association of aeromonas hydrophila and vibrio alginolyticus with larval mortalities of scallop (argopecten purpuratus)a bacteriological study was carried out in a hatchery of argopecten purpuratus located in northern chile which had been affected by severe larval mortalities. the phenotypic characterization of the bacterial strains revealed that vibrio alginolyticus was the predominant species isolated in the majority of samples taken from the different units of the hatchery (microalgae, swimming larvae, seawater of larval culture tanks, and a reservoir tank of 50-μm filtered seawater). however, the bacterial p ...19968812601
inheritance of the general shell color in the scallop argopecten purpuratus (bivalvia: pectinidae).although some external coloration and pigmentation patterns in molluscan shells may be attributable to environmental factors, most variation in these phenotypic characters depends on uncomplicated genetic mechanisms. genetic research on inheritance of color variations in the north-chilean scallop (argopecten purpuratus) has now been expanded to analyze color segregation in juvenile scallops produced under controlled conditions employing self- and cross-fertilization. calculations from the result ...200111948224
pathogenicity of a highly exopolysaccharide-producing halomonas strain causing epizootics in larval cultures of the chilean scallop argopecten purpuratus (lamarck, 1819).mass mortalities of larval cultures of chilean scallop argopecten purpuratus have repeatedly occurred in northern chile, characterized by larval agglutination and accumulation in the bottom of rearing tanks. the exopolysaccharide slime (eps) producing cam2 strain was isolated as the primary organism from moribund larvae in a pathogenic outbreak occurring in a commercial hatchery producing larvae of the chilean scallop argopecten purpuratus located in bahía inglesa, chile. the cam2 strain was cha ...200918548185
Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 August 2011-30 September 2011.This article documents the addition of 299 microsatellite marker loci and nine pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) EPIC primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources (MER) Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alosa pseudoharengus, Alosa aestivalis, Aphis spiraecola, Argopecten purpuratus, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Garra gotyla, Hippodamia convergens, Linnaea borealis, Menippe mercenaria, Menippe adina, Parus major, Pinus densiflora, Portunus trituberculatus, Procontar ...201222136175
prostaglandins and reproduction of the scallop argopecten purpuratus: ii. relationship with gamete release.levels of prostaglandins e(2) and f(2alpha) were measured in male and female gonadal portions of the functional hermaphroditic scallop argopecten purpuratus, at the time of spawning. for these measurements, mature scallops were stimulated to initiate their chain of spawning events, and prostaglandins (pgs) were analyzed in samples before stimulation, when animals appeared stimulated to release sperm, during the release of sperm, when animals appeared stimulated to release oocytes, when most of t ...200010861554
energy vs. essential fatty acids: what do scallop larvae (argopecten purpuratus) need most?larvae of the chilean-peruvian scallop argopecten purpuratus were fed a dunaliella tertiolecta diet (dun-diet) supplemented with lipid emulsions, rich in 20:5n-3 (emepa), 22:6n-3 (emdha) or in saturated fatty acids (emcoco). a mixed algal diet of isochrysis galbana (t-iso) and chaetoceros neogracile served as a positive control (st-diet). lipid supplementation to the dun-diet improved the larval growth and increased the percentage of eyed larvae significantly, compared to the non-supplemented du ...200312670787
enzymatic and feeding behaviour of argopecten purpuratus under variation in salinity and food supply.argopecten purpuratus is a bivalve filter feeder inhabiting protected areas of the peruvian coastline and northern and central chile. the species is commercially valuable and the natural stocks are over-exploited in chile, mainly in the central region. expansion of aquaculture farms to the geographically protected coastline of southern chile is a potential solution to this problem. so, the objective of the present study was to determine the acute feeding and digestive response of a. purpuratus i ...200515961337
characterization of reproduction-specific genes in a marine bivalve mollusc: influence of maturation stage and sex on mrna expression.numerous studies have investigated the reproduction mechanisms in mollusc species at a biochemical and physiological level; few have described these mechanisms at a molecular level, despite great commercial interest in several mollusc species. we investigated genes involved in gonad maturation of the marine scallop argopecten purpuratus. a cdna library was made from gonad tissue. after sequence analysis, 418 unique genes were characterized, of these, about 80% were of unknown function. among the ...200817976928
a novel antifungal peptide designed from the primary structure of a natural antimicrobial peptide purified from argopecten purpuratus hemocytes.we have isolated and purified a natural antimicrobial peptide from argopecten purpuratus hemocytes. 47 residues were determined from its primary structure representing the n-terminal of the complete sequence. this peptide of 5100.78da was chemically synthesized and named ap. the peptide has 25% of hydrophobic amino acids with a net charge of +1, and partial homology with known active antimicrobial peptides. based on that sequence, a new peptide was designed and modeled to increase hydrophobicity ...200919481126
the occurrence of domoic acid linked to a toxic diatom bloom in a new potential vector: the tunicate pyura chilensis (piure).the tunicate pyura chilensis (molina, 1782); phylum chordata; subphylum urochordata; class ascidiacea, common local name "piure" or sea squirt; a filter-feeder (plankton and suspended particles) sessile species; may play an important role in monitoring domoic acid (da) the principal toxic component of amnesic shellfish poisoning (asp). significant da concentrations have been determined in tunicate samples, collected during a recent asp outbreak in bahía inglesa, an important scallop (argopecten ...200919505493
development and characterization of ten polymorphic microsatellites isolated from the scallop argopecten purpuratus. 201222552338
genomic characterization of interspecific hybrids between the scallops argopecten purpuratus and a. irradians irradians.the peruvian scallop (argopecten purpuratus) has been introduced to china and has successfully been hybridized with the bay scallop (a. irradians irradians). the f1 hybrids of these two scallops exhibited a large increase in production traits and some other interesting new characteristics. to understand the genetic basis of this heterosis, nuclear gene and partial mtdna sequences, and genomic in situ hybridization (gish) were employed to analyze the genomic organization of the hybrids. amplifica ...201323620828
mitochondrial genome of the peruvian scallop argopecten purpuratus (bivalvia: pectinidae).the mitochondrial genome of the peruvian scallop argopecten purpuratus was determined. the length of the mitochondrial coding region is 15,608 bp. a typical bivalve mitochondrial composition was detected with 12 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal rna genes and 21 transfer rna genes, with the absence of the atp8 gene. fifty percent of the protein-coding genes use typical atg start codon, whereas five genes utilize ata as their start codon. only one gene was found to utilize ttg as its start codon. ...201524397768
tissue-specific cd and pb accumulation in peruvian scallop (argopecten purpuratus) transplanted to a suspended and bottom culture at sechura bay, order to understand the effect of different culture systems on cd and pb accumulation, suspended long-line and bottom cultures of argopecten purpuratus were conducted during january until april 2010 (120 days). the cd tissue levels were the highest at the middle of the experiment (30-d till 70-d) for suspended-cultured individuals, while bottom-cultured individuals showed an increasing trend. gonad pb levels were also higher during the same period for all cultures, while adductor muscle exhib ...201525444617
genome sequence of vibrio vpap30, isolated from an episode of massive mortality of reared larvae of the scallop argopecten purpuratus.we report here the 5.167-mbp draft genome sequence of vibrio vpap30, isolated from an argopecten purpuratus larval culture. vibrio vpap30 is the etiological agent of a vibriosis outbreak causing a complete collapse of a larval culture of the scallop a. purpuratus, which occurred in a commercial hatchery in chile.201526159530
molecular genetic analysis of heterosis in interspecific hybrids of argopecten purpuratus x a. irradians irradians.argopecten purpuratus and argopecten irradians irradians hybridization was successfully performed and the hybrid offspring displayed apparent heterosis in growth traits. to better understand the genetic basis of heterosis, the genomic composition and genetic variation of the hybrids were analyzed with amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) and simple sequence repeat (ssr) markers. seven of eight universal ssr primers displayed polymorphism in the hybrids and their parental groups, and hyb ...201526400299
biomineralization changes with food supply confer juvenile scallops (argopecten purpuratus) resistance to ocean acidification.future ocean acidification (oa) will affect physiological traits of marine species, with calcifying species being particularly vulnerable. as oa entails high energy demands, particularly during the rapid juvenile growth phase, food supply may play a key role in the response of marine organisms to oa. we experimentally evaluated the role of food supply in modulating physiological responses and biomineralization processes in juveniles of the chilean scallop, argopecten purpuratus, that were expose ...201626644007
in vitro fertilization with cryopreserved spermatozoa in small pieces of gonad of the scallop argopecten purpuratus (lamarck, 1819).the aim of this work was to evaluate the fertilization rates through the first cleavage, obtained with fresh oocytes inseminated with sperm cryopreserved at different freezing rates (-8.8,-10 and -12 °c/min) and at two thawing rates, using cryoprotectant solution (me2so, at 1 m, 2 m, 3 m, 4 m and 5 m with or without egg yolk and sucrose). sperm contained in small pieces of male gonad were frozen at the three freezing rates, stored in liquid nitrogen and later the samples were thawed at two rates ...201627424093
insight into the messenger role of reactive oxygen intermediates in immunostimulated hemocytes from the scallop argopecten purpuratus.reactive oxygen intermediates (roi) are metabolites produced by aerobic cells which have been linked to oxidative stress. evidence reported in vertebrates indicates that roi can also act as messengers in a variety of cellular signaling pathways, including those involved in innate immunity. in a recent study, an inhibitor of nf-kb transcription factors was identified in the scallop argopecten purpuratus, and its functional characterization suggested that it may regulate the expression of the big ...201627475324
first report of vibrio tubiashii associated with a massive larval mortality event in a commercial hatchery of scallop argopecten purpuratus in chile.the vpap30 strain was isolated as the highly predominant bacteria from an episode of massive larval mortality occurring in a commercial culture of the chilean scallop argopecten purpuratus. the main aims of this study were, to characterize and identify the pathogenic strain using biochemical and molecular methods to demonstrate its pathogenic activity on scallop larvae, to characterize its pathogenic properties and to describe the chronology of this pathology. the pathogenic strain was identifie ...201627703450
characterization and pathogenicity of vibrio splendidus strains associated with massive mortalities of commercial hatchery-reared larvae of scallop argopecten purpuratus (lamarck, 1819).three strains (vpap16, vpap18 and vpap23 strains) were isolated as the most predominant organisms from 3 different episodes of massive mortalities of larval cultures of the chilean scallop argopecten purpuratus occurred in different commercial hatcheries located in northern chile. the main aims of this study were to identify the pathogenic strains and investigate their pathogenic activity. based on selected phenotypic features and sequence identity of the 16s rrna gene and the housekeeping gene, ...201525450196
molecular characterization of an inhibitor of nf-κb in the scallop argopecten purpuratus: first insights into its role on antimicrobial peptide regulation in a mollusk.inhibitors of nuclear factor kappa b (iκbs) are major control components of the rel/nf-κb signaling pathway, a key regulator in the modulation of the expression of immune-related genes in vertebrates and invertebrates. the activation of the rel/nf-κb signaling pathway depends largely in the degradation of iκb proteins and thus, iκbs are a main target for the identification of genes whose expression is controlled by rel/nf-κb pathway. in order to identify such regulation in bivalve mollusks, the ...201626993612
molecular characterization of two ferritins of the scallop argopecten purpuratus and gene expressions in association with early development, immune response and growth rate.ferritin is involved in several iron homoeostasis processes in molluscs. we characterized two ferritin homologues and their expression patterns in association with early development, growth rate and immune response in the scallop argopecten purpuratus, a species of economic importance for chile and peru. two ferritin subunits (apfer1 and apfer2) were cloned. apfer1 cdna is a 792bp clone containing a 516bp open reading frame (orf) that corresponds to a novel ferritin subunit in a. purpuratus. apf ...201627040527
first evidence of azaspiracids (azas): a family of lipophilic polyether marine toxins in scallops (argopecten purpuratus) and mussels (mytilus chilensis) collected in two regions of chile.azaspiracids are a family of lipophilic polyether marine biotoxins that have caused a number of human intoxication incidents in europe since 1995 following the consumption by consumers of intoxicated shellfish (mytilus edulis). these azaspiracids have now been identified in mussels (mytilus chilensis) and scallops (argopecten purpuratus) from two chilean locations. this is the first report of the occurrence of azaspiracid toxins in these species (mytilus chilensis and argopecten purpuratus) from ...201019852974
