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laboratory infection of anopheles pharoensis with wuchereria bancrofti.a. pharoensis was infected from a donor with a high count of w. bancrofti microfilariae. of the freshly dissected mosquitos, 81.6% were found to have ingested microfilariae, with an average of 12 +/- 2.2 microfilariae per mosquito. an infectivity rate of 41.9% was observed in mosquitos dissected between the eleventh and fifteenth days after feeding. a mean of 7.6 +/- 1.2 third-stage larvae was found in infective mosquitos. although a. pharoensis has not yet been found naturally infected with thi ...1977340077
arbovirus isolations from mosquitoes collected during 1988 in the senegal river basin.during august and september 1988, we collected adult mosquitoes from 14 locations in the senegal river basin to search for evidence of rift valley fever (rvf) viral activity one year after the 1987 outbreak, which occurred along the senegal-mauritania border. more than 62,000 specimens representing 18 species in seven genera were collected with carbon dioxide-baited, solid-state army miniature light traps and sheep-baited traps. twenty virus isolations from culex, aedes, and anopheles mosquitoes ...19921361722
development and survival of anopheles pharoensis and an. multicolor from faiyum, egypt.adults of anopheles pharoensis and an. multicolor were held under cycling environmental conditions in the laboratory to examine the duration of the gonotrophic cycles, survival and life expectancy, and to examine the life table characteristics of f1 larvae. the first gonotrophic cycle took 6.14 and 7.37 days for an. pharoensis and an. multicolor, respectively. subsequent gonotrophic cycles for the 2 species were shorter. daily survival rates of an. pharoensis and an. multicolor in the laboratory ...19911787399
effect of laval breeding conditions on the morphological, ovarian and behavioral characteristics of anopheles pharoensis of the emerged females.under laboratory conditions, morphological, ovarian and behavioral characteristics of anopheles pharoensis females were found to be affected by a combination of 3 larval environmental factors: quantity of food, density of larvae and salinity of the rearing medium. size and weight of the emerged females were decreased by lowering the quantity of food (basic ration), increasing the population density of larvae (200 larvae/pan) and increasing the salinity of the rearing medium (1/5 dilution of sea ...19911875074
anopheles pharoensis and transmission of plasmodium falciparum in the senegal river delta, west africa.1. anopheles pharoensis theobald was found to be the prevalent man-biting anopheline mosquito in the central area of the senegal river delta. 2. blood-fed females of an. pharoensis were obtained during september-december 1987 from mosquito bednets in the village of souhloul, near the boundoum dam, 70 km ne of st louis. 3. dried mosquito specimens were identified morphologically and each thorax processed using monoclonal antibody against the circumsporozoite protein of plasmodium falciparum. 4. f ...19902133009
effects of larval and adult diet plus mating/insemination upon ovarian development of laboratory-reared anopheles pharoensis in egypt.a study was conducted in egypt on the role of sugar and blood in oogenesis of anopheles pharoensis. also studied was the significance of mating vs. nonmating on oocyte maturity. ovarian development in this species was influenced by larval diet. those with inadequate larval nutrition emerged at christophers' stage i and required either a sugar or blood meal to reach the resting stage. a subsequent complete blood meal was needed to take these females to stage v of christophers (gravid). females wh ...19902324730
seasonal population changes and malaria transmission potential of anopheles pharoensis and the minor anophelines in mwea irrigation scheme, kenya.a study in 1984 and 1985 showed that anopheles gambiae s.l. and an. pharoensis were the major anophelines in mwea irrigation scheme, kenya, constituting 83.86% and 15.69% of the catch respectively. four minor species made up the remaining 0.45%. the irrigation phase of the rice cultivation cycle in august, which linked the flooding effects of the two rainy seasons, resulted in major population increases of an. pharoensis and enabled continuous breeding for up to 9 months per year. the average of ...19892566271
field trial of the insect growth regulator, dimilin, for control of anopheles pharoensis in gezira, sudan. 19863148687
anopheles population dynamics in two malaria endemic villages in faiyum governorate, egypt.anopheles populations were monitored for one year in 2 neighboring villages in faiyum governorate, egypt, to study factors causing differences in malaria prevalence. both villages contained the following species: anopheles pharoensis, an. sergentii, an. multicolor and an. tenebrosus. abundant larval breeding sites in abheet, the village with the higher malaria rate, accounted for the higher adult densities observed from human and animal biting collections and from indoor resting collections. ano ...19863333790
ambrosia maritima a larvicide and pupacide for anopheles pharoensis ambrosin as an effective insecticide. i. laboratory experimentation. 19863722901
effect of sublethal concentrations of the insecticides ddt, abate and sevin applied to 3rd stage larvae of anopheles pharoensis on malaria cycle in the adult mosquito. 19744143383
development of filarial parasites in mosquitos in north-east tanzania.natural populations of 6 species of mosquito-anopheles tenebrosus, taeniorynchus (mansonioides) africanus, taeniorynchus (mansonioides) uniformis, anopheles coustani, anopheles ziemanni, and anopheles pharoensis-were examined for filarial parasites. infective stages of dirofilaria immitis were found in the first 3 of these species, which are therefore considered vectors. laboratory studies to see whether or not any of the 6 could potentially transmit wucheria bancrofti showed only a. tenebrosus ...19734151063
studies on the control of mosquitoes in egypt by means of chemosterilants. iv. sterilization of anopheles pharoensis and culex pipiens by apholate and thiotepa. 19715004301
studies on the control of mosquitoes in egypt by means of chemosterilants. 3. sterilization of anopheles pharoensis and culex pipiens by metepa. 19705475199
studies on the control of mosquitoes in egypt by means of chemosterilants. i. chemosterilization of anopheles pharoensis. 19695763287
biology of egyptian anophelines. ii. biological activities of anopheles pharoensis under laboratory controlled conditions. 19695775501
studies on the eradication of anopheles pharoensis by the sterile-male technique using cobalt-60. vii. population dynamics of mosquitoes in fayoum area, uar. 19695813511
studies on the eradication of anopheles pharoensis theobald by the sterile-male technique using cobalt-60. i. biological effects of gamma radiation on the different developmental stages. 19665932263
studies on eradication of anopheles pharoensis by the sterile-male technique using cobalt-60. ii. induced dominant lethals in the immature stages. 19665976112
biology of egyptian anophelines. 1. biological activities of anopheles pharoensis in nature. 19676019857
studies on the eradication of anopheles pharoensis by the sterile-male technique using cobalt-60. mating competitiveness in radiosterilized males. 19676042078
studies on the eradication of anopheles pharoensis theobald by the sterile-male technique using cobalt-60. vi. sperm activity in males irradiated with the sterilizing dose. 19676054439
studies on the eradication of anopheles pharoensis by the sterile-male technique using cobalt-60. 3. determination of the sterile dose and its biological effects on different characters related to "fitness" components. 19676068890
studies on the eradication of anopheles pharoensis by the sterile-male technique using cobalt-60. iv. mating behavior and its frequency in the sterilized mosquitoes. 19676068891
mosquito production and species succession from an area of irrigated rice fields in the gambia, west africa.the succession of mosquito species and their abundance was observed through one cycle of dry-season irrigated rice cultivation near bansang in the gambia. the study covered a 21-week period, february-june 1975. mosquitoes were sampled using a single suction trap located in a dry field beside the rice fields. few mosquitoes were present before irrigation began. anopheles gambiae s.1., a. rufipes and culex neavei reached peak numbers 4 weeks after full-scale irrigation began and then declined in a ...19836142963
in situ inhibition of cholinesterase in anopheles pharoensis and culex pipiens by malathion and fenitrothion. 19836631110
histochemical localization of cholinesterases in some developmental stages of anopheles pharoensis and culex pipiens (diptera: culicidae). 19836631111
genetic observations on the taxon anopheles (cellia) pharoensis theobald (diptera: culicidae).a photomap of the ovarian polytene chromosomes from anopheles pharoensis is presented. the arrangement shown is that found in populations from zululand, south africa, and represents the arbitrary standard for the taxon. two x-chromosome arrangements exist in samples from allopatric natural populations. crosses between females homozygous for the inverted arrangement, xa, and males carrying the standard arrangement, x+a, give f1 males that are sterile. females from this cross, and both males and f ...19836668636
studies on the biology of anopheles pharoensis theo. in egypt. 19846736720
vector competence of egyptian mosquitoes for rift valley fever virus.reintroduction of rift valley fever (rvf) into egypt in 1993 raised concerns about the potential for egyptian mosquitoes to transmit the virus. we evaluated the ability of aedes caspius, culex pipiens, cx. antennatus, cx. perexiguus, cx. poicilipes, and anopheles pharoensis collected in the aswan area and cx. pipiens collected in the nile delta to transmit rvf virus. all mosquito species tested were susceptible to rvf virus infection, with an. pharoensis and ae. caspius being the most sensitive ...19968619436
identification of endemic foci of filariasis by examination of mosquitoes for microfilariae.studies were conducted in the nile delta of egypt to determine the feasibility of detecting wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae (mf) in mosquitoes as a primary surveillance method for the identification of filariasis-endemic villages. initial experimental studies evaluated the ingestion, survival, and migration rates of w. bancrofti mf in culex pipiens and culex antennatus after mosquitoes were fed on infected volunteers. in 2 villages, 1,684 bloodfed mosquitoes were dissected during the night im ...19958825503
[malaria and rice growing in the senegal river delta (senegal)].an epidemiological survey of malaria was carried out from september 1992 to november 1994 in three villages located in the senegal river delta, two villages growing rice in irrigated fields and one practicing traditional rain water agriculture. entomological observations showed that anopheles pharoensis is the main anopheline species caught in the area with a high population density in the rice growing villages. the population density of species of the an. gambiae complex, represented by an. gam ...19958849295
mosquito species and their densities in some egyptian governorates.the present work studied the mosquito's identification, distribution and densities in fourteen egyptian governorates. the abundance and distribution of mosquito species monitored by three phases. the first was carried out in 1999 in five governorates, qalyobia, menoufia, behaira, fayium and assuit. the second was in the year 2000 in kafr el sheikh, giza, sharkia, menia and aswan. the third was in the year 2001 in kena, el wady el gadeed, dakahlia and south sinai. culex species were the commonest ...200212049273
studies on the present status of insecticides resistance on mosquitoes using the diagnostic dosages in el-fayium governorate, a spot area of malaria in egypt.insecticides susceptibility tests were conducted using the world health organization diagnostic doses on the adult and larvae of anopheles pharoensis and culex pipiens mosquitoes from fayium governorate in egypt. insecticides used were malathion, fenitrothion, temephos, diazinon, bromophos and fenthion from organophosphorous group and deltamethrin, permethrin and cypermethrin from synthetic pyrethroid group while propoxur was from carbamate group. larvae of a. pharoensis were resistant to fenitr ...200112557941
the possibility of active long-distance migrations by anopheles pharoensis theobald. 196213946633
observations on the irritability of mosquitos to ddt in uganda.the need for new investigations on the effect of insecticides on the behaviour of mosquitos was recently stressed by the who expert committee on insecticides, which recommended a provisional method for the determination of the irritability of mosquitos to insecticides for trials in the field and the laboratory. one such trial, carried out in uganda under what can be termed typical field conditions, is reported in the present paper.two strains of anopheles gambiae, one of anopheles funestus, one ...196214024193
normal susceptibility levels of anopheles pharoensis theobald to ddt and dieldrin. 196014412572
malaria transmission dynamics at a site in northern ghana proposed for testing malaria vaccines.we studied the malaria transmission dynamics in kassena nankana district (knd), a site in northern ghana proposed for testing malaria vaccines. intensive mosquito sampling for 1 year using human landing catches in three micro-ecological sites (irrigated, lowland and rocky highland) yielded 18 228 mosquitoes. anopheles gambiae s.l. and anopheles funestus constituted 94.3% of the total collection with 76.8% captured from the irrigated communities. other species collected but in relatively few numb ...200414728621
laboratory evaluation of bacillus sphaericus recycling in mosquito larvae.after ingestion by culex pipiens and anopheles pharoensis 4th instar larvae, spores of bacillus sphaericus strain faiyoum rapidly germinated inside live mosquito midgut. bacterial counts and electron microscopic observations on intoxicated larvae revealed that the number of viable spores rapidly decreased during the first 12 h, with a maximum between 12 and 24 h. in cadavers, the number of heat-resistant spores quickly increased between the first and second day post-feeding. after one week, the ...200314964657
cytopathological action in mosquito larvae fed with bacillus sphaericus (strain faiyoum) spore/crystal complex.ingestion of bacillus sphaericus (strain faiyoum) spore/crystal complex by larvae of anopheles pharoensis, culex pipiens and aedes caspius was rapidly followed by a dissolution of the protein crystalline inclusions inside the anterior stomach of the three species. during the first day of the, b. sphaericus spores germinated within the mid-gut lumen, and were in a vegetative stage between 36-48 hours after ingestion when larvae began to die. ultrastructural observations focused on larval mid-gut ...200314964664
increase of malaria attacks among children presenting concomitant infection by schistosoma mansoni in senegal.helminthic infections concomitant with malaria are common in inter-tropical areas. a recent study showed that mice co-infected with schistosoma mansoni and plasmodium chabaudi develop higher p. chabaudi parasitaemia and had a higher mortality rate. this important observation deserved to be further investigated among human populations.malaria attacks were recorded in 512 children aged 6-15 years living in richard toll (northern senegal) among whom 336 were infected by s. mansoni, and 175 were not ...200415544703
entomopathogenic fungi for mosquito control: a review.fungal diseases in insects are common and widespread and can decimate their populations in spectacular epizootics. virtually all insect orders are susceptible to fungal diseases, including dipterans. fungal pathogens such as lagenidium, coelomomyces and culicinomyces are known to affect mosquito populations, and have been studied extensively. there are, however, many other fungi that infect and kill mosquitoes at the larval and/or adult stage. the discovery, in 1977, of the selective mosquito-pa ...200415861235
biting behavior and plasmodium infection rates of anopheles arabiensis from sille, ethiopia.the man-biting behavior and plasmodium infection rates of anopheline mosquitoes were investigated in sille, a hyperendemic malarious area in southern ethiopia. seven anopheles species were identified from all night landing collections, conducted from 18:00 to 06:00h between october 2001 and august 2002. the predominant species was anopheles arabiensis (55.8%), followed by anopheles coustani (31.5%), anopheles pharoensis (9.5%), anopheles funestus (2.2%), anopheles nili (0.5%), anopheles marshall ...200616171769
radiation-induced sterility for pupal and adult stages of the malaria mosquito anopheles arabiensis.in the context of the sterile insect technique (sit), radiation-induced sterility in the malaria mosquito anopheles arabiensis patton (diptera: culicidae) was studied. male mosquitoes were exposed to gamma rays in the pupal or adult stage and dose-sterility curves were determined.200616700906
