genome-wide identification and comparative analysis of the cation proton antiporters family in pear and four other rosaceae species.the monovalent cation proton antiporters (cpas) play essential roles in plant nutrition, development, and signal transduction by regulating ion and ph homeostasis of the cell. the cpas of plants include the na(+)/h(+) exchanger, k(+) efflux antiporter, and cation/h(+) exchanger families. however, currently, little is known about the cpa genes in rosaceae species. in this study, 220 cpa genes were identified from five rosaceae species (pyrus bretschneideri, malus domestica, prunus persica, fragar ...201627193473
genome-wide identification and comparative analysis of the heat shock transcription factor family in chinese white pear (pyrus bretschneideri) and five other rosaceae species.heat shock transcription factors (hsfs), which act as important transcriptional regulatory proteins in eukaryotes, play a central role in controlling the expression of heat-responsive genes. at present, the genomes of chinese white pear ('dangshansuli') and five other rosaceae fruit crops have been fully sequenced. however, information about the hsfs gene family in these rosaceae species is limited, and the evolutionary history of the hsfs gene family also remains unresolved.201525604453
a new insight into the evolution and functional divergence of sweet transporters in chinese white pear (pyrus bretschneideri).sweet genes are a recently identified plant gene family that play an indispensable role in sugar efflux. however, no systematic study has been performed in pear. in this research, 18 sweet transporters identified in pear, almost twice the number found in woodland strawberry and japanese apricot, were divided into four clades. conserved motifs and six exons of the sweet transporters were found in six species. sweet transporters contained seven transmembrane segments (tmss) that evolved from an in ...201728339862
comparative genomic analysis reveals multiple long terminal repeats, lineage-specific amplification, and frequent interelement recombination for cassandra retrotransposon in pear (pyrus bretschneideri rehd.).cassandra transposable elements belong to a specific group of terminal-repeat retrotransposons in miniature (trim). although cassandra trim elements have been found in almost all vascular plants, detailed investigations on the nature, abundance, amplification timeframe, and evolution have not been performed in an individual genome. we therefore conducted a comprehensive analysis of cassandra retrotransposons using the newly sequenced pear genome along with four other rosaceae species, including ...201424899073
comparative genomic analysis of the grf genes in chinese pear (pyrus bretschneideri rehd), poplar (populous), grape (vitis vinifera), arabidopsis and rice (oryza sativa).growth-regulating factors (grfs) are plant-specific transcription factors that have important functions in regulating plant growth and development. previous studies on grf family members focused either on a single or a small set of genes. here, a comparative genomic analysis of the grf gene family was performed in poplar (a model tree species), arabidopsis (a model plant for annual herbaceous dicots), grape (one model plant for perennial dicots), rice (a model plant for monocots) and chinese pea ...201627933074
characterization of the lipoxygenase (lox) gene family in the chinese white pear (pyrus bretschneideri) and comparison with other members of the rosaceae.lipoxygenases (loxs), a type of non-haem iron-containing dioxygenase, are ubiquitous enzymes in plants and participate in the formation of fruit aroma which is a very important aspect of fruit quality. amongst the various aroma volatiles, saturated and unsaturated alcohols and aldehydes provide the characteristic aroma of the fruit. these compounds are formed from unsaturated fatty acids through oxidation, pyrolysis and reduction steps. this biosynthetic pathway involves at least four enzymes, i ...201424906560
species-specific duplications driving the recent expansion of nbs-lrr genes in five rosaceae species.disease resistance (r) genes from different rosaceae species have been identified by map-based cloning for resistance breeding. however, there are few reports describing the pattern of r-gene evolution in rosaceae species because several rosaceae genome sequences have only recently become available.201525759136
cloning, characterization and promoter analysis of s-rnase gene promoter from chinese pear (pyrus pyrifolia).the 5'-flanking region of the s(12)-, s(13)-, s(21)-rnase with a length of 854 bp, 1448 bp and 1137 bp were successfully isolated by tail-pcr from genomic dna from 'jinhua', 'maogong' (pyrus pyrifolia) and 'yali' (pyrus bretschneideri) genomic dna. sequence alignment and analysis of s(13)-, s(12)-, s(21)-rnase gene promoter sequences with s(2)-, s(3)-, s(4)-, s(5)-rnase 5'-flanking sequences indicated that a homology region of about 240 bp exists in the regions just upstream of the putative tata ...201222728119
[relationship between breaking of dormancy and reactive oxygen species metabolism in flower buds of pear].the metabolism of reactive oxygen species in pear (pyrus bretschneideri rehd.) flower buds changes greatly during their natural dormancy in winter. the o(-.)(2) production rate increases rapidly during the period of dormancy, but decreases when dormancy finishes (fig. 5). h(2)o(2) content goes up significantly at the early stage of dormancy, but afterwards falls gradually (fig. 5). however, ascorbic acid (asa) and reduced glutathione (gsh) contents show a different changing trend: descending at ...200415643086
