integration of pecking, filter feeding and drinking mechanisms in waterfowl.this paper is one of several contributions in a series, illustrating the application of a specific deductive methodology to explain diversity of form. the methodology facilitates the explanation of feeding morphologies in various ducks as a transformation of the mallard's feeding design maximized for specific proportions of performance that are contributed by pecking and filter feeding mechanisms. the earlier described anatomy and formal analyses of the three mechanisms in the mallard served as ...19911927161
chemoreceptor control of heart rate and behaviour during diving in the tufted duck (aythya fuligula).1. the role of chemoreceptors in the control of heart rate and behaviour during diving activity in the tufted duck was investigated in two ways. in a closed-loop experiment, ducks were exposed to ambient gas mixtures of varied composition during diving activity in an indoor tank. characteristics of diving behaviour, heart rate and deep body temperature were monitored under hypoxic, hyperoxic and hypercapnic conditions and compared with those in air. secondly, in an open-loop experiment the role ...19883137333
effect of training on maximal oxygen uptake and aerobic capacity of locomotory muscles in tufted ducks, aythya fuligula.1. the effects of artificial swim training on maximal oxygen consumption and heart rate, as well as on the capillarity and oxidative capacity of locomotory muscles, have been studied in the tufted duck, aythya fuligula. 2. the artificial training programme resulted in a 27% increase in maximal oxygen consumption, mainly as a result of an increase in muscle capillarity (20% increase in capillary/fibre ratio). in addition, activity of an oxidative enzyme, citrate synthase, increased (by 42%) and t ...19883171990
regional distribution of blood flow during swimming in the tufted duck (aythya fuligula).the distribution of blood flow to a number of organs and tissues of the tufted duck was determined (by the microsphere technique) before and while the birds were swimming at close to their maximum sustainable velocity (i.e. at 0.69 +/- 0.01 ms-1). during swimming, oxygen uptake was twice the pre-exercise value. cardiac output increased by 70%, there was no significant change in arterial blood pressure and total systemic conductance increased by 44%. there were no significant changes in blood flo ...19883373144
diving behaviour and heart rate in tufted ducks (aythya fuligula).diving behaviour and heart rate were monitored in tufted ducks diving under circumstances which simulated various environmental conditions such as feeding under ice in winter. when distance to food was increased on a covered outdoor pond, dive duration increased proportionately, but it was calculated that time available for feeding was reduced during the longer-distance 'extended' dives. there was a gradual reduction in heart rate to 77.3 +/- 13.8 beats min-1, which is significantly lower than t ...19863805996
[the uropygial gland secretion from the tufted duck (arythya fuligula)]. 19704395540
bioenergetics of tufted duck (aythya fuligula) at loch leven, kinross. 19744480569
pathogenicity for chickens of avian influenza viruses isolated from whistling swans and a black-tailed gull in japan.we isolated 24 hav1 neq1 and 18 hav6 nav3 influenza viruses from such free-living wild waterfowl as whistling swans, black-tailed gulls, and tufted ducks in western japan in 1980. two hav1 neq1 viruses isolated from a whistling swan and a black-tailed gull and a hav6 nav3 virus from a whistling swan were examined for their pathogenicity for chickens. five-week-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were inoculated with the viruses intratracheally or intraperitoneally. virus was recovered successful ...19826213223
heart rate and aerobic metabolism in humboldt penguins, spheniscus humboldti, during voluntary dives.heart rate and aerobic metabolism have been recorded from three humboldt penguins, spheniscus humboldti, freely diving on a freshwater pond (9 x 4.6 x 2.7 m deep), using an implanted radiotransmitter and an open circuit respirometer. oxygen uptake at mean dive duration (46.2s) was 26% greater than the resting value, but the difference was not statistically significant. heart rate was also similar to the resting value. it is concluded that voluntary dives of penguins are completely aerobic and th ...19846423763
migratory waterfowl as flying reservoirs of yersinia species.intestinal contents of tufted ducks and faecal samples from two other species of migratory birds were examined for yersinia species of organisms. from 296 tufted ducks yersinia species were isolated from 10 (3.4 per cent), from 223 swans yersinia species were recovered from eight (3.6 per cent) but none were recovered from the faeces of 121 pintail ducks. since the isolates differed from each other in their biochemical characteristics and, or, o serotypes, yersinia infection in these migratory w ...19846522818
control of heart rate by carotid body chemoreceptors during diving in tufted ducks.previous work has shown that during forcible submersion of domestic ducks there is a gradual reduction in heart rate to 10-20% of its predive value after 45-60 s. bilateral denervation of the carotid body chemoreceptors abolishes most of this bradycardia. by use of implanted radio transmitters it has been shown that in free-swimming tufted ducks, aythya fuligula, there is an immediate reduction in heart rate, on spontaneous diving, from an elevated predive level. it then increases for a few seco ...19827153137
isolation of influenza a viruses from migratory waterfowls in san-in district, western japan in 1979-1980.from december, 1979 to april, 1980, winter migratory waterfowls of some species staying in san-in district, western japan were surveyed for influenza virus. a total of 27 influenza a viruses, 11 hav1 neq1 and 16 hav6 nav3, were isolated from 90 fecal specimens of whistling swans. a total of 13 influenza a viruses, 11 hav1 neq1 and one hav6 nav3, were isolated from 245 fecal samples of black-tailed gulls. two viruses (hav1 neq1) were isolated from 40 tufted ducks. sampling date, incidence and the ...19817324612
differential air sac pressures in diving tufted ducks aythya fuligula.the air in the respiratory system of diving birds contains a large proportion of the body oxygen stores, but it must be in the lungs for gas exchange with blood to occur. to test the hypothesis that locomotion induces mixing of air sac air with lung air during dives, we measured differential pressures between the interclavicular and posterior thoracic air sacs in five diving tufted ducks aythya fuligula. the peak differential pressure between posterior thoracic and interclavicular air sacs, 0.49 ...19989716518
body cooling and its energetic implications for feeding and diving of tufted ducks.wintering in a temperate climate with low water temperatures is energetically expensive for diving ducks. the energy costs associated with body cooling due to diving and ingesting large amounts of cold food were measured in tufted ducks (aythya fuligula) feeding on zebra mussels (dreissena polymorpha), using implanted heart rate and body temperature transmitters. the effects of diving depth and food ingestion were measured in two sets of experiments: we measured body cooling and energy costs of ...19989798260
energetics of surface swimming in brandt's cormorants (phalacrocorax penicillatus brandt).the energy requirements of brandt's cormorants (phalacrocorax penicillatus) during surface swimming were measured in birds swimming under a metabolic chamber in a water flume. from the oxygen consumption recordings, we extrapolated the metabolic rate and cost of transport at water speeds ranging from 0 to 1.3 m s(-)(1). in still water, the birds' mean mass-specific rate of oxygen consumption ( v(o2)) while floating at the surface was 20.2 ml o(2 )min(-)(1 )kg(-)(1), 2.1 times the predicted resti ...200011076736
energetic costs of surface swimming and diving of birds.the energetic costs of swimming at the surface (swimming) and swimming underwater (diving) are compared in tufted ducks (aythya fuligula) and three species of penguins, the gentoo (pygoscelis papua), the king (aptenodytes patagonicus), and the emperor (aythya forsteri). ducks swim on the surface and use their webbed feet as paddles, whereas penguins tend to swim just below the surface and use their flippers as hydrofoils, the latter being much more efficient. penguins are more streamlined in sha ...200011121344
persistent organochlorine levels in six prey species of the gyrfalcon falco rusticolus in iceland.our previous investigations have revealed very high levels of organochlorines (ocs) in the icelandic gyrfalcon falco rusticolus, a resident top predator. we now examine six potential prey species of birds, both resident and migratory, in order to elucidate the most likely route of the ocs to the gyrfalcon. the ptarmigan lagopus mutus, the most important prey of the gyrfalcon, contained very low levels of ocs. bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) and ddts in mallards anas platyrhyn ...200111234542
specific biomagnification of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in tufted ducks (aythya fuligula), common cormorants (phalacrocorax carbo) and their prey from lake shinji, japan.polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (pcdds/dfs) were detected in waterfowl such as common cormorants, tufted ducks, and their prey, namely fish and bivalves from lake shinji, japan. the concentration of total pcdds/dfs-teq was found to be higher in the muscle tissues of common cormorants than in those of tufted ducks. the results of hierarchical cluster analysis implied that the residue distribution pattern of pcdd/df homologues was considerably different between these two specie ...200212002464
the distribution of molybdenum in the tissues of wild ducks.the mo contents and the relations between mo and cu or cr contents were investigated in the organs of japanese wild ducks (spotbill duck, pintail, wigeon, scaup and tufted duck). the highest mo content in kidney and liver of the dabbling ducks were more than 30 microg g(-1) dry weight (microg g(-1) d. wt.), though that of diving ducks were less than 11 microg g(-1) d. wt. the contents were lower in the ducks migrating within japan, eurasia and north america than those in the birds migrating betw ...200212180653
oxygen uptake during post dive recovery in a diving bird aythya fuligula: implications for optimal foraging models.the rate of oxygen uptake at the surface between dives was measured for four tufted ducks, aythya fuligula, during bouts of foraging dives to a depth of 1.8 m. the ducks surfaced into a respirometer box after each dive so that the rate of oxygen uptake ((o(2))) could be measured. (o(2)) decreased over time at the surface and there was a particularly rapid phase of oxygen uptake for approximately the first 3s. the specific shape of the oxygen uptake curve is dependent upon the duration of the pre ...200212432016
[study on the trematode parasites of the birds in korea]authors carried out an investigation of the helminthic parasites of the wild birds in korea. most wild birds were collected from kyoung sang do, kyoung kee do and seoul area from september 1970 to march 1973. a total of 70 wild birds, 19 species were examined, which comprised as follows; 10 anas platyrhynchus, 10 anas fulicata, 4 anas poeciolorhyncha zonorhyncha, 8 anser albifrone albifrone, 5 anser cygonopsis cygnoid, 10 aythya fuligula, 6 gallicrex cinerea, 2 porgana fusca, 2 phisianum calichi ...197312913486
the influence of oxygen and carbon dioxide on diving behaviour of tufted ducks, aythya fuligula.while optimal diving models focus on the diver's oxygen (o(2)) stores as the predominant factor influencing diving behaviour, many vertebrate species surface from a dive before these stores are exhausted and may commence another dive well after their o(2) stores have been resaturated. this study investigates the influence of hypoxia and also hypercapnia on the dive cycle of tufted ducks, aythya fuligula, in terms of surface duration and dive duration. the birds were trained to surface into a res ...200313130424
correlates of lifetime reproductive success in three species of european ducks.number of breeding attempts is a strong correlate of lifetime reproductive success (lrs) in birds, but the relative importance of potentially interacting factors affecting lrs has rarely been fully evaluated. we considered simultaneously five main factors hypothesized to influence lrs (age at first breeding, nesting date, number of breeding attempts, female traits, brood parasitism) by analyzing with path analysis 22-year data sets for 1,279 individually marked females and their offspring in tuf ...200415138877
molecular mechanism of high altitude respiration: primary structure of a minor hemoglobin component from tufted duck (aythya fuligula, anseriformes).avian hemoglobins have attracted much attention in view of the unique oxygen transport characteristics. the present study describes the primary structure of minor hemoglobin component hbd from tufted duck (aythya fuligula), a migratory bird seen in pakistan during the winter season. separation of the polypeptide subunits was achieved by ion exchange chromatography in the presence of 8m urea. molecular masses of the intact protein as well as peptides obtained from chemical and enzymatic cleavages ...200515567161
individual quality, survival variation and patterns of phenotypic selection on body condition and timing of nesting in birds.questions about individual variation in "quality" and fitness are of great interest to evolutionary and population ecologists. such variation can be investigated using either a random effects approach or an approach that relies on identifying observable traits that are themselves correlated with fitness components. we used the latter approach with data from 1,925 individual females of three species of ducks (tufted duck, aythya fuligula; common pochard, aythya ferina; northern shoveler, anas cly ...200515657762
breathing hypoxic gas affects the physiology as well as the diving behaviour of tufted ducks.we measured the effects of exposure to hypoxia (15% and 11% oxygen) and hypercapnia (up to 4.5% carbon dioxide) on rates of respiratory gas exchange both between and during dives in tufted ducks, aythya fuligula, to investigate to what extent these may explain changes in diving behaviour. as found in previous studies, the ducks decreased dive duration (t(d)) and increased surface duration when diving from a hypoxic or hypercapnic gas mix. in the hypercapnic conditions, oxygen consumption during ...200515778946
[distribution of trematodes of the family prosthogonimidae in river and lake ecological systems in the south of the western siberia].the results of long-term investigations (1994-2003) of an infection rate of trematodes of the family prosthogonimidae in the first intermediate hosts (snails of the family bithyniidae) and in the final hosts (birds) from a basin of the chany lake (western siberia) are discussed. a total of 1824 specimens of bithynia tentaculata (l., 1758) and 7166 specimens of opisthorchophorus troscheli (paasch, 1842) have been collected from eight rivers and two lakes in the south of the western siberia. data ...200515810558
to what extent is the foraging behaviour of aquatic birds constrained by their physiology?aquatic birds have access to limited amounts of usable oxygen when they forage (dive) underwater, so the major physiological constraint to their behaviour is the need to periodically visit the water surface to replenish these stores and remove accumulated carbon dioxide. the size of the oxygen stores and the rate at which they are used (v dot o2) or carbon dioxide accumulates are the ultimate determinants of the duration that aquatic birds can remain feeding underwater. however, the assumption t ...200516075394
[intestinal nematodes of the aythyini ducks in western pomerania].intestinal nematodes of the aythyini ducks in western pomerania. biology, including ecology, of the aythyini renders them particularly attractive subjects of parasitological studies. the tribe is represented in poland by 4 nesting species; two of them, aythya fuligula and a. ferina, are very abundant game birds. however, their helminth fauna, including nematodes, is still very poorly known. this study was aimed at quantifying the structure of parasitic intestinal nematodes of the western pomeran ...200516838626
optimal diving behaviour and respiratory gas exchange in birds.this review discusses the advancements in our understanding of the physiology and behaviour of avian diving that have been underpinned by optimal foraging theory and the testing of optimal models. to maximise their foraging efficiency during foraging periods, diving birds must balance numerous factors that are directly or indirectly related to the replenishment of the oxygen stores and the removal of excess carbon dioxide. these include (1) the time spent underwater (which diminishes the oxygen ...200616884962
avian influenza virus screening in wild waterfowl in norway, 2005.the prevalence of influenza a virus infection, and the distribution of different subtypes of the virus, were studied in 604 geese and ducks shot during ordinary hunting 2005. the study was based upon molecular screening of cloacal swabs taken by the hunters. the sampling included the following species: greylag (anser anser), mallard (anas platyrhynchos), wigeon (anas penelope), teal (anas crecca), goosander (mergus merganser), tufted duck (aythya fuligula), common scoter (melanitta nigra), golde ...200717494599
phylogenetic analyses of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus isolates from germany in 2006 and 2007 suggest at least three separate introductions of h5n1 spring 2006, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (hpaiv) of subtype h5n1 was detected in germany in 343 dead wild birds, as well as in a black swan (cygnus atratus) kept in a zoo, three stray cats, one stone marten (martes foina), and in a single turkey farm. in 2007 (june-july) the virus reoccurred in 96 wild birds at six geographically separate locations in the southeast of germany. in addition, a backyard mixed duck and goose holding was affected. real-time rt-pcr [hoffmann, b., harder ...200818031958
wild ducks as long-distance vectors of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (h5n1).wild birds have been implicated in the expansion of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (h5n1) outbreaks across asia, the middle east, europe, and africa (in addition to traditional transmission by infected poultry, contaminated equipment, and people). such a role would require wild birds to excrete virus in the absence of debilitating disease. by experimentally infecting wild ducks, we found that tufted ducks, eurasian pochards, and mallards excreted significantly more virus than common tea ...200818394278
[aythya fuligula--new host for retinometra pittalugai lopez-neyra, 1932 (cestoda, hymenolepididae) recorded in poland for the first time].during standard parasitological studies of the tufted duck aythya fuligula (linnaeus, 1758), obtained from fishermen from west pomerania, three cestode specimens were found in the jejunum of hosts. they were determined as retinometra pittalugai (lopez-neyra, 1932) on the basis of the cirrus's size, shape of stylet and rostellar hooks. this is the first record of this species in poland, since this parasite was earlier recorded only in anas platyrhynchos f. dom., aythya marila, a. ferina and bucep ...200819338226
avian schistosomes in french aquatic birds: a molecular approach.the prevalence of human cercarial dermatitis (hcd) caused by bird schistosomes appears to be increasing in france, in light of the impact of tourism combined with high densities of wild aquatic hosts in freshwater areas. the present work expands our knowledge of schistosome systematics by including samples of bird schistosomes collected from their natural hosts in france. heads (318) and viscera (81) of aquatic birds belonging to 16 species from five orders, collecting during the hunting seasons ...200919356266
pathology of natural highly pathogenic avian influenza h5n1 infection in wild tufted ducks (aythya fuligula).highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) subtype h5n1 is an infectious systemic viral disease that results in high morbidity and mortality in poultry, and has been reported in a wide range of wild bird species during the last few years. an outbreak of hpai h5n1 occurred in wild birds in sweden in 2006 that affected several duck species, geese, swans, gulls, and raptors. tufted ducks (aythya fuligula) accounted for the largest number of positive cases and, therefore, were selected for more in-dep ...200919737752
the survey of h5n1 flu virus in wild birds in 14 provinces of china from 2004 to 2007.the highly pathogenic h5n1 avian influenza emerged in the year 1996 in asia, and has spread to europe and africa recently. at present, effective monitoring and data analysis of h5n1 are not sufficient in chinese mainland.200919742325
[surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza a virus (aiv) in bavaria in the years 2007 and 2008].a monitoring programme has been initiated in bavaria to continuously control wild birds for the presence of avian influenza a virus (aiv) and to monitor the possible occurrence and accumulation of notifiable aiv subtypes as an early-warning system. in addition information about the regional, seasonal and species-specific distribution of aiv could be obtained. between july 2007 and december 2008 samples from 5864 wild birds of twelve different zoological orders had been collected (cloacal- and tr ...200919999383
prevalence and subtypes of influenza a viruses in wild waterfowl in norway 2006-2007.the prevalence of influenza a virus infection, and the distribution of different subtypes of the virus, were studied in 1529 ducks and 1213 gulls shot during ordinary hunting from august to december in two consecutive years, 2006 and 2007, in norway. the study was based on molecular screening of cloacal and tracheal swabs, using a pan-influenza a rt-pcr. samples found to be positive for influenza a virus were screened for the h5 subtype, using a h5 specific rt-pcr, and, if negative, further subt ...201020426812
visualization and analysis of the danish 2006 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus h5n1 wild bird surveillance data by a prototype avian influenza bioportal.infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus h5n1 occurred for the first time in denmark in 2006 during the last part of the european epidemic that mainly affected migrating wild birds. the total number of danish wild bird cases was 45, of which only one was found through active surveillance using fecal sampling from resting areas for migrating species, whereas passive surveillance of dead wild birds provided 44 cases. one backyard, mixed poultry flock also became infected late in the ...201020521674
final hosts and variability of trichobilharzia regenti under natural europe, despite of intensive work on avian schistosomes in the past, only one representative of nasal schistosomes has been detected so far, trichobilharzia regenti, a species that remained undescribed to the scientific community until 1998. since then, however, t. regenti has gained a considerable attention, not only due to the induction of serious lesions concomitant with the migration of the schistosomulae through the central nervous system of their natural hosts (birds) but also due to th ...201020556426
behavioural adjustment in response to increased predation risk: a study in three duck species.predation directly triggers behavioural decisions designed to increase immediate survival. however, these behavioural modifications can have long term costs. there is therefore a trade-off between antipredator behaviours and other activities. this trade-off is generally considered between vigilance and only one other behaviour, thus neglecting potential compensations. in this study, we considered the effect of an increase in predation risk on the diurnal time-budget of three captive duck species ...201121533055
morphological features of cloacotaenia megalops (nitzsch in creplin, 1829) (cestoda, hymenolepididae) from different hosts.the tapeworm species cloacotaenia megalops (nitzsch in creplin, 1829) is characterized by a very specific morphology. a particularly distinct feature is a large almost square scolex in which four fleshy suction cups are embedded and a rudimentary rostellum. during standard studies of wild duck cestode fauna in northwestern poland, some morphological differences were observed among specimens, mainly in the shape of scolices and hermaphroditic proglottids of c. megalops isolated from different bir ...201121634232
evidence of the trade-off between starvation and predation risks in ducks.the theory of trade-off between starvation and predation risks predicts a decrease in body mass in order to improve flight performance when facing high predation risk. to date, this trade-off has mainly been validated in passerines, birds that store limited body reserves for short-term use. in the largest avian species in which the trade-off has been investigated (the mallard, anas platyrhynchos), the slope of the relationship between mass and flight performance was steeper in proportion to lean ...201121789252
cloacotaenia megalops (nitzsch in creplin, 1829) (cestoda, hymenolepididae) in wild ducks in western pomerania, poland.cloacotaenia megalops (nitzsch in creplin, 1892) is a polyxenic and cosmopolitan tapeworm from the family hymenolepididae. its generic name derives from their typical location (cloaca), and the typical final hosts which are birds typically associated with water and marsh environments: anseriformes, galliformes and gruiformes. in poland, the presence of c. megalops has been observed so far in 16 species of ducks from the baltic coast, the mazurian lake district, wielkopolsko-kujawska lowland, maz ...201121682099
alternative scan-based approaches to identify space-time clusters of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus h5n1 in wild birds in denmark and sweden in 2006.the objective of this study was to demonstrate the effects of the nature of the information collected through passive surveillance on the detection of space-time clusters of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (hpaiv) h5n1 cases reported among dead wild birds in denmark and sweden in 2006. data included 1469 records (109 cases, 1360 controls) collected during the regional epidemic between february and june by passive surveillance of dead wild birds. laboratory diagnoses were obtained by pcr ...201223402133
quantitative analysis of the yield of avian h7 influenza virus haemagglutinin protein produced in silkworm pupae with the use of the codon-optimized dna: a possible oral this study, we aimed to quantitatively compare the increased production of three h7 influenza virus-like particle (vlp) haemagglutinin (ha) with the use of a codon-optimized single ha gene in silkworm pupae. recombinant baculovirus (korea h7-bmnpv) could produce 0.40 million ha units per pupa, corresponding to 1832μg protein. the yield of the ha produced in larva was estimated to be approximately 0.31 million ha units per larva, and there were no significant differences between the three ha p ...201728065477
pathogenicity and tissue tropism of currently circulating highly pathogenic avian influenza a virus (h5n1; clade 2.3.2) in tufted ducks (aythya fuligula).reports describing the isolation of highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) virus (h5n1) clade 2.3.2 in feces from apparently healthy wild birds and the seemingly lower pathogenicity of this clade compared to clade 2.2 in several experimentally infected species, caused concern that the new clade might be maintained in the wild bird population. to investigate whether the pathogenicity of a clade 2.3.2 virus was lower than that of clades previously occurring in free-living wild birds in europe, f ...201526441012
breeding site fidelity and winter admixture in a long-distance migrant, the tufted duck (aythya fuligula).long-distance migrants are, by definition, highly mobile but it is poorly understood if this leads to high rates of gene flow and an essentially panmictic global population structure. genetic divergence in migratory species could be promoted, for example, by fidelity to distinct migratory pathways. in this study, we investigate the population genetic structure of tufted duck (aythya fuligula), a long-distance migrant with a largely continuous breeding distribution across eurasia. distinct, longi ...201222549516
the complete mitochondrial genome of aythya fuligula (anatidae: aythya).aythya fuligula belongs to the genus of aythya (anseriformes, anatidae), which only has 12 species worldwide. the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a. fuligula was implemented. a circular molecule of 16,616 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rrna genes, 22 trnas and a non-coding at-rich region. its gene arrangement patterns were identical to the most other species of anseriformes.201624972046
the influence of load carrying on the energetics and kinematics of terrestrial locomotion in a diving bird.the application of artificial loads to mammals and birds has been used to provide insight into the mechanics and energetic cost of terrestrial locomotion. however, only two species of bird have previously been used in loading experiments, the cursorial guinea fowl (numida meleagris) and the locomotor-generalist barnacle goose (branta leucopsis). here, using respirometry and treadmill locomotion, we investigate the energetic cost of carrying trunk loads in a diving bird, the tufted duck (aythya f ...201324244861
invasion by the tufted duck aythya fuligula into a pond area: implications of diffuse competition.during the 20th century the tufted duck (aythya fuligula) showed an expansion of its distribution to the west in europe. we present data for a small fish pond system in northern bavaria indicating that the tufted duck is not fully integrated in the already established communities. the possible mechanism producing this effect seems to be "diffuse competition" by a set of species, which forms a densely packed guild.198328310264
waterbird counts on large water bodies: comparing ground and aerial methods during different ice conditions.the aerial and ground methods of counting birds in a coastal area during different ice conditions were compared. ice coverage of water was an important factor affecting the results of the two methods. when the water was ice-free, more birds were counted from the ground, whereas during ice conditions, higher numbers were obtained from the air. the first group of waterbirds with the smallest difference between the two methods (average 6%) contained seven species: mute swan cygnus olor, whooper swa ...201830038859
morphological and ecological characteristic of dicranotaenia stenosacculata macko, 1988 (cestoda, hymenolepididae) recorded in polandduring the parasitological examination of 288 wild ducks from north-western poland, 18 tapeworms were found in the intestines (jejunum, ileum and rectum) of six birds, which, based on the structure of the scolex, internal organs and the presence of cirrus with an internal additional sac, were determinated as dicranotaenia stenosacculata macko, 1988. tapeworms were found in two young females bucephala clangula, one young femaleaythya marila as well as two adult males aythya fuligula. the aim of t ...201931599541
serological evidence of west nile virus in wild birds in bangladesh.west nile virus (wnv) is a vector-borne zoonotic disease maintained in a sylvatic cycle involving mosquito vectors and birds. to detect wnv and other flavivirus infections in wild resident and migratory birds, we tested 184 samples from 19 identified species within nine families collected during 2012-2016 from four districts in bangladesh. we tested serum samples for the immunoglobulin g (igg) antibody against wnv using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-elisa), whereas tracheal an ...202033126740
interleukin 12-containing influenza virus-like-particle vaccine elevate its protective activity against heterotypic influenza virus produce monovalent and bivalent influenza vaccines composed of virus-like particles (vlps) containing hemagglutinin (ha), we generated four recombinant baculoviruses derived from bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (bmnpv) and autographa california nuclear polyhedrosis virus (acnpv). monovalent fukushima (a/tufted duck/fukushima/16/2011 [h5n1]) (fkh5) and anhui (a/anhui/1/2013 [h7n9]) (anh7) vlp influenza vaccines were produced in silkworm pupae infected with fkh5-bmnpv or anh7-bmnpv. to p ...202032802975
deaths among wild birds during highly pathogenic avian influenza a(h5n8) virus outbreak, the netherlands.during autumn-winter 2016-2017, highly pathogenic avian influenza a(h5n8) viruses caused mass die-offs among wild birds in the netherlands. among the ≈13,600 birds reported dead, most were tufted ducks (aythya fuligula) and eurasian wigeons (anas penelope). recurrence of avian influenza outbreaks might alter wild bird population dynamics.201729148372
ducks change wintering patterns due to changing climate in the important wintering waters of the odra river estuary.some species of birds react to climate change by reducing the distance they travel during migration. the odra river estuary in the baltic sea is important for wintering waterfowl and is where we investigated how waterbirds respond to freezing surface waters. the most abundant birds here comprise two ecological groups: bottom-feeders and piscivores. numbers of all bottom-feeders, but not piscivores, were negatively correlated with the presence of ice. with ongoing global warming, this area is inc ...201728785517
high prevalence and putative lineage maintenance of avian coronaviruses in scandinavian waterfowl.coronaviruses (covs) are found in a wide variety of wild and domestic animals, and constitute a risk for zoonotic and emerging infectious disease. in poultry, the genetic diversity, evolution, distribution and taxonomy of some coronaviruses have been well described, but little is known about the features of covs in wild birds. in this study we screened 764 samples from 22 avian species of the orders anseriformes and charadriiformes in sweden collected in 2006/2007 for cov, with an overall cov pr ...201626938459
morphometrical and ecological analysis of nematodes of the family capillariidae (neveu-lemaire, 1936) in wild ducks (anatinae) from the north-western poland.west pomerania is located on the migratory route of many species of birds. among them are many representatives of wild duck species (subfamily anatinae), which are often the primary hosts of many helminths due to the fact of living in two different environments: terrestrial and aquatic. however, until the end of the 90s, research conducted in poland on the helminth fauna of wild birds, including nematodes of the family capillariidae, did not include the north-western region of the country. these ...201324791347
digenean communities in the tufted duck [aythya fuligula (l., 1758)] and greater scaup [a. marila (l., 1761)] wintering in the north-west of poland.a total of 124 specimens of the tufted duck, aythya fuligula, and 63 greater scaup, a. marila, were examined for digenean parasites. both duck species, which overwinter in a coastal lake connected with the southern baltic (north-west poland) were found to support amblosoma exile, cyathocotyle prussica, paracoenogonimus ovatus, australapatemon minor, cotylurus cornutus, echinoparyphium recurvatum, echinostoma revolutum and notocotylus attenuatus. in addition, the tufted duck hosted hypoderaeum co ...201322677200
[first record of microsomacanthus tuvensis spasskaya et spasskii, 1961 (cestoda, hymenolepididae) in poland].during standard parasitological studies of the tufted duck aythya fuligula, obtained from fishermen from west pomerania in december 2007, three cestode specimens were found in the jejunum of one male host. they were determinated as microsomacanthus tuvensis (spasskaya et spasskii, 1961) on the basis of the cirrus's and cirrus sac's size and vagina's shape. this is the first record of this species in poland.200920209817
bioaccumulation of polonium 210po in marine birds.the aim of this work was to determine the 210po content in marine birds which permanently or temporally live in the polish part of the baltic sea. we chose 11 species of sea birds: three species permanently residing at southern baltic sea, four species of wintering birds and three species of migrating birds. the results show that the polonium is non-uniformly distributed in the marine birds. the highest activities of 210po were observed in feathers, muscles and liver and the lowest in skin and s ...200717267081
bioaccumulation of lead, cadmium, and lindane in zebra mussels (dreissena polymorpha) and associated risk for bioconcentration in tufted duck (aythia fuligula). 200312945847
molecular basis of bird respiration: primary hemoglobin structure component from tufted duck (aythya fuligula, anseriformes)--role of alpha99arg in formation of a complex salt bridge network.the primary structure of the major hemoglobin component, hba (alpha(a)- and beta-chain), from tufted duck (aythya fuligula) is presented. the separation of the globin subunits was achieved by ion exchange chromatography on cm-cellulose in 8 m urea. the amino acid sequence was determined by automatic edman degradation of native chains as well as tryptic and hydrolytic peptides in a gas-phase sequencer. the automated homology model was generated by the protein structure modeling package what if us ...200211829480
surface morphology of basilar papilla of the tufted duck aythya fuligula, and domestic chicken gallus gallus domesticus.quantitative details of the surface morphology of the hearing organ, the papilla basilaris, as seen in the scanning electron microscope are described for the tufted duck aythya fuligula and for comparison for the domestic chicken gallus gallus domesticus, for which some published information is already available. as in the other avian species investigated to date, each papilla shows a unique constellation of features. the papilla of the tufted duck is 3.5 mm long in the unfixed state and contain ...19968568908
isolation of an hswl nav4 influenza virus from a tufted duck (aythya fuligula) in japan.a hemagglutinating agent was isolated from a tufted duck captured in lake shinji, shimane prefecture, japan, and identified as influenza a by double immunodiffusion tests with the antiserum to influenza a virus ribonucleoprotein. the hemagglutinin in the isolate was antigenically related to that of a/new jersey/8/76 but was not identical with it. the neuraminidase antigen of this hswl subtype was closely related to that of a/turkey/ontario/6118/68 and was shown to be nav4 subtype. after experime ...19816270508
intracerebral pathogenicity for chickens of avian influenza viruses isolated from free-living waterfowl in japan.the pathogenicity for chickens of 91 strains of avian influenza a virus isolated from such free-living waterfowl as whistling swan, pintail, tufted duck, mallard and black-tailed gull in japan was tested. the majority of the virus strains infected and were pathogenic for the chickens. the virulence of these viruses seemed not to be as high as that of fowl plague virus. there were no significant differences in the intracerebral index score among the viruses belonging to the same subtype, irrespec ...19883232319
the aerobic capacity of locomotory muscles in the tufted duck, aythya fuligula.the locomotory muscles of the tufted duck, aythya fuligula (l.), were analysed for mass, aerobic and anaerobic enzyme activities, fibre-type proportions, capillarity, mitochondrial and myoglobin content. the estimated aerobic capacity of the muscles correlated well with the muscles' maximal oxygen uptake both when measured during swimming and when predicted for steady-state flight. the results suggest that exercise performance in birds cannot be predicted purely on the basis of muscle mass (see ...19882967342
taxonomic structure of cestodofauna of two species of diving ducks aythya fuligula and a. marila (anseriformes: aythyini) in north-western polanddiving ducks aythyini delacour et mayr, 1945 are an interesting object of the parasitological studies because due to living in two environments (aquatic and terrestrial) and migrating over long distances, they can come into contact with many potential hosts for parasites. in the recent years, a decrease in the population of diving ducks has been observed, especially of the tufted duck and the scaup. both of them remain the most common species found in the region of west pomerania, so the present ...201932191824
pcb residues in the tissues of sea ducks wintering on the south coast of the baltic sea, poland.the baltic sea is known to be severely polluted by a range of chemicals, one group of which being pcbs. although the use and production of pcbs were limited or banned in many countries in the 1970s, their presence is still observed in the environment. the aim of this study was to evaluate pcbs concentration in four species of diving sea ducks, interspecies and tissues differences, and in the case of game species, comparison of the obtained results with maximal residue levels (mrls) and tolerable ...201930796664
meteorological factors affecting the risk of transmission of hpai in miyazaki, japan.highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) outbreaks engender a severe economic impact on the poultry industry and public health. migratory waterfowl are considered the natural hosts of hpai virus, and hpai viruses are known to be transmitted over long distances during seasonal bird migration. bird migration is greatly affected by the weather. many studies have shown the relationship between either autumn or spring bird migration and climate. however, few studies have shown the relationship betwee ...201931565229
association of wild bird densities around poultry farms with the risk of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype h5n8 outbreaks in the netherlands, 2016.highly pathogenic (hp) avian influenza viruses (aiv) can spread globally through migratory birds and cause massive outbreaks in commercial poultry. aiv outbreaks have been associated with proximity to waterbodies, presence of waterfowl or wild bird cases near poultry farms. in this study, we compared densities of selected hpai high-risk wild bird species around 7 locations (h farms) infected with hpaiv h5n8 in the netherlands in 2016-2017 to densities around 21 non-infected reference farms. nine ...202032419342
systemic collapse of a host-parasite trematode network associated with wetland birds in host community diversity decreases, parasite diversity may also decline. the life cycles of trematodes involve multiple hosts from different orders, with many trematodes displaying narrow host specialization. in the 1960s and 2010s, we performed full-body necropsies of juvenile or first-year birds of four wetland bird species, anas platyrhynchos, aythya fuligula, fulica atra, and chroicocephalus ridibundus which originated from the southern czech republic, and examined them for the presence o ...202032088756
bioserotypes, virulence markers, and antimicrobial susceptibility of yersinia enterocolitica strains isolated from free-living birds.the risk of meat contamination with yersinia enterocolitica poses a threat to consumers and persons who come into contact with bird carcasses. the occurrence of y. enterocolitica in the vast majority of migratory game species, the capercaillie, and the black grouse has never been studied in poland, europe, or in the world. the material for the study consisted of cloacal swabs obtained from 143 eurasian coots, 50 mallards, 30 pochards, 27 greylag geese, 22 white-fronted geese, 22 bean geese, 20 g ...202032258154
pathological and immunohistochemical findings of natural highly pathogenic avian influenza infection in tufted ducks during 2010-2011 outbreaks in the winter of 2010-2011, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (hpaiv) infection occurred in wild and domestic birds in japan. tufted ducks were found dead in an urban area of toyota city, koