of avian influenza virus (aiv) in south korea has been annually conducted for the early detection of aiv and responses to the introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) virus. in this study, we report on a nationwide surveillance study of aiv in domestic poultry and wild birds in south korea between 2012 and 2014.201728292308
highly pathogenic avian influenza a(h5n8) virus in wild migratory birds, qinghai lake, may 2016, a highly pathogenic avian influenza a(h5n8) virus strain caused deaths among 3 species of wild migratory birds in qinghai lake, china. genetic analysis showed that the novel reassortant virus belongs to group b h5n8 viruses and that the reassortment events likely occurred in early 2016.201728169827
efficacy of clade 2.3.2 h5 commercial vaccines in protecting chickens from clade h5n8 highly pathogenic avian influenza infection.emerging clade of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) virus strain h5n8, which had been detected sporadically in domestic poultry in china, started to affect wild birds and poultry in south korea in 2014. the virus was spread to germany, italy, the netherlands, united kingdom, and even united states by migratory birds. here, we tested currently used commercial clade 2.3.2 h5 vaccines to evaluate mortality, clinical signs, virus shedding, and histological damage after experimenta ...201728169074
pathogenicity of h5n8 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from a wild bird fecal specimen and a chicken in japan in 2014.poultry outbreaks caused by h5n8 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (hpaivs) occurred in japan between december 2014 and january 2015. during the same period; h5n8 hpaivs were isolated from wild birds and the environment in japan. the hemagglutinin (ha) genes of these isolates were found to belong to clade and three sub-groups were distinguishable within this clade. all of the japanese isolates from poultry outbreaks belonged to the same sub-group; whereas wild bird isolates belon ...201626916882
highly pathogenic avian influenza a(h5n8) viruses reintroduced into south korea by migratory waterfowl, 2014-2015.highly pathogenic avian influenza a(h5n8) viruses were isolated from migratory waterfowl in south korea during fall 2014-winter 2015, a recurrence after initial introduction in winter 2014. these reappeared viruses were phylogenetically distinct from isolates circulating in poultry farms in south korea.201626890406
erratum: dynamic changes in host gene expression associated with h5n8 avian influenza virus infection in mice. 201626822875
susceptibility of rock doves to low-pathogenic avian influenza a viruses.following a 2008 outbreak of north american low-pathogenic h5n8 influenza a virus at an upland gamebird farm, we sero-sampled rock doves (pigeons, columba livia) at the outbreak site and conducted experimental inoculations of wild-caught pigeons using the h5n8 virus and another low-pathogenic virus (h4n6). while 13% of pigeons at the outbreak site were seropositive, none were positive for exposure to h5, and one was positive for n8. challenged pigeons exhibited low susceptibility and limited vir ...201626687583
preparation and immunogenicity of influenza virus-like particles using nitrocellulose membrane filtration.nitrocellulose membrane-based filtration system (ncfs) is widely used for protein concentration. in this study, we applied ncfs for production of virus-like particle (vlp) as a vaccine candidate and evaluated yield property and immunogenicity.201728168175
lack of virological and serological evidence for continued circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza h5n8 virus in wild birds in the netherlands, 14 november 2014 to 31 january 2014, h5n8 clade highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) viruses of the a/goose/guangdong/1/1996 lineage emerged in poultry and wild birds in asia, europe and north america. here, wild birds were extensively investigated in the netherlands for hpai h5n8 virus (real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting the matrix and h5 gene) and antibody detection (haemagglutination inhibition and virus neutralisation assays) before, during and after the first virus detection in europe in late 20 ...201627684783
prime-boost vaccination with recombinant h5-fowlpox and newcastle disease virus vectors affords lasting protection in spf muscovy ducks against highly pathogenic h5n1 influenza virus.vaccination protocols were evaluated in one-day old muscovy ducklings, using an experimental newcastle disease recombinant vaccine (vndv-h5) encoding an optimized synthetic haemagglutinin gene from a clade 2.2.1 h5n1 highly pathogenic (hp) avian influenza virus (aiv), either as a single administration or as a boost following a prime inoculation with a fowlpox vectored vaccine (vfp89) encoding a different h5 hp haemagglutinin from an irish h5n8 strain. these vaccination schemes did not induce det ...201323845804
reassortant highly pathogenic influenza a h5n2 virus containing gene segments related to eurasian h5n8 in british columbia, canada, late november 2014 higher than normal death losses in a meat turkey and chicken broiler breeder farm in the fraser valley of british columbia initiated a diagnostic investigation that led to the discovery of a novel reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) h5n2 virus. this virus, composed of 5 gene segments (pb2, pa, ha, m and ns) related to eurasian hpai h5n8 and the remaining gene segments (pb1, np and na) related to north american lineage waterfowl viruses, represents the first ...201525804829
highly pathogenic influenza a(h5nx) viruses with altered h5 receptor-binding specificity.emergence and intercontinental spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza a(h5nx) virus clade is unprecedented. h5n8 and h5n2 viruses have caused major economic losses in the poultry industry in europe and north america, and lethal human infections with h5n6 virus have occurred in asia. knowledge of the evolution of receptor-binding specificity of these viruses, which might affect host range, is urgently needed. we report that emergence of these viruses is accompanied by a change in rec ...201727869615
reintroduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza a/h5n8 virus of clade in the spring of 2016, a loss of wild birds was observed during the monitoring of avian influenza virus activity in the republic of tyva. that outbreak was caused by influenza h5n8 virus of clade in the fall, viruses of h5n8 clade were propagated in european countries. this paper presents some results of analysis of the virus strains isolated during the spring and fall seasons in 2016 in the russian federation. the investigated strains were highly pathogenic for mice, and some o ...201728138776
novel reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza (h5n8) virus in zoos, india.highly pathogenic avian influenza (h5n8) viruses were detected in waterfowl at 2 zoos in india in october 2016. both viruses were different 7:1 reassortants of h5n8 viruses isolated in may 2016 from wild birds in the russian federation and china, suggesting virus spread during southward winter migration of birds.201728117031
rapid acquisition of polymorphic virulence markers during adaptation of highly pathogenic avian influenza h5n8 virus in the mouse.emergence of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) h5n8 virus in asia and its spread to europe and north america has caused great concern for human health. although the h5n8 virus has been only moderately pathogenic to mammalian hosts, virulence can still increase. we evaluated the pathogenic potential of several h5n8 strains via the mouse-adaptation method. two h5n8 viruses were sequentially passaged in balb/c mice and plaque-purified from lung samples. the viruses rapidly obtained high vi ...201728094780
detection of h5n8 virus in wild birds 'no surprise', says defra. 201728062761
outbreaks among wild birds and domestic poultry caused by reassorted influenza a(h5n8) clade viruses, germany, november 2016, an influenza a(h5n8) outbreak caused deaths of wild birds and domestic poultry in germany. clade virus was closely related to viruses detected at the russia-mongolia border in 2016 but had new polymerase acidic and nucleoprotein segments. these new strains may be more efficiently transmitted to and shed by birds.201728055819
low virulence and lack of airborne transmission of the dutch highly pathogenic avian influenza virus h5n8 in ferrets.highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) h5n8 viruses that emerged in poultry in east asia spread to europe and north america by late 2014. here we show that the european hpai h5n8 viruses differ from the korean and japanese hpai h5n8 viruses by several amino acids and that a dutch hpai h5n8 virus had low virulence and was not transmitted via the airborne route in ferrets. the virus did not cross-react with sera raised against pre-pandemic h5 vaccine strains. this data is useful for public healt ...201526090682
novel reassortant clade avian influenza a(h5n8) virus in wild aquatic birds, russia, 2016.the emergence of novel avian influenza viruses in migratory birds is of concern because of the potential for virus dissemination during fall migration. we report the identification of novel highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of subtype h5n8, clade, and their reassortment with other avian influenza viruses in waterfowl and shorebirds of siberia.201727875109
epidemiological and molecular analysis of an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza h5n8 clade in a german zoo: effective disease control with minimal culling.outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza a virus (hpaiv) subtype h5n8, clade, were first reported in january 2014 from south korea. these viruses spread rapidly to europe and the north american continent during autumn 2014 and caused, in germany, five outbreaks in poultry holdings until february 2015. in addition, birds kept in a zoo in north-eastern germany were affected. only a few individual white storks (ciconia ciconia) showed clinical symptoms and eventually died in the cours ...201627860371
characterization of an h5n8 influenza a virus isolated from chickens during an outbreak of severe avian influenza in japan in april 2014.a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (hpaiv) of subtype h5n8, a/chicken/kumamoto/1-7/2014, was isolated from a japanese chicken farm during an outbreak in april 2014. phylogenetic analysis revealed that this virus belonged to ha clade all eight genomic segments showed high sequence similarity to those of the h5n8 subtype hpaivs a/broiler duck/korea/buan2/2014 and a/baikal teal/korea/donglim3/2014, which were isolated in korea in january 2014. intranasal experimental infection of ch ...201525902725
genetic characterization of highly pathogenic avian influenza (h5n8) virus from domestic ducks, england, november 2014.genetic sequences of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (h5n8) virus in england have high homology to those detected in mainland europe and asia during 2014. genetic characterization suggests this virus is an avian-adapted virus without specific affinity for zoonoses. spatio-temporal detections of h5n8 imply a role for wild birds in virus spread.201525898126