mosquito species diversity and abundance in relation to land use in a riceland agroecosystem in mwea, kenya.we conducted an entomological survey to determine the mosquito species diversity and abundance in relation to land use in the mwea rice scheme, kenya. adult mosquitoes were collected by indoor spraying of houses and outdoors by cdc light traps in three villages representing planned (mbuinjeru) and unplanned (kiamachiri) rice agroecosystems and a non-irrigated agroecosystem (murinduko). during the 12-month sampling period, a total of 98,708 mosquitoes belonging to five genera and 25 species were ...200616859101
efficacy of trigonella foenum-graecum on third stage larvae and adult fecundity of anopheles pharoensis.the insecticidal activity of trigonella foenum-graecunm (fenugreek) against the larval maturation and adult emergency of an. pharoensis 3rd stage was evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. concentrations of 100%, 70%, 50%, 25%, 5%, 2%, 1%, 0.9%, 0.7%, 0.5% & 0.3% showed 100% larval mortality rate. 0.2% & 0.1% caused mortality of 88.9% & 66.7% respectively. on the other hand, the fecundity of emerged adults was zero % and 33.3%. however, one control larvae died and the nine emerged adu ...200616927858
complexity of the malaria vectorial system in cameroon: contribution of secondary vectors to malaria transmission.malaria transmission in africa is a dynamic and complex system that is so far superficially understood. further knowledge is required to improve control of the disease. in the present report, we highlight the contribution of the so-called "secondary" malaria vectors to the overall parasite transmission intensity in several sites across cameroon, through a retrospective analysis of surveys from the organisation de coordination pour la lutte contre les endémies en afrique centrale database. in tot ...200617162956
malaria vectors and transmission dynamics in coastal south-western cameroon.malaria is a major public health problem in cameroon. unlike in the southern forested areas where the epidemiology of malaria has been better studied prior to the implementation of control activities, little is known about the distribution and role of anophelines in malaria transmission in the coastal areas.200717233883
very high ddt-resistant population of anopheles pharoensis theobald (diptera: culicidae) from gorgora, northern ethiopia.standard who insecticide bioassay tests were carried out in gorgora, northern ethiopia to evaluate the susceptibility status of anopheles pharoensis theobald for the insecticides ddt, malathion, permethrin and deltamethrin. the mortality and when appropriate knockdown effect of the insecticides were observed. the results indicated that this species was resistant to ddt. a high mortality was obtained after exposure to permethrin and deltamethrin but below 97 % which is the limit for susceptibilit ...200617285855
sampling outdoor, resting anopheles gambiae and other mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in western kenya with clay pots.clay pots were analyzed as devices for sampling the outdoor resting fraction of anopheles gambiae giles (diptera: culicidae) and other mosquito species in a rural, western kenya. clay pots (anopheles gambiae resting pots, herein agrepots), outdoor pit shelters, indoor pyrethrum spray collections (psc), and colombian curtain exit traps were compared in collections done biweekly for nine intervals from april to june 2005 in 20 housing compounds. of 10,517 mosquitoes sampled, 4,668 an. gambiae s.l. ...200717294916
mosquito species succession and physicochemical factors affecting their abundance in rice fields in mwea, kenya.the succession of mosquito species and abiotic factors affecting their distribution and abundance in rice (oryza spp.) fields was investigated over a 16-wk rice growing cycle covering the period between january and may 2006. fifteen experimental rice plots were sampled for mosquito larvae and characterized based on rice height, number of tillers, floating vegetation cover, water depth, water temperature, turbidity, salinity, ph, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids, and conductivity. microsc ...200717427706
a critical appraisal of molecular xenomonitoring as a tool for assessing progress toward elimination of lymphatic filariasis.we used molecular xenomonitoring (mx, detection of filarial dna in mosquitoes) to evaluate the impact of mass drug administration (mda) in sentinel locations in egypt with high (11.5%) and low (4.1%) baseline microfilaria prevalence rates. blood-fed culex pipiens were pooled by household and tested for wuchereria bancrofti dna by pcr. there was no significant relationship between the infection status of household residents and parasite dna status of mosquitoes from the same houses. after 5 mda r ...200717978055
bionomics of malaria vectors and relationship with malaria transmission and epidemiology in three physiographic zones in the senegal river basin.following the implementation of two dams in the senegal river, entomological and parasitological studies were conducted in three different ecological zones in the senegal river basin (the low valley of senegal river, the guiers lake area and the low valley of ferlo) every 3 month in june 2004, september 2004, december 2004 and march 2005. the objective of this work was to study the influence of environmental heterogeneities on vector bionomics and malaria epidemiology. mosquitoes were collected ...200818068685
risk factors for house-entry by malaria vectors in a rural town and satellite villages in the gambia.in the pre-intervention year of a randomized controlled trial investigating the protective effects of house screening against malaria-transmitting vectors, a multi-factorial risk factor analysis study was used to identify factors that influence mosquito house entry.200818179686
host choice and multiple blood feeding behaviour of malaria vectors and other anophelines in mwea rice scheme, kenya.studies were conducted between april 2004 and february 2006 to determine the blood-feeding pattern of anopheles mosquitoes in mwea kenya.200818312667