transcriptomic response of argopecten purpuratus post-larvae to copper exposure under experimental conditions.few studies have described the molecular response of mollusk larvae to heavy metal exposure. we investigated the response of chilean scallop argopecten purpuratus post-larvae to copper exposure under experimental conditions. post-larvae were maintained with and without copper stress in tanks containing netlon collectors with biofilms that were formed by the bacterium halomonas sp. and the diatom amphora sp., known to increase larval settlement. we focused on the analysis of the differential expr ...200919406218
reproductive and larval cycle of the scallop argopecten purpuratus (ostreoida: pectinidae), during el niño-la niña events and normal weather conditions in antofagasta, chile.seasonality, amplitude, and magnitude of spawning events were determined for argopecten purpuratus in the la rinconada marine reserve, antofagasta, chile, between december 1995 and january 2004. during the same period, samples of scallop larvae were obtained in vertical plankton hauls recovered within this reserve in an area routinely exposed to circular, gyre-like currents which helped retain the larvae within the bay. the reproduction of this population in normal or cool (e.g. "la niña", 1998- ...200818624231
inhibition of byssal formation in semimytilus algosus (gould, 1850) by a film-forming bacterium isolated from biofouled substrata in northern chile.semimytilus algosus is a small mussel species that fouls artificial culture systems of the scallop argopecten purpuratus (lamarck, 1819) in the north of chile. since biofouling organisms are a serious problem in culture, competing with the scallops for food and oxygen, environmentally-friendly methods are required to mitigate the effects of this fouling in the culture systems. the present study reports the evaluation of the inhibitory effect of biofilms and extracellular products (ep) of the bac ...200616551562
copper accumulation by bacteria and transfer to scallop larvae.a bacterial copper-resistant strain was isolated from a hatchery-conditioned adult of the scallop argopecten purpuratus and was identified as vibrio sp. according to its physiological characteristics. the lowest concentration of cu2+ required for its complete inhibition in vnss medium was 50 microg ml(-1). the vibrio strain was found to accumulate copper, exhibiting cellular and loosely bound copper levels of 201.14 and 493.21 microg g(-1) dry weight, respectively, after 24 h of incubation in vn ...200616226280
interactive effects of diet and temperature on the scope for growth of the scallop argopecten purpuratus during reproductive conditioning.mature individuals of argopecten purpuratus from suspended culture in tongoy bay, northern chile were conditioned at two temperatures (16 and 20 degrees c) and three different diets (mixture of pure microalgae, microalgae supplemented with lipids and microalgae supplemented with carbohydrates). the food, equivalent to 3% daily of the animal dry weight was supplied continuously by a peristaltic pump. the rates of different physiological processes were measured on 18 scallops (three replicates per ...200010727688
effect of diet and temperature upon muscle metabolic capacities and biochemical composition of gonad and muscle in argopecten purpuratus lamarck 1819.recently spawned argopecten purpuratus broodstock were conditioned at two temperatures and fed three different diets (microalgae, microalgae mixed with lipids and microalgae mixed with carbohydrates) to examine changes in the biochemical composition of gonad and muscle as well as muscle metabolic capacities. during one experiment, scallops were fed at 3% of their dry mass per day whereas during a second experiment, they were fed at 6% of their dry mass per day. during both experiments, total gon ...200010727686
genetic structure of the peruvian scallop argopecten purpuratus inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear dna variation.the population genetic structure of the peruvian scallop argopecten purpuratus from three different wild populations along the peruvian coast was analyzed using nine microsatellite loci and a partial region (530bp) of the mitochondrial 16s rrna gene. a total of 19 polymorphic sites in the 16s rrna gene defined 18 unique haplotypes. high genetic diversity was presented in all populations. statistical analysis of mitochondrial dna revealed no significant genetic structure (φst=0.00511, p=0.32149) ...201223904058
expression of an optimized argopecten purpuratus antimicrobial peptide in e. coli and evaluation of the purified recombinant protein by in vitro challenges against important plant fungi.antimicrobial peptides (amp) have been widely described in several organisms from different kingdoms. we recently designed and evaluated a synthetic version of an amp isolated and characterized from argopecten purpuratus hemocytes. this study describes the generation of a chimaeric gene encoding for ap-s, the use of this construct to transform e. coli strain bl21, and the evaluation of the purified recombinant ap-s (raps) as an antifungal agent. the proposed gene coding for rap-s consists of 93 ...201121787820
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