differential gene expression analysis of 'chili' (pyrus bretschneideri) fruit pericarp with two types of bagging treatments.preharvest bagging is a simple, grower-friendly and safe physical protection technique commonly applied to many fruits, and the application of different fruit bags can have various effects. to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the fruit quality effects of different bagging treatments, digital gene expression (dge) profiling of bagged and unbagged 'chili' (pyrus bretschneideri rehd.) pear pericarp during development was performed. relative to unbagged fruit, a total of 3022 and 769 diff ...028280542
laboratory evaluation of differential attraction of culex pipiens pallens to fruit-based sugar baits.mosquito adults usually need to obtain sugar from floral nectaries and damaged fruits/seed pods to replenish their energy reserves. the newly developed attractive toxic sugar baits have been successfully applied in controlling various mosquito species outdoors. however, the attraction of culex pipiens pallens to different fruit-based sugar baits remains unknown. in the present study, we selected nine common fruit species, prepared the fruit-based sugar solutions, and investigated the attractiven ...201627456936
two myb transcription factors regulate flavonoid biosynthesis in pear fruit (pyrus bretschneideri rehd.).flavonoid compounds play important roles in the modern diet, and pear fruits are an excellent dietary source of these metabolites. however, information on the regulatory network of flavonoid biosynthesis in pear fruits is rare. in this work, 18 putative flavonoid-related myb transcription factors (tfs) were screened by phylogenetic analysis and four of them were correlated with flavonoid biosynthesis patterns in pear fruits. among these myb-like genes, the specific functions of two novel myb tfs ...201626687179
genome-wide characterization, evolution, and expression analysis of the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase (lrr-rlk) gene family in rosaceae genomes.leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase (lrr-rlk) is the largest gene family of receptor-like protein kinases (rlks) and actively participates in regulating the growth, development, signal transduction, immunity, and stress responses of plants. however, the patterns of lrr-rlk gene family evolution in the five main rosaceae species for which genome sequences are available have not yet been reported. in this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of lrr-rlk genes for five rosaceae ...201729017442
transcriptome analysis unravels an ethylene response factor involved in regulating fruit ripening in pear.ethylene response factor (erf) has been widely studied in regulating fruit ripening in tomato, apple, banana and kiwifruit, but little is known in pear. in this study 1-methylcyclopropene (1-mcp) treatment, an inhibitor of ethylene perception, was conducted at approximately 30 days before harvest to delay fruit ripening in a climacteric white pear cultivar yali. transcriptome libraries were constructed and sequenced in pre-ripening, ripening, and 1-mcp treated fruits. data analysis showed that 7 ...201729148054
low molecular weight chitosan is an effective antifungal agent against botryosphaeria sp. and preservative agent for pear (pyrus) fruits.antifungal activity and preservative effect of a low molecular weight chitosan (lmwc) sample, derived from chitosan by enzymatic hydrolysis, were investigated in vitro and in vivo. a pathogenic fungal strain was isolated from decayed pear (pyrus bretschneideri cv. "huangguan") fruit and identified as botryosphaeria sp. w-01. lmwc was shown to strongly inhibit w-01 growth based on studies of minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) and effects on mycelial biomass and radial growth of the fungus. lm ...201727818296
ribosome inactivating proteins from rosaceae.ribosome-inactivating proteins (rips) are widespread among higher plants of different taxonomic orders. in this study, we report on the rip sequences found in the genome/transcriptome of several important rosaceae species, including many economically important edible fruits such as apple, pear, peach, apricot, and strawberry. all rip domains from rosaceae share high sequence similarity with conserved residues in the catalytic site and the carbohydrate binding sites. the genomes of malus domestic ...027556443
tc1-like transposable elements in plant genomes.the tc1/mariner superfamily of transposable elements (tes) is widespread in animal genomes. mariner-like elements, which bear a ddd triad catalytic motif, have been identified in a wide range of flowering plant species. however, as the founding member of the superfamily, tc1-like elements that bear a dd34e triad catalytic motif are only known to unikonts (animals, fungi, and entamoeba).201424926322
plc-mediated signaling pathway in pollen tubes regulates the gametophytic self-incompatibility of pyrus species.among the rosaceae species, the gametophytic self-incompatibility (gsi) is controlled by a single multi-allelic s locus, which is composed of the pistil-s and pollen-s genes. the pistil-s gene encodes a polymorphic ribonuclease (s-rnase), which is essential for identifying self-pollen. however, the s-rnase system has not been fully characterized. in this study, the self-s-rnase inhibited the ca2+-permeable channel activity at pollen tube apices and the selectively decreased phospholipase c (plc) ...201728729872
b-box genes: genome-wide identification, evolution and their contribution to pollen growth in pear (pyrus bretschneideri rehd.).the b-box (bbx) proteins have important functions in regulating plant growth and development. in plants, the bbx gene family has been identified in several plants, such as rice, arabidopsis and tomato. however, there still lack a genome-wide survey of bbx genes in pear.201728927374
