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protein electrophoresis as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in raptor medicine.plasma proteins of 139 healthy adult birds of prey from 10 species were separated by electrophoresis to characterize and document normal reference ranges and species-specific electrophoretic patternsand to evaluate the value of this technique for health screening, disease diagnosis, and prognostic indication. species studied included bald eagle (haliaeetus leucocephalus), red-tailed hawk (buteo jamaicensis), barn owl (tyto alba), great horned owl (bubo virginianus), turkey vulture (cathartes aur ...200011428396
salmonella isolates from wild birds and mammals in the basque country (spain).the authors investigated the prevalence of salmonella spp. in 205 wild birds and mammals belonging to 45 species during the years 2001 and 2002 in the basque country (spain). salmonella was isolated from 16 (7.8%) animals. the prevalence was 8.5% (7/82) in birds, and 7.2% (9/123) in mammals. nine serotypes, all of them belonging to the species salmonella enterica, were identified: two isolates of typhimurium (from 1/3 griffon vultures [gyps fulvus], and 1/5 sparrowhawks [accipiter nisus]); one o ...200415861885
salmonella enterica isolated from wildlife at two ohio rehabilitation centers.between may and september 2004, fecal samples from various wildlife species admitted to two rehabilitation centers in ohio were cultured for salmonella enterica and escherichia coli o157:h7. eight of 71 (11%) samples, including specimens from three opossums (didelphis virginiana), two gray squirrels (sciurus carolinensis), a woodchuck (marmota monax), a harris hawk (parabuteo unicinctus), and a screech owl (otus asio) tested positive for salmonella serovars braenderup, senftenberg, oranienburg, ...200717939349
hemagglutinating activity of serovar reference strains of ornithobacterium rhinotracheale.in the present study, the hemagglutinating activity of 9 reference strains (serovars a-i) of ornithobacterium rhinotracheale was investigated by using fresh erythrocytes from 15 different species: chicken (broiler, rooster, hen), turkey, pigeon, quail, duck, harris hawk (parabuteo unicinctus), house finch (carpodacus mexicanus), cow, sheep, horse, dog, rabbit, pig, human (groups a, b, ab, and o), and rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss). all 9 strains agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes. none of the ...200818460626
hemagglutinating activity of gallibacterium strains.in the present study, the hemagglutinating activity of seven reference strains, and nine mexican and three danish field isolates, of gallibacterium was investigated by using fresh erythrocytes of 19 different types including chicken (broiler, rooster, layer hen), turkey, pigeon, quail, duck, harris's hawk (parabuteo unicinctus), house finch (carpodacus mexicanus), cow, sheep, horse, dog, rabbit, pig, and human (groups a, b, ab, and o; rh+). agglutination was observed for broiler chicken, layer h ...200919432013
External parasites of raptors (Falconiformes and Strigiformes): identification in an ex situ population from Mexico.Raptorial birds harbor a variety of ectoparasites and the mayority of them are host specific. The aim of this study was to identify the ectoparasites of captive birds of prey from Mexico, as well as to verify their impact in the health of infested birds. Raptorial birds were confiscated and kept in captivity at the Centro de Investigación y Conservación de Vida Silvestre (CIVS) in Los Reyes La Paz, Mexico State. Seventy-four birds of prey (66 Falconiformes and eigth Strigiformes) of 15 species w ...201122017130
health of an ex situ population of raptors (falconiformes and strigiformes) in mexico: diagnosis of internal parasites.successful programs for ex situ and in situ conservation and management of raptors require detailed knowledge about their pathogens. the purpose of this study was to identify the internal parasites of some captive raptors in mexico, as well as to verify their impact in the health status of infected birds. birds of prey were confiscated and kept in captivity at the centro de investigación y conservación de vida silvestre (civs) in los reyes la paz, mexico state. for this, fecal and blood samples ...201122017131
a case of cellulitis of the hands caused by a predatory bird attack.many species have been drastically affected by rapid urbanization. harris's hawks from their natural habitat of open spaces and a supply of rodents, lizards and other small prey have been forced to change their natural environment adapting to living in open spaces in sub- and peri-urban areas. specific areas include playgrounds, parks and school courtyards. the migration of this predatory species into these areas poses a risk to individuals, and especially the children are often attacked by claw ...201123569751
occurrence of giardia and cryptosporidium in wild birds in galicia (northwest spain).faecal samples were obtained from 433 wild birds being treated in wildlife recovery centres in galicia (northwest spain), between february 2007 and september 2009. the birds belonged to 64 species representing 17 different orders. giardia cysts and cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by an immunofluorescence antibody test and identified at the molecular level by established pcr-sequencing methods. the overall prevalence of giardia was 2·1% and that of cryptosporidium, 8·3%. to our knowledge, t ...201525669618
numerical and functional response of predators to a long-term decline in mammalian prey at a semi-arid neotropical site.occurrence and diet of ten carnivorous predators (four falconiforms, four owls, and two foxes), and population levels of their mammalian prey, were monitored over 45 months at a semi-arid site in north-central chile. early in this period, small mammals irrupted and then declined markedly to a density 7% of that at peak. all four falconiforms (buteo polyosoma, falco sparverius, geranoaetus melanoleucus, parabuteo unicinctus) and one owl (tyto alba) responded numerically to the decline in mammalia ...199228313400
the guild structure of a community of predatory vertebrates in central chile.the trophic ecology of eleven predator species (falconiforms: buteo polyosoma, elanus leucurus, falco sparverius, geranoaetus melanoleucus, parabuteo unicinctus; strigiforms: athene cunicularia, bubo virginianus, tyto alba; carnivores: dusicyon culpaeus; snakes: philodryas chamissonis, tachymenis peruviana) in two nearby localities of central chile is analyzed. the localities exhibit the typical climate (hot-dry summers, coldrainy winters), and vegetation (chaparral), of mediterranean ecosystems ...198128309444
flash visual evoked potentials in diurnal birds of prey.the objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of flash visual evoked potentials (fveps) testing in birds of prey in a clinical setting and to describe the protocol and the baseline data for normal vision in this species. fvep recordings were obtained from 6 normal adult birds of prey: n. 2 harris's hawks (parabuteo unicinctus), n. 1 lanner falcon (falco biarmicus), n. 2 gyrfalcons (falco rusticolus) and n. 1 saker falcon (falco cherrug). before carrying out vep tests, all ani ...201627547536
radiographic evaluation of cardiac size in four falconiform species.to establish reference values for the cardiac size during radiographic examination in 4 species of falconiformes used for falconry, lateral and ventrodorsal radiographs were examined from healthy birds of 4 species: harris' hawks (parabuteo unicinctus) (n = 48), peregrine falcons (falco peregrinus) (n = 35), saker falcons (falco cherrug) (n = 19), and lanner falcons (falco biarmicus) (n = 13). on the lateral view, ratios between the length of the heart from base to apex and total length of the c ...201021046942
visual abilities in two raptors with different ecology.differences in visual capabilities are known to reflect differences in foraging behaviour even among closely related species. among birds, the foraging of diurnal raptors is assumed to be guided mainly by vision but their foraging tactics include both scavenging upon immobile prey and the aerial pursuit of highly mobile prey. we studied how visual capabilities differ between two diurnal raptor species of similar size: harris's hawks, parabuteo unicinctus, which take mobile prey, and black kites, ...201627317812
cardiomyopathy in a harris hawk (parabuteo unicinctus).case description an adult sexually intact female harris hawk (parabuteo unicinctus) housed at a wildlife hospital was evaluated because of acute collapse during an educational exhibition. clinical findings physical examination and hematologic analysis revealed no abnormalities; radiography revealed findings consistent with a previous tibiotarsal fracture. coelioscopy with histologic examination and fungal culture of lung and air sac samples revealed anthracosis but no fungal infection. the hawk ...201627379599
west nile virus outbreak in captive and wild raptors, czech republic, 2018.west nile virus lineage 2 (wnv-2) was detected in the brain of 17 goshawks (accipiter gentilis) that succumbed to neuroinvasive disease in the czech republic during 2018: twelve birds were captive and five wild. furthermore, two wild sparrowhawks (accipiter nisus) and three other captive birds of prey (golden eagle aquila chrysaetos, hybrid saker falcon falco cherrug × f. rusticolus and harris's hawk parabuteo unicinctus) also died due to wnv encephalitis. the 2018 outbreak in czech raptors clea ...201931373181
high resolution of colour vision, but low contrast sensitivity in a diurnal raptor.animals are thought to use achromatic signals to detect small (or distant) objects and chromatic signals for large (or nearby) objects. while the spatial resolution of the achromatic channel has been widely studied, the spatial resolution of the chromatic channel has rarely been estimated. using an operant conditioning method, we determined (i) the achromatic contrast sensitivity function and (ii) the spatial resolution of the chromatic channel of a diurnal raptor, the harris's hawk parabuteo un ...201830158305
hawks steer attacks using a guidance system tuned for close pursuit of erratically manoeuvring  targets.aerial predators adopt a variety of different hunting styles, with divergent flight morphologies typically adapted either to high-speed interception or manoeuvring through clutter, but how are their sensorimotor systems tuned in relation to habitat structure and prey behavior? falcons intercept prey at high-speed using the same proportional navigation guidance law as homing missiles. this classical guidance law works well in the open, but performs sub-optimally against highly-manoeuvrable target ...201931186415
harris's hawks (parabuteo unicinctus) hematological parameters in different tropical locations.this work described and compared the hematological findings of 25 clinically healthy harris's hawks (parabuteo unicinctus) in captivity at two different tropical locations: 16 samples from aguascalientes, which altitude is 1878 mean sea level, and nine samples from amecameca which altitude is 2650 mean sea level. blood samples were collected from the brachial vein of each raptor under physical restraint. significant differences between the two locations were found in some parameters including to ...202033133466
turbulent wake-flow characteristics in the near wake of freely flying raptors: a comparative analysis between an owl and a hawk.owl flight has been studied over multiple decades associated with bio-inspiration for silent flight. however, their aerodynamics have been less researched. the aerodynamic noise generated during flight depends on the turbulent state of the flow. in order to document the turbulent characteristics of the owl during flapping flight, we measured the wake flow behind a freely flying great horned owl (bubo virginianus). for comparison purposes, we chose to fly a similar-sized raptor a harris hawk (par ...202032697833