malaria transmission in dakar: a two-year survey.according to entomological studies conducted over the past 30 years, there was low malaria transmission in suburb of dakar but little evidence of it in the downtown area. however; there was some evidence of local transmission based on reports of malaria among permanent residents. an entomological evaluation of malaria transmission was conducted from may 2005 to october 2006 in two areas of dakar.200818796138
efficacy of zingiber officinale on third stage larvae and adult fecundity of musca domestica and anopheles pharoensis.the insecticidal activity of zingiber officinale against the larval maturation and adult emergency of anopheles pharoensis and musca domestica 3rd stage was evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. at a. pharoensis concentrations of 100%, 70%, 50%, 25%, 5%, 2%, 1%, 0.9%, 0.7%, 0.5% & 0.3% showed 100% larval mortality rate. 0.2% & 0.1% caused mortality of 66.7% respectively. on the other hand, the fecundity of emerged adults was zero% and 50%. in m. domestica the concentrations from 25%- ...200818853613
efficacy of cinnamomum zeylanicum on third stage larvae and adult fecundity of musca domestica and anopheles pharoensis.the insecticidal activity of cinnamomum zeylanicum against the larval maturation and adult emergency of anopheles pharoensis and musca domestica 3rd stage was evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. a. pharoensis with concentrations (conc.) of 100%, 70%, 50%, 25%, 5%, 2%, 1%, 0.9%, 0.7% & 0.5% showed 100% larval mortality. conc. of 0.3%, 0.2% & 0.1% caused mortality of 77.8%, 44.4% & 33.3% respectively. the fecundity of emerged adults was 0%, 60% & 50%. in m. domestica the conc. from 5 ...200818853621
use of integrated malaria management reduces malaria in kenya.during an entomological survey in preparation for malaria control interventions in mwea division, the number of malaria cases at the kimbimbi sub-district hospital was in a steady decline. the underlying factors for this reduction were unknown and needed to be identified before any malaria intervention tools were deployed in the area. we therefore set out to investigate the potential factors that could have contributed to the decline of malaria cases in the hospital by analyzing the malaria cont ...200819115000
seasonality, parasite diversity, and local extinctions in plasmodium falciparum malaria.we incorporate stochastic, density-dependent seasonal recruitment in adult anopheles mosquito populations in a discrete-event model of plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission and find the probabilities of parasite extinction higher than with perennial transmission. seasonal fluctuations in vector populations act to synchronize the dynamics of infection and immunity in host populations, leading to fluctuations in parasite prevalence greater than expected solely on the basis of high- and low-se ...200119177178
identifying the most productive breeding sites for malaria mosquitoes in the gambia.ideally larval control activities should be targeted at sites that generate the most adult vectors, thereby reducing operational costs. despite the plethora of potential mosquito breeding sites found in the floodplains of the gambia river, about 150 km from its mouth, during the rainy season, only a small proportion are colonized by anophelines on any day. this study aimed to determine the characteristics of larval habitats most frequently and most densely populated by anopheline larvae and to e ...200919361337
preliminary study of malaria incidence in nouakchott, mauritania.malaria is one of the main motives for outpatient consultation and hospitalization in mauritania. however, its incidence remains unclear because of diagnostic problems and insufficient epidemiological data.200919416545
malaria vectors and transmission dynamics in goulmoun, a rural city in south-western chad.knowledge of some baseline entomological data such as entomological inoculation rates (eir) is crucially needed to assess the epidemiological impact of malaria control activities directed either against parasites or vectors. in chad, most published surveys date back to the 1960's. in this study, anopheline species composition and their relation to malaria transmission were investigated in a dry sudanian savannas area of chad.200919463189
highly focused anopheline breeding sites and malaria transmission in dakar.urbanization has a great impact on the composition of the vector system and malaria transmission dynamics. in dakar, some malaria cases are autochthonous but parasite rates and incidences of clinical malaria attacks have been recorded at low levels. ecological heterogeneity of malaria transmission was investigated in dakar, in order to characterize the anopheles breeding sites in the city and to study the dynamics of larval density and adult aggressiveness in ten characteristically different urb ...200919552809
major variations in malaria exposure of travellers in rural areas: an entomological cohort study in western côte d'ivoire.malaria remains a major threat, to both travellers and military personnel deployed to endemic areas. the recommendations for travellers given by the world health organization is based on the incidence of malaria in an area and do not take the degree of exposure into account. the aim of this article is to evaluate the exposure of travellers by entomologic methods, which are the commonly used measures of the intensity of malaria transmission.200919638219
integration of irradiation with cytoplasmic incompatibility to facilitate a lymphatic filariasis vector elimination approach.abstract:200919682363
epidemiology of malaria in the forest-savanna transitional zone of ghana.information on the epidemiology of malaria is essential for designing and interpreting results of clinical trials of drugs, vaccines and other interventions. as a background to the establishment of a site for anti-malarial drugs and vaccine trials, the epidemiology of malaria in a rural site in central ghana was investigated.200919785766
the impact of a small-scale irrigation scheme on malaria transmission in ziway area, central ethiopia.to assess the impact of a small-scale irrigation scheme in ziway area, a semi-arid area in the central ethiopian rift valley, on malaria transmission.201019917039
male mating biology.before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings are successful. previous failures in mosquito sterile insect technique (sit) projects have been linked to poor knowledge of local mating behaviours or the selection of deleterious phenotypes during colo ...200919917078
field site selection: getting it right first time around.the selection of suitable field sites for integrated control of anopheles mosquitoes using the sterile insect technique (sit) requires consideration of the full gamut of factors facing most proposed control strategies, but four criteria identify an ideal site: 1) a single malaria vector, 2) an unstructured, relatively low density target population, 3) isolation of the target population and 4) actual or potential malaria incidence. such a site can exist in a diverse range of situations or can be ...200919917079
habitat suitability and ecological niche profile of major malaria vectors in cameroon.suitability of environmental conditions determines a species distribution in space and time. understanding and modelling the ecological niche of mosquito disease vectors can, therefore, be a powerful predictor of the risk of exposure to the pathogens they transmit. in africa, five anophelines are responsible for over 95% of total malaria transmission. however, detailed knowledge of the geographic distribution and ecological requirements of these species is to date still inadequate.200920028559
effects of forced egg retention on the temporal progression of west nile virus infection in culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (diptera: culicidae).environmental factors that impact the biology of mosquito vectors can have epidemiological implications. lack of oviposition sites facilitated by environmental factors such as temperature and drought can often force culex spp. mosquitoes to retain their eggs. culex pipiens quinquefasciatus say were fed blood meals containing west nile virus (wnv; family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus) and either allowed to oviposit or forced to retain their eggs through different time points postinfection (9, 13 ...201020146856
distribution of the main malaria vectors in kenya.a detailed knowledge of the distribution of the main anopheles malaria vectors in kenya should guide national vector control strategies. however, contemporary spatial distributions of the locally dominant anopheles vectors including anopheles gambiae, anopheles arabiensis, anopheles merus, anopheles funestus, anopheles pharoensis and anopheles nili are lacking. the methods and approaches used to assemble contemporary available data on the present distribution of the dominant malaria vectors in k ...201020202199
diversity in anopheline larval habitats and adult composition during the dry and wet seasons in ouagadougou (burkina faso).several cases of malaria are frequently recorded during the dry period in ouagadougou town (burkina faso). this has led to the design of a series of studies focusing on both parasitological and entomological investigations intended to provide relevant health data on the risk of local malaria transmission according to the way of urbanisation.201020298619
rift valley fever virus epidemic in kenya, 2006/2007: the entomologic investigations.in december 2006, rift valley fever (rvf) was diagnosed in humans in garissa hospital, kenya and an outbreak reported affecting 11 districts. entomologic surveillance was performed in four districts to determine the epidemic/epizootic vectors of rvf virus (rvfv). approximately 297,000 mosquitoes were collected, 164,626 identified to species, 72,058 sorted into 3,003 pools and tested for rvfv by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. seventy-seven pools representing 10 species tested po ...201020682903
epidemiological investigation of bovine ephemeral fever outbreaks in israel.outbreaks of bovine ephemeral fever (bef) occurred in israel in 1990, 1999, and 2004. the main patterns of bef spread were similar in the 1990 and in 1999 epidemics, and the bef virus was probably carried in vectors transported by air streams across the rift valley and the red sea. in the 2004 outbreak, the primary focus of the disease was the southern mediterranean coastal plain and the disease agent was apparently brought by infected mosquitoes carried from their breeding site in the nile delt ...201020814543
spatial heterogeneity and temporal evolution of malaria transmission risk in dakar, senegal, according to remotely sensed environmental data.the united nations forecasts that by 2050, more than 60% of the african population will live in cities. thus, urban malaria is considered an important emerging health problem in that continent. remote sensing (rs) and geographic information systems (gis) are useful tools for addressing the challenge of assessing, understanding and spatially focusing malaria control activities. the objectives of the present study were to use high spatial resolution spot (satellite pour l'observation de la terre) ...201020815867
culicidae diversity, malaria transmission and insecticide resistance alleles in malaria vectors in ouidah-kpomasse-tori district from benin (west africa): a pre-intervention study.abstract:201020819214