surveillance for highly pathogenic h5 avian influenza virus in synanthropic wildlife associated with poultry farms during an acute november 2014, a eurasian strain h5n8 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus was detected in poultry in canada. introduced viruses were soon detected in the united states and within six months had spread to 21 states with more than 48 million poultry affected. in an effort to study potential mechanisms of spread of the eurasian h5 virus, the united states department of agriculture coordinated several epidemiologic investigations at poultry farms. as part of those efforts, we sampled synanthr ...201627812044
transmission of an h5n8-subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza virus from infected hens to laid eggs.we showed here that an h5n8-subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (hpaiv) was transmitted to both the internal contents and shells of eggs laid by white leghorn hens experimentally infected with the virus. seven of eight hpaiv-infected hens laid eggs until 4 days postinoculation (dpi). the mean number of eggs laid per head daily decreased significantly from 0.58 before inoculation to 0.18 after viral inoculation. the virus was detected in the eggs laid by three of the seven hens. viral ...201627309286
influenza a(h5n8) virus similar to strain in korea causing highly pathogenic avian influenza in germany.highly pathogenic avian influenza (h5n8) virus, like the recently described h5n8 strain from korea, was detected in november 2014 in farmed turkeys and in a healthy common teal (anas crecca) in northeastern germany. infected wild birds possibly introduced this virus.201525897703
intercontinental spread of asian-origin h5n8 to north america through beringia by migratory birds.phylogenetic network analysis and understanding of waterfowl migration patterns suggest that the eurasian h5n8 clade avian influenza virus emerged in late 2013 in china, spread in early 2014 to south korea and japan, and reached siberia and beringia by summer 2014 via migratory birds. three genetically distinct subgroups emerged and subsequently spread along different flyways during fall 2014 into europe, north america, and east asia, respectively. all three subgroups reappeared in japan ...201525855748
neuroinvasive influenza virus a(h5n8) in fattening ducks, hungary, 2015.highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) a virus h5n8 was detected in far east asian countries during 2014 and emerged in late 2014 in european countries. hungary reported a hpai a(h5n8) outbreak during late winter of 2015 at a pekin duck fattening facility. epidemiologic monitoring was extended to holdings in neighboring areas and nearby habitats used by wild birds but failed to identify the source of infection. in addition to respiratory symptoms, the affected birds showed lethargy and neurona ...201627215706
novel avian influenza a(h5n8) viruses in migratory birds, china, 2013-2014. 201627192098
avian influenza: no clear indication of how h5n8 virus entered the eu. 201525598458
a novel highly pathogenic h5n8 avian influenza virus isolated from a wild duck in china.migrating wild birds are considered natural reservoirs of influenza viruses and serve as a potential source of novel influenza strains in humans and livestock. during routine avian influenza surveillance conducted in eastern china, a novel h5n8 (sh-9) reassortant influenza virus was isolated from a mallard duck in china. blast analysis revealed that the ha, na, pb1, pa, np, and m segments of sh-9 were most closely related to the corresponding segments of a/duck/jiangsu/k1203/2010 (h5n8). the sh- ...201425363159
experimental infection of spf and korean native chickens with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (h5n8).in 2014, an h5n8 outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) occurred in south korea. the h5n8 strain produced mild to moderate clinical signs and mortality rates in commercial chicken farms, especially korean native chicken farms. to understand the differences between their pathogenicity in spf chicken and korean native chicken., we evaluated the mean bird lethal doses (bld50) of the korean representative h5n8 virus (a/broiler duck/korea/buan2/2014) the bld50values of the h5n8 virus we ...201626933235
highly pathogenic avian influenza h5n8 in germany: outbreak investigations.epidemiological outbreak investigations were conducted in highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the subtype h5n8 (hpaiv h5n8)-affected poultry holdings and a zoo to identify potential routes of entry of the pathogen via water, feedstuffs, animals, people, bedding material, other fomites (equipment, vehicles etc.) and the presence of wild birds near affected holdings. indirect introduction of hpaiv h5n8 via material contaminated by infected wild bird seems the most reasonable explanation for ...201626519355
highly pathogenic avian influenza h5n8 clade virus: equivocal pathogenicity and implications for surveillance following natural infection in breeder ducks in the united kingdom.since early 2014, several outbreaks involving novel reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) a(h5n8) viruses have been detected in poultry and wild bird species in asia, europe and north america. these viruses have been detected in apparently healthy and dead wild migratory birds, as well as in domestic chickens, turkeys, geese and ducks. in this study, we describe the pathology of an outbreak of h5n8 hpaiv in breeder ducks in the uk. a holding with approximately 6000 breeder ducks, ...201626519234
novel reassortant influenza a(h5n8) viruses, south korea, 2014. 201424856098
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