response of mir156-spl module during the red peel coloration of bagging-treated chinese sand pear (pyrus pyrifolia nakai).microrna156 is an evolutionarily highly conserved plant micro-rna (mirna) that controls an age-dependent flowering pathway. mir156 and its target squamosa promoter binding protein-like (spl) genes regulate anthocyanin accumulation in plants, but it is unknown whether this process is affected by light. red chinese sand pear (pyrus pyrifolia) fruits exhibit a unique coloration pattern in response to bagging treatments, which makes them appropriate for studying the molecular mechanism underlying li ...201728824447
map-based cloning of the pear gene myb114 identifies an interaction with other transcription factors to coordinately regulate fruit anthocyanin fruits are popular and widely accepted by consumers because of an enhanced appearance and enriched anthocyanins. the molecular mechanism of anthocyanin regulation in red-skinned pear (pyrus) has been studied, and the genes encoding the biosynthetic steps and several transcription factors (tfs) have been characterized. in this study, a candidate r2r3 myb tf, pymyb114, was identified by linkage to the quantitative trait loci (qtl) for red skin color on linkage group 5 in a population of chines ...201728845529
identification of sfbb-containing canonical and noncanonical scf complexes in pollen of apple (malus × domestica).gametophytic self-incompatibility (gsi) of rosaceae, solanaceae and plantaginaceae is controlled by a single polymorphic s locus. the s locus contains at least two genes, s-rnase and f-box protein encoding gene slf/sfb/sfbb that control pistil and pollen specificity, respectively. generally, the f-box protein forms an e3 ligase complex, scf complex with skp1, cullin1 (cul1) and rbx1, however, in petunia inflata, sbp1 (s-rnase binding protein1) was reported to play the role of skp1 and rbx1, and ...201424847858
integrated high-density consensus genetic map of pyrus and anchoring of the 'bartlett' v1.0 (pyrus communis) genome.genetic maps are essential tools for pear genetics and genomics research. in this study, we first constructed an integrated simple sequence repeat (ssr) and single nucleotide polymorphism (snp)-based consensus genetic map for pear based on common ssr markers between nine published maps. a total of 5,085 markers, including 1,232 ssrs and 3,853 snps, were localized on a consensus map spanning 3,266.0 cm in total, with an average marker interval of 0.64 cm, which represents the highest density cons ...201728130382
genome-wide analysis suggests high level of microsynteny and purifying selection affect the evolution of ein3/eil family in rosaceae.the ethylene-insensitive3/ethylene-insensitive3-like (ein3/eil) proteins are a type of nuclear-localized protein with dna-binding activity in plants. although the ein3/eil gene family has been studied in several plant species, little is known about comprehensive study of the ein3/eil gene family in rosaceae. in this study, ten, five, four, and five ein3/eil genes were identified in the genomes of pear (pyrus bretschneideri), mei (prunus mume), peach (prunus persica) and strawberry (fragaria vesc ...201728584725
study on chemical composition, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities of extracts from chinese pear fruit (pyrus bretschneideri rehd.).pyrus bretschneideri rehd. belongs to the genus pyrus, a member of rosaceae family. it is a routine edible fruit, and also used as a folk medicine to treat cough, eliminate constipation, and relieve alcoholism. in order to clarify the active compounds of p. bretschneideri, the phytochemical study were performed. five compounds were isolated and identified as 2β,19α-dihydroxy ursolic acid, quercitrin, dibutyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate and α-amyrin. additionally, we investigate the anti-infl ...201222824088
pear aco genes encoding putative 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase homologs are functionally expressed during fruit ripening and involved in response to salicylic acid.1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (acc) oxidase catalyzes the final reaction of the ethylene biosynthetic pathway, converting acc into ethylene. past studies have shown a possible link between acc oxidase and salicylic acid during fruit ripening in pear, but the relationship has received no more than modest study at the gene expression level. in this study, two cdna clones encoding putative acc oxidase, ppaco1 and ppaco2, were isolated from a cdna library constructed by our own laboratory and pr ...201222711312
effect of in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion on polyphenol and polysaccharide content and their biological activities among 22 fruit juices.polyphenols and polysaccharides, as natural bioactive compounds from common fresh fruits, are concerned in reducing risk of developing obesity and diabetes for human in recent years. the content of polyphenol and polysaccharide, their bioactivities among 22 fruit juices were investigated before and after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion in present study. after digestion, contents of polyphenol, polysaccharide and their antioxidant activity, the inhibitory activity of α-amylase and α-glucosida ...201729195935
calcium content and its correlated distribution with skin browning spot in bagged huangguan browning spot (sbs) is an important physiology disorder that often occurs in bagged fruit at the mature stage in the huangguan (pyrus bretschneideri × pyrus pyrifolia) pear. using atomic absorption spectrometry, x-ray microanalysis, and the potassium-pyroantimonate precipitation method, the water-soluble and total ca(2+), mg(2+), and k(+) contents, their microdistribution, and the ca(2+) localization were investigated in bagged huangguan pear fruit in the presence and absence of sbs. our re ...201524965371
molecular analysis of two chinese pear (pyrus bretschneideri rehd.) spontaneous self-compatible mutants, yan zhuang and jin zhui.yan zhuang and jin zhui are spontaneous bud mutants of chinese pear (pyrus bretschneideri rehd.) from ya li. both fruit set rate and seed number after self-pollination, together with pollen tube growth, prove that yan zhuang and jin zhui are self-compatible. the fruit set rate and seed number after cross-pollination suggest that the self-compatibility of yan zhuang and jin zhui may be due to natural mutations of the stylar s allele and pollen s allele, respectively. pcr amplification of the s-rn ...200919689786
characterization of cipk family in asian pear (pyrus bretschneideri rehd) and co-expression analysis related to salt and osmotic stress responses.asian pear (pyrus bretschneideri) is one of the most important fruit crops in the world, and its growth and productivity are frequently affected by abiotic stresses. calcineurin b-like interacting protein kinases (cipks) as caladium-sensor protein kinases interact with ca(2+)-binding cbls to extensively mediate abiotic stress responses in plants. although the pear genome sequence has been released, little information is available about the cipk genes in pear, especially in response to salt and o ...201627656193
myb transcription factors in chinese pear (pyrus bretschneideri rehd.): genome-wide identification, classification, and expression profiling during fruit development.the myb family is one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants. although, some mybs were reported to play roles in secondary metabolism, no comprehensive study of the myb family in chinese pear (pyrus bretschneideri rehd.) has been reported. in the present study, we performed genome-wide analysis of myb genes in chinese pear, designated as pbmybs, including analyses of their phylogenic relationships, structures, chromosomal locations, promoter regions, go annotations, and colli ...201627200050
different biosynthesis patterns among flavonoid 3-glycosides with distinct effects on accumulation of other flavonoid metabolites in pears (pyrus bretschneideri rehd.).flavonoid biosynthesis profile was clarified by fruit bagging and re-exposure treatments in the green chinese pear 'zaosu' (pyrus bretschneideri rehd.) and its red mutant 'red zaosu'. two distinct biosynthesis patterns of flavonoid 3-glycosides were found in 'zaosu' pear. by comparison with 'red zaosu', the biosynthesis of flavonoid 3-galactosides and flavonoid 3-arabinosides were inhibited by bagging and these compounds only re-accumulated to a small degree in the fruit peel of 'zaosu' after th ...201424637788
characterization and analysis of ccr and cad gene families at the whole-genome level for lignin synthesis of stone cells in pear (pyrus bretschneideri) fruit.the content of stone cells has significant effects on the flavour and quality of pear fruit. previous research suggested that lignin deposition is closely related to stone cell formation. in the lignin biosynthetic pathway, cinnamoyl-coa reductase (ccr) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (cad), dehydrogenase/reductase family members, catalyse the last two steps in monolignol synthesis. however, there is little knowledge of the characteristics of the ccr and cad families in pear and their involve ...201729141952
structural, evolutionary, and functional analysis of the class iii peroxidase gene family in chinese pear (pyrus bretschneideri).peroxidases (prxs) are widely existed in various organisms and could be divided into different types according to their structures and functions. specifically, the class iii peroxidase, a plant-specific multi-gene family, involves in many physiological processes, such as the metabolism of auxin, the extension and thickening of cell wall, as well as the formation of lignin. by searching the pear genome database, 94 non-redundant prxs from pyrus bretschneideri (pbprxs) were identified. subsequentl ...201628018406
effects of 1-mcp on chlorophyll degradation pathway-associated genes expression and chloroplast ultrastructure during the peel yellowing of chinese pear fruits in storage.the peel yellowing is an important pigment physiological process of green fruit ripening, which mainly results from chlorophyll degradation in the fruit peel. in this work, two typical cultivars with different ripening speed, a slow ripening pear 'emerald' (pyrus bretschneideri rehd. cv. emerald) and a fast ripening 'jingbai' (pyrus ussuriensis maxim. cv. jingbai) were used to investigate the molecular mechanism of chlorophyll degradation in pear yellowing/ripening during postharvest storage. th ...201222868108
prediction of retrotransposons and assessment of genetic variability based on developed retrotransposon-based insertion polymorphism (rbip) markers in pyrus l.interspecific hybridization has been considered the major mode of evolution in pyrus (pear), and thus, the genetic relationships within this genus have not been well documented. retrotransposons are ubiquitous components of plant genomes and 42.4 % of the pear genome was reported to be long terminal repeat (ltr) retrotransposons, implying that retrotransposons might be significant in the evolution of pyrus. in this study, 1,836 putative full-length ltr retrotransposons were isolated and 196 retr ...201525216935
transcriptome profiling of fruit development and maturation in chinese white pear (pyrus bretschneideri rehd).pear (pyrus spp) is an important fruit species worldwide; however, its genetics and genomic information is limited. combining the solexa/illumina rna-seq high-throughput sequencing approach (rna-seq) with digital gene expression (dge) analysis would be a powerful tool for transcriptomic study. this paper reports the transcriptome profiling analysis of chinese white pear (p. bretschneideri) using rna-seq and dge to better understand the molecular mechanisms in fruit development and maturation of ...201324267665