unexpected anthropophily in the potential secondary malaria vectors anopheles coustani s.l. and anopheles squamosus in macha, zambia.abstract anopheles coustani s.l. and anopheles squamosus are sub-saharan mosquito species that have been implicated in malaria transmission. although generally believed to be of negligible importance due to their overwhelmingly zoophilic behavior, an. coustani s.l. and an. squamosus made up a large proportion of the anophelines collected by human landing catches during the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 rainy seasons in macha, zambia. further, polymerase chain reaction-based blood meal identification s ...201021142969
dry season ecology of anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes at larval habitats in two traditionally semi-arid villages in baringo, kenya.pre-adult stages of malaria vectors in semi-arid areas are confronted with highly variable and challenging climatic conditions. the objective of this study was to determine which larval habitat types are most productive in terms of larval densities in the dry and wet seasons within semi-arid environments, and how vector species productivity is partitioned over time.201121352608
are herders protected by their herds? an experimental analysis of zooprophylaxis against the malaria vector anopheles arabiensis.the number of anopheles arabiensis (diptera: culicidae) and anopheles pharoensis caught by human and cattle baits was investigated experimentally in the arba minch district of southern ethiopia to determine if attraction to humans, indoors or outdoors, was affected by the presence or absence of cattle.201121435266
plasmodium falciparum transmission and aridity: a kenyan experience from the dry lands of baringo and its implications for anopheles arabiensis control.abstract: background: the ecology of malaria vectors particularly in semi-arid areas of africa is poorly understood. accurate knowledge on this subject will boost current efforts to reduce the burden of malaria in sub-saharan africa. the objective of this study was to describe the dynamics of malaria transmission in two model semi-arid sites (kamarimar and tirion) in baringo in kenya. methods: adult mosquitoes were collected indoors by pyrethrum spray collections (psc) and outdoors by centers fo ...201121569546
feeding behaviour of potential vectors of west nile virus in senegal.west nile virus (wnv) is a widespread pathogen maintained in an enzootic cycle between mosquitoes and birds with occasional spill-over into dead-end hosts such as horses and humans. migratory birds are believed to play an important role in its dissemination from and to the palaearctic area, as well as its local dispersion between wintering sites. the djoudj park, located in senegal, is a major wintering site for birds migrating from europe during the study period (sept. 2008- jan. 2009). in this ...201121651763
efficacy of permanet-« 2.0 and permanet-« 3.0 against insecticide-resistant anopheles gambiae in experimental huts in c+¦te d'ivoire.pyrethroid resistance in vectors could limit the efficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets (llins) because all llins are currently treated with pyrethroids. the goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and wash resistance of permanet-« 3.0 compared to permanet-« 2.0 in an area of high pyrethroid in c+¦te d'ivoire. permanet-« 3.0 is impregnated with deltamethrin at 85 mg/m2 on the sides of the net and with deltamethrin and piperonyl butoxide on the roof. permanet-« 2.0 is impregnated with ...201121699703
environmental factors associated with larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in irrigation and major drainage areas in the middle course of the rift valley, central ethiopia.larval control is an integral part of malaria vector management in ethiopia and elsewhere. for effective larval control, a sound understanding of the factors responsible for spatio-temporal variation in larval production is essential. a study was thus conducted to characterize larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes in irrigation and major drainage areas between adami tulu and meki towns, in the middle course of the ethiopian rift valley.201121715730
Conditions of malaria transmission in Dakar from 2007 to 2010.Previous studies in Dakar have highlighted the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of Anopheles gambiae s.l. biting rates. In order to improve the knowledge of the determinants of malaria transmission in this city, the present study reports the results of an extensive entomological survey that was conducted in 45 areas in Dakar from 2007 to 2010.201122018223
larvicidal efficacy of ethiopian ethnomedicinal plant juniperus procera essential oil against afrotropical malaria vector anopheles arabiensis (diptera: culicidae).to screen the essential oil of juniperus procera (j. procera) (cupressaceae) for larvicidal activity against late third instar larvae of anopheles arabiensis (an. arabiensis) patton, the principle malaria vector in ethiopia.025183156
west nile virus transmission in sentinel chickens and potential mosquito vectors, senegal river delta, 2008-2009.west nile virus (wnv) is an arthropod-borne flavivirus usually transmitted to wild birds by culex mosquitoes. humans and horses are susceptible to wnv but are dead-end hosts. wnv is endemic in senegal, particularly in the senegal river delta. to assess transmission patterns and potential vectors, entomological and sentinel serological was done in ross bethio along the river senegal. three sentinel henhouses (also used as chicken-baited traps) were set at 100 m, 800 m, and 1,300 m from the river, ...201324084679
high prevalence of west nile virus in domestic birds and detection in 2 new mosquito species in madagascar.west nile virus is an arthropod-borne zoonosis transmitted by a large number of mosquito species, and birds play a key role as reservoir of the virus. its distribution is largely widespread over africa, asia, the americas and europe. since 1978, it has frequently been reported in madagascar. studies described a high seroprevalence level of the virus in humans in different areas of the island and a human fatal case of wnv infection was reported in 2011. despite these reports, the epidemiology of ...201626807720
entomological monitoring and evaluation: diverse transmission settings of icemr projects will require local and regional malaria elimination strategies.the unprecedented global efforts for malaria elimination in the past decade have resulted in altered vectorial systems, vector behaviors, and bionomics. these changes combined with increasingly evident heterogeneities in malaria transmission require innovative vector control strategies in addition to the established practices of long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying. integrated vector management will require focal and tailored vector control to achieve malaria elimination. ...201526259942
malaria in mauritania: retrospective and prospective overview.malaria has become a major public health problem in mauritania since the 1990s, with an average of 181,000 cases per year and 2,233,066 persons at risk during 1995-2012. this paper provides the first publicly available overview of malaria incidence and distribution in mauritania. information on the burden and malaria species distribution is critical for guiding national efforts in malaria control. as the incidence of malaria changes over time, regular updates of epidemiological data are necessar ...201525880759
reemergence of rift valley fever, mauritania, 2010.a rift valley fever (rvf) outbreak in humans and animals occurred in mauritania in 2010. thirty cases of rvf in humans and 3 deaths were identified. rvfv isolates were recovered from humans, camels, sheep, goats, and culex antennatus mosquitoes. phylogenetic analysis of isolates indicated a virus origin from western africa.024447381
abundance and dynamics of anopheline larvae in a highland malarious area of south-central ethiopia.malaria is a public health problem in ethiopia, and increasingly so in highland areas, possibly because of global warming. this study describes the distribution, breeding habitat and monthly dynamics of anopheline larvae in butajira, a highland area in south-central ethiopia.201222695178
ecology of urban malaria vectors in niamey, republic of niger.urbanization in african cities has major impact on malaria risk. niamey, the capital of the republic of niger, is situated in the west african sahel zone. the short rainy season and human activities linked with the niger river influence mosquito abundance. this study aimed at deciphering the factors of distribution of urban malaria vectors in niamey.201627277707
malaria in three epidemiological strata in mauritania.malaria epidemiology in mauritania has been characterized on the basis of epidemiological strata, defined by climatic and geographic features, which divide the country into three zones: sahelian zone, sahelo-saharan transition zone, and saharan zone. the association between geographic stratification and malaria transmission was assessed through a series of parasitological and entomological surveys.201627068219
phylogeny of anopheline (diptera: culicidae) species in southern africa, based on nuclear and mitochondrial genes.a phylogeny of anthropophilic and zoophilic anopheline mosquito species was constructed, using the nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 (its2) and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit i (coi) genes. the its2 alignment, typically difficult due to its noncoding nature and large size variations, was aided by using predicted secondary structure, making this phylogenetically useful gene more amenable to investigation. this phylogeny is unique in explicitly including zoophilic, non-vector anophel ...026047180
a genotypically distinct, melanic variant of anopheles arabiensis in sudan is associated with arid environments.anopheles arabiensis, an important malaria vector in sudan and other countries in sub-saharan africa, exhibits considerable ecological and behavioural plasticity allowing it to survive in the harsh conditions of arid regions. it has been shown that adult populations of an. arabiensis in the semi-desert habitat of western khartoum state survive through the long dry season in a state of partial aestivation, characterized by limited feeding activity and a degree of arrested ovarian development. ano ...201425496059
modeling larval malaria vector habitat locations using landscape features and cumulative precipitation measures.predictive models of malaria vector larval habitat locations may provide a basis for understanding the spatial determinants of malaria transmission.201424903736
biting by anopheles funestus in broad daylight after use of long-lasting insecticidal nets: a new challenge to malaria elimination.malaria control is mainly based on indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets. the efficacy of these tools depends on the behaviour of mosquitoes, which varies by species. with resistance to insecticides, mosquitoes adapt their behaviour to ensure their survival and reproduction. the aim of this study was to assess the biting behaviour of anopheles funestus after the implementation of long-lasting insecticidal nets (llins).201424678587
the effect of screening doors and windows on indoor density of anopheles arabiensis in south-west ethiopia: a randomized trial.screening of houses might have impact on density of indoor host-seeking anopheles mosquitoes. a randomized trial of screening windows and doors with metal mesh, and closing openings on eves and walls by mud was conducted to assess if reduce indoor densities of biting mosquitoes.201324028542
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