pupipara (diptera, hippoboscidae) in wild birds attended at a rehabilitation center in southern brazil.the hippoboscids are cosmopolitan permanent obligate hematophagous ectoparasites of birds, domestic and wild mammals and, occasionally, humans. some species may act as vectors or hosts of etiological pathogenic agents. the aims of this study were to report on the first cases of hippoboscidae in crax blumenbachii and parabuteo unicinctus; to provide new reports from brazil on tyto furcata and asio stygius parasitized by icosta americana; to report on individuals of bubo virginianus, falco sparver ...201931166378
cooperative hunting harris' hawks (parabuteo unicinctus).coordinated hunting by several individuals directed toward the capture and sharing of one large prey animal has been documented convincingly only for a few mammalian carnivores. in new mexico, harris' hawks formed hunting parties of two to six individuals in the nonbreeding season. this behavior improved capture success and the average energy available per individual enabled hawks to dispatch prey larger than themselves. these patterns suggest that cooperation is important to understanding the e ...198817772751
drag reduction by wing tip slots in a gliding harris' hawk, parabuteo unicinctusthe anterior-most primary feathers of many birds that soar over land bend upwards and separate vertically to form slotted wing tips during flight. the slots are thought to reduce aerodynamic drag, although drag reduction has never been demonstrated in living birds. wing theory explains how the feathers that form the tip slots can reduce induced drag by spreading vorticity horizontally along the wing and by acting as winglets, which are used on aircraft to make wings non-planar and to spread vort ...19959318544
a novel technique for prevention of self-mutilation in three harris' hawks (parabuteo unicinctus).feather destructive behavior is an ever-increasing problem in captive birds of prey and any associated self-mutilation can be challenging to manage. this clinical report describes a noninvasive, nonpainful, temporary beak modification technique used to prevent self-mutilation in 3 harris' hawks (parabuteo unicinctus), when other methods and husbandry modifications had failed. the technique was successful in all 3 birds, and no adverse effects were observed. further investigations are required to ...200919530407
quantification of tissue uric acid levels in a harris's hawk with visceral gout.a young, captive-bred harris's hawk, parabuteo unicinctus, exhibited high fever and apparent paralysis of one leg shortly before death. postmortem examination revealed milky white kidneys, white crystalline deposits in the pericardial sack, and white crystals in one intertarsal joint. uric acid concentrations determined for the kidneys, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, and scrapings from the pericardial sack (20 mg) and intertarsal joint (2 mg) were, respectively, 12,200, 200, 110, 20,700, and 43, ...201122017058
extraocular muscle architecture in hawks and owls.a complete and accurate understanding of extraocular muscle function is important to the veterinary care of the avian eye. this is especially true for birds of prey, which rely heavily on vision for survival and yet are prone to ocular injury and disease. to better understand the function of extraocular muscles in birds of prey, we studied extraocular muscle architecture grossly and histologically.201829411483
pilot study: correlation of the surface skin temperature between the leg and foot using thermographic imaging in captive hawks.the purpose of this study was to determine whether the thermal image temperatures of the tibiotarsal scaled region of the raptor leg and the plantar surface of ipsilateral foot while perching were correlated. the correlation between leg and foot temperature was sought to determine whether remote imaging of the legs can be used as a reliable predictor of foot temperature. the right and left tarsometatarsal region (leg) and metatarsal pad (foot) of 10 captive hawks, including 8 red-tailed hawks (b ...202032702956
ixodes frontalis: a neglected but ubiquitous tick species in germany.the ornithophilic tick species ixodes frontalis (panzer) is spatially distributed in europe, asia and northern africa. it can serve as a carrier of different bacteria and viruses, but little is known of its actual vector competence. in addition, adult females of this species are associated with the avian "tick-related syndrome" (trs). like most ornithophilic tick species, i. frontalis is usually collected from bird nests or directly from their hosts. reports of i. frontalis being collected with ...201931093856
how fast can raptors see?birds, and especially raptors, are highly visual animals. some of them have the highest spatial resolving power known in the animal kingdom, allowing prey detection at distance. while many raptors visually track fast-moving and manoeuvrable prey, requiring high temporal resolution, this aspect of their visual system has never been studied before. in this study, we estimated how fast raptors can see, by measuring the flicker fusion frequency of three species with different lifestyles. we found th ...202031822552
argas (persicargas) giganteus soft tick infection with rickettsia hoogstraali and relapsing fever borrelia on wild avian species of the desert southwest, usa.changing climatic conditions and the northward expansion of ticks and pathogens are of immense importance to human, animal, and environmental health assessment and risk management. from 2014 through 2015, a wildlife rehabilitation center in south-central arizona, us noted soft ticks (argasidae) infesting 23 birds, including cooper's hawks (accipiter cooperii), gray hawks (buteo plagiatus), harris's hawks (parabuteo unicinctus), red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis), great horned owls (bubo virgin ...202031567038
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