genetic features of the spontaneous self-compatible mutant, 'jin zhui' (pyrus bretschneideri rehd.).'jin zhui' is a spontaneous self-compatible mutant of 'ya li' (pyrus bretschneideri rehd. s21s34 ), the latter displaying a typical s-rnase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (gsi). the pollen-part mutation (ppm) of 'jin zhui' might be due to a natural mutation in the pollen-s gene (s34 haplotype). however, the molecular mechanisms behind these phenotypic changes are still unclear. in this study, we identified five slf (s-locus f-box) genes in 'ya li', while no nucleotide differences were f ...201324116113
comparison of the transcriptomic analysis between two chinese white pear (pyrus bretschneideri rehd.) genotypes of different stone cells contents.stone cell content is thought to be one of the key determinants for fruit quality in pears. however, the molecular mechanism of stone cell development remains poorly understood. in this study, we found that the stone cell clusters (sccs) distribution and area in 'dangshan su' (with abundant stone cells) were higher as compared to 'lianglizaosu' (low stone cell content bud sport of 'dangshan su') based on the histochemical staining, and the correlations of lignin content with stone cell content a ...201729088238
molecular cloning and expression analysis of a gene for sucrose transporter from pear (pyrus bretschneideri rehd.) we report the cloning of a sucrose transporter cdna from pear (pyrus bretschneideri rehd. cv 'yali') fruit and an analysis of the expression of the gene. a cdna clone, designated pbsut1 was identified as a sucrose transporter cdna from its sequence homology at the amino acid level to sucrose transporters that have been cloned from other higher plant species. pbsut1 potentially encoded a protein of 499 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 53.4 kda and an isoelectric point ( ...201324056128
genome-wide identification of the mads-box transcription factor family in pear (pyrus bretschneideri) reveals evolution and functional divergence.mads-box transcription factors play significant roles in plant developmental processes such as floral organ conformation, flowering time, and fruit development. pear (pyrus), as the third-most crucial temperate fruit crop, has been fully sequenced. however, there is limited information about the mads family and its functional divergence in pear. in this study, a total of 95 mads-box genes were identified in the pear genome, and classified into two types by phylogenetic analysis. type i mads-box ...201728924499
transcriptome and phytohormone analysis reveals a comprehensive phytohormone and pathogen defence response in pear self-/cross-pollination.candidate genes were identified and the role of phytohormones such as ja-me and aba in the synthesis of s-rnase was emphasized in pear self-incompatibility. self-incompatibility (si) occurs widely in flowering plants as an intraspecific reproductive barrier. this phenomenon promotes variation within species, but for some species such as pyrus, si is a nuisance rather than a benefit in agricultural production. although many studies have been conducted on si in pears, its mechanism remains unclear ...201728887590
preventing the wound-induced deterioration of yali pears by chitosan coating treatments.yali pears (pyrus bretschneideri rehd.) are susceptible to mechanical damage. in this study, the protective effects of chitosan treatments on the quality of bruised pears were evaluated. the fruit were treated with 1.5% chitosan before or after bruise damage, respectively. then, the fruit were stored at 16 °c and 85-90% relative humidity. postharvest quality parameters were analyzed during the storage. bruise damage accelerated the decrease of firmness and the ratio of sugar to acid, while a del ...201222414935
characterization and expression profiling analysis of calmodulin genes in response to salt and osmotic stresses in pear (pyrus bretschneideri rehd.) and in comparison with arabidopsis.a genome-wide identification and cloning of cam genes in pear was conducted and in compared with arabidopsis that indicated a conserved expansion of cam genes in pear, and pbcams and atcams had a similar distribution of cis-elements and expressions in response to salt and osmotic stress. in particular, pbcam1 and pbcam3 were both significantly upregulated in response to salt and osmotic stress in pear.201728373986
f-box genes: genome-wide expansion, evolution and their contribution to pollen growth in pear (pyrus bretschneideri).f-box gene family, as one of the largest gene families in plants, plays crucial roles in regulating plant development, reproduction, cellular protein degradation and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. however, comprehensive analysis of the f-box gene family in pear (pyrus bretschneideri rehd.) and other rosaceae species has not been reported yet. herein, we identified a total of 226 full-length f-box genes in pear for the first time. and these genes were further divided into various subgr ...201627968985
effective synthesis of theaflavin-3,3'-digallate with epigallocatechin-3-o-gallate and epicatechin gallate as substrates by using immobilized pear polyphenol the present study, pear polyphenol oxidase (ppo) was purified, immobilized and applied for the synthesis of theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (tf3). firstly, ppo of pear (pyrus bretschneideri rehd cv. huangguan) was purified 24.36-fold in specific activity with a recovery of 6.77% by sequential use of precipitation with 70% saturated ammonium sulfate and chromatography of deae-sepharose fast flow column. the purified pear ppo, found to be a dimer of identical subunits of molecular mass 35kda, was the ...201727780760
the role of polyamines during exocarp formation in a russet mutant of 'dangshansuli' pear (pyrus bretschneideri rehd.).differential genes of suberin, polyamine and transcription factors in transcriptome sequences and the contents of h 2 o 2 , spermidine, spermine, and putrescine changed significantly after treating with mgbg. russeting is a commercially important process that restores the control of water loss through the skin via the formation of a waterproofing periderm just beneath the microcracked skin of pear primary fruit. a spontaneous russet skin mutant, the yellow-green 'dangshansuli' pear, has been ide ...201627255339
genome-wide analysis suggests the relaxed purifying selection affect the evolution of wox genes in pyrus bretschneideri, prunus persica, prunus mume, and fragaria vesca.wuschel-related homeobox (wox) family is one of the largest group of transcription factors (tfs) specifically found in plant kingdom. wox tfs play an important role in plant development processes and evolutionary novelties. although the roles of woxs in arabidopsis and rice have been well-studied, however, little are known about the relationships among the main clades in the molecular evolution of these genes in rosaceae. here, we carried out a genome-wide analysis and identified 14, 10, 10, and ...201728663757
transformation of tobacco plants by yali ppo-gfp fusion gene and observation of subcellular explore the subcellular localization of polyphenol oxidase (ppo) from pyrus bretschneideri, the 1779 bp cdna of ppo gene excluding the termination codon taa was cloned and fused with gfp to construct a binary vector pbi121-ppo-gfp. then, the binary vector was transformed into nicotiana tabacum by the tumefanciens-mediated method. using confocal laser scanning microscopy, green fluorescent signals were localized in chloroplasts of the transformed nicotiana tabacum cell, suggesting that the pol ...201627158362
overexpression of sucrose transporter gene pbsut2 from pyrus bretschneideri, enhances sucrose content in solanum lycopersicum fruit.sucrose transporters (suts) belong to the major facilitator superfamily. the function of suts has been intensively investigated in some higher plants, whereas that in pear fruit is unknown. in this study, the cloning and functional characterization of a sucrose transporter, pbsut2, in pear (pyrus bretschneideri rehd. cv. 'yali') fruits are reported. pbsut2 encoded a protein of 498 amino acid residues, and was localized in the plasma membrane of transformed onion epidermal cells and arabidopsis p ...201627105422
native honey bees outperform adventive honey bees in increasing pyrus bretschneideri (rosales: rosaceae) pollination.the foraging behavior of different bee species is a key factor influencing the pollination efficiency of different crops. most pear species exhibit full self-incompatibility and thus depend entirely on cross-pollination. however, as little is known about the pear visitation preferences of native apis cerana (fabricius; hymenoptera: apidae) and adventive apis mellifera (l.; hymenoptera: apidae) in china. a comparative analysis was performed to explore the pear-foraging differences of these specie ...201729126172
identification, classification, and transcription profiles of the b-type response regulator family in pear.type-b response regulators (b-rrs) are transcription factors that function in the final step of two-component signaling systems. in model plants, b-rrs have been shown to play important roles in cytokinin signal transduction. however, the functions of b-rrs in pear have not been well studied. in this report, we conducted a genome-wide analysis and identified 11 putative genes encoding b-pprr proteins based on the published genome sequence of pyrus bretschneideri. a phylogenetic tree of the b-ppr ...201728207822
[comparative study on eight trace elements in twelve flower medicines].eight trace elements such as ca, cu, fe, mn, zn, k, mg and na in twelve kinds of flower medicines were determined by flame-atomic absorption spectrometry with air-acetylene flame. the flower medicines include pueraria lobata ohwi., gomphrena globosa l., chrysanthemum morifolium ramat., prunus persica (l.) batsch., canna indica l., pyrus bretschneideri rehd p. spp, rosa chinensis jacq., celosia cristata l., sophora japonica l., saussurea medusa maxim. , iris lactea var. chinensis (fisch.) koidz. ...200919798991
genome-wide identification, evolution and functional divergence of myb transcription factors in chinese white pear (pyrus bretschneideri).the myb superfamily is large and functionally diverse in plants. to date, myb family genes have not yet been identified in chinese white pear (pyrus bretschneideri), and their functions remain unclear. in this study, we identified 231 genes as candidate myb genes and divided them into four subfamilies. the r2r3-myb (pbrmyb) family shared an r2r3 domain with 104 amino acid residues, including five conserved tryptophan residues. the pbr myb family was divided into 37 functional subgroups including ...201626872835
bioinformatic and expression analysis of the omt gene family in pyrus bretschneideri cv. dangshan su.with high nutritional value in its fruits, dangshan su pear has been widely cultivated in china. the stone cell content in fruits is a key factor affecting fruit quality in pear, and the formation of stone cells has been associated with lignin biosynthesis. o-methyltransferase (omt) is a key enzyme involved in lignin metabolism within the phenylpropanoid pathway. here, we screened 26 omt genes from the pyrus bretschneideri cv. dangshan su genome using the dnatools software. to characterize the o ...027706700
genome-wide analysis of wrky transcription factors in white pear (pyrus bretschneideri) reveals evolution and patterns under drought stress.wrky transcription factors (tfs) constitute one of the largest protein families in higher plants, and its members contain one or two conserved wrky domains, about 60 amino acid residues with the wrkygqk sequence followed by a c2h2 or c2hc zinc finger motif. wrky proteins play significant roles in plant development, and in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. pear (pyrus bretschneideri) is one of the most important fruit crops in the world and is frequently threatened by abiotic stress, such ...201526704366
gene-expression profile of developing pollen tube of pyrus bretschneideri.pollen is an ideal model system for investigation of cell growth. in order to better understand the molecular biology mechanisms of the process of pear pollen tube development, rna sequencing (rna-seq) technology was used to characterize the expression of genes during four development stages of pear pollen, including mature pollen grains (mp), hydrated pollen grains (hp), growing pollen tubes (pt) and stopped-growth pollen tubes (spt). the four libraries generated a total of 47,072,151 clean rea ...201626547040
[genome-wide identification and analyses of 4cl gene families in pyrus bretschneideri rehd].4-coumaric acid: coenzyme a ligase (4cl) gene is one of the key genes involved in the regulation of lignin metabolism and the synthesis of flavonoid and other secondary metabolites in plant, while the synthesized and polymerized lignin is deposited in cell walls and leads to thickening of secondary walls in some parenchyma cells and formation of stone cells. to better understand the variety and quantity of 4cl genes in pyrus bretschneideri rehd., we used the amino acid and cdna databases of pyru ...201526351171
genome-wide function, evolutionary characterization and expression analysis of sugar transporter family genes in pear (pyrus bretschneideri rehd).the sugar transporter (st) plays an important role in plant growth, development and fruit quality. in this study, a total of 75 st genes were identified in the pear (pyrus bretschneideri rehd) genome based on systematic analysis. furthermore, all st genes identified were grouped into eight subfamilies according to conserved domains and phylogenetic analysis. analysis of cis-regulatory element sequences of all st genes identified the mybcoreatcycb1 promoter in sucrose transporter (sut) and monosa ...201526079674
molecular identification of two new self-incompatible alleles (s-alleles) in chinese pear (pyrus bretschneideri).self-incompatibility (si) is an important intraspecific reproductive barrier in flowering plants. to identify the s-alleles of chinese pear species (pyrus pyrifolia, p. bretschneideri, p. ussuriensis and p. sinkiangenis etc.), s-rnase-specific pcr amplification, sequence analyses and field pollination tests were performed using two cultivars 'jingxiang' and 'esu' of p. bretschneideri as materials. two new s-rnase genes were identified from the two cultivars. they were 1,122 bp and 1,058 bp in le ...200717287571
identification of mirnas involved in pear fruit development and quality.micrornas (mirnas) are a class of small, endogenous rnas that take part in regulating genes through mediating gene expressions at the post-transcriptional level in plants. previous studies have reported mirna identification in various plants ranging from model plants to perennial fruit trees. however, the role of mirnas in pear (pyrus bretschneideri) fruit development is not clear. here, we investigated the mirna profiles of pear fruits from different time stages during development with illumina ...201425366381
proteomic analysis of 'zaosu' pear (pyrus bretschneideri rehd.) and its early-maturing bud sport.maturation of fruits involves a series of physiological, biochemical, and organoleptic changes that eventually make fleshy fruits attractive, palatable, and nutritional. in order to understand the mature mechanism of the early-maturing bud sport of 'zaosu' pear, we analyzed the differences of proteome expression between the both pears in different mature stages by the methods of a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-de) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight ...201424908513
genome-wide analysis of sorbitol dehydrogenase (sdh) genes and their differential expression in two sand pear (pyrus pyrifolia) fruits.through rna-seq of a mixed fruit sample, fourteen expressed sorbitol dehydrogenase (sdh) genes have been identified from sand pear (pyrus pyrifolia nakai). comparative phylogenetic analysis of these ppysdhs with those from other plants supported the closest relationship of sand pear with chinese white pear (p. bretschneideri). the expression levels varied greatly among members, and the strongest six (ppysdh2, ppysdh4, ppysdh8, ppysdh12, ppysdh13 and ppysdh14) accounted for 96% of total transcrip ...201526068235
sequence characterization and spatiotemporal expression patterns of pbs26-rnase gene in chinese white pear (pyrus bretschneideri).many flowering plants exhibit an important intraspecific reproductive barrier phenomenon, that is, self-incompatibility (si), in which s-rnase genes play a significant role. to clarify the specific function of s-rnase genes in chinese pears, the full length cdna of pbs 26 -rnase was isolated by rapid amplification of cdna ends (race) technology from chinese white pear (pyrus bretschneideri) cultivar "hongpisu." the cdna sequence for pbs 26 -rnase was deposited in genbank under accession number e ...201424737959
identification of a canonical scf(slf) complex involved in s-rnase-based self-incompatibility of pyrus (rosaceae).s-rnase-based self-incompatibility (si) is an intraspecific reproductive barrier to prevent self-fertilization found in many species of the solanaceae, plantaginaceae and rosaceae. in this system, s-rnase and slf/sfb (s-locus f-box) genes have been shown to control the pistil and pollen si specificity, respectively. recent studies have shown that the slf functions as a substrate receptor of a scf (skp1/cullin1/f-box)-type e3 ubiquitin ligase complex to target s-rnases in solanaceae and plantagin ...201323263858
low temperature inhibits pollen tube growth by disruption of both tip-localized reactive oxygen species and endocytosis in pyrus bretschneideri rehd.low temperature (lt) negatively affects fertilization processes of flowering plants. pollen tube growth is generally inhibited under lt stress; however, the mechanism(s) underlying this inhibition remain(s) largely unknown. pollen tubes are tip-growing and the presence of tip-localized reactive oxygen species (ros) is necessary for cellular functioning. disruption of tip-localized ros was observed in pear pollen tubes in vitro under low temperature of 4 °c (lt4). diphenylene iodonium chloride, a ...201424321875
genome mapping of postzygotic hybrid necrosis in an interspecific pear population.deleterious epistatic interactions in plant inter- and intraspecific hybrids can cause a phenomenon known as hybrid necrosis, characterized by a typical seedling phenotype whose main distinguishing features are dwarfism, tissue necrosis and in some cases lethality. identification of the chromosome regions associated with this type of incompatibility is important not only to increase our understanding of the evolutionary diversification that led to speciation but also for breeding purposes. devel ...201626770810
the genome of the pear (pyrus bretschneideri rehd.).the draft genome of the pear (pyrus bretschneideri) using a combination of bac-by-bac and next-generation sequencing is reported. a 512.0-mb sequence corresponding to 97.1% of the estimated genome size of this highly heterozygous species is assembled with 194× coverage. high-density genetic maps comprising 2005 snp markers anchored 75.5% of the sequence to all 17 chromosomes. the pear genome encodes 42,812 protein-coding genes, and of these, ~28.5% encode multiple isoforms. repetitive sequences ...201323149293
proteomic analysis of 'zaosu' pear (pyrus bretschneideri rehd.) and its red skin bud mutation.breeding for strong red skin color is an important objective of the pear breeding program. there are few reports of proteome research in green skin pear and its red skin bud mutation. the manuscript at hand is one of the first studies dealing with 2d-page-based analysis of pear fruits and leaves, establishing a suitable sample preparation and testing different 2d-page protocols. therefore, it may grant a basis for further studies on the pear proteome being the studies main goal. a proteomic anal ...201222931350
molecular analysis of the processes of surface brown spot (sbs) formation in pear fruit (pyrus bretschneideri rehd. cv. dangshansuli) by de novo transcriptome assembly.browning disorder, which usually occurs post-harvest in pears subjected to long-term storage, can cause browning of the pear flesh and/or core. in 2011, investigators in china found a novel type of brown spot (designated as surface brown spot, sbs) in pre-harvest 'dangshansuli' pears (pyrus bretschneideri rehd.). sbs has a large impact on the exterior quality of the pears. interestingly, the brown coloration was only found on the peel and not the flesh or the core. in this paper, de novo transcr ...201324058529
self-compatibility of 'zaoguan' (pyrus bretschneideri rehd.) is associated with style-part mutations.the pear cultivar 'zaoguan' (s(4)s(34)) is the a self-compatible descendant of 'yali' (s(21)s(34)) × 'qingyun'(s(4)s(9)). two self-incompatible cultivars 'xinya' and 'yaqing', also s-genotyped as s(4)s(34) for the s-rnase gene, were used as controls. field pollination data revealed that 'zaoguan' displayed sc, whereas 'xinya' and 'yaqing' showed self-incompatibility (si) upon self-pollination. reciprocal pollinations between the varieties showed that most of the 'zaoguan' flowers pollinated with ...201122089807
use of uv-c treatment to inhibit the microbial growth and maintain the quality of yali pear.the effects of uv-c radiation on microbial growth in vitro (monilinia fruticola) and in inoculated yali pears (pyrus bretschneideri rehd.) were investigated. moreover, postharvest quality and the activities of defense and antioxidant enzymes were analyzed after the pears were exposed to uv-c irradiation at an energy level of 5 kj m⁻².the results showed that spore germination of m. fructicola was significantly inhibited by each of the 3 doses (1, 5, and 10 kj m⁻²) in vitro. in the in vivo assays, ...201021535563
evaluation of the in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of extracts from pyrus bretschneideri rehd.pyrus bretschneideri rehd., as a pharmaceutical supplement, is widely used in northern china to treat respiratory diseases. our previous studies showed the ethanol extract of p. bretschneideri had significant anti-inflammatory activity. to isolate and identify the active ingredients, the ethanol extract was separated into petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous fractions. the bioactivity of each fraction was investigated using an in vivo model. results showed that the ethyl acetat ...201020672838
physiological and quality responses of chinese 'suli' pear (pyrus bretschneideri rehd) to 1-mcp vacuum infiltration treatment.1-methylcyclopropene (1-mcp) is a potent inhibitor of ethylene action and can maintain the quality and extend the shelf life of fresh produce. but the effectiveness of application of 1-mcp may depend upon its capacity to diffuse into the flesh tissue. however, to our knowledge, no study has been performed on the quality maintenance of pear fruit treated with 1-mcp vacuum infiltration. the objectives of this study were to examine the effect of 1-mcp vacuum-infiltration treatment on post-harvest q ...201020474049
abscisic acid is involved in the water stress-induced betaine accumulation in pear leaves.aba exogenously applied to the leaves of the whole plants of pear (pyrus bretschneideri redh. cv. suly grafted on pyrus betulaefolia rehd.) significantly increased the betaine concentrations in the leaves when the plants were well watered. the plants subjected to 'drought plus aba' treatment had significantly higher betaine concentrations in their leaves than those given drought treatment alone. the 'drought plus aba' treatment increased the amount of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (badh, ec 1.2 ...200415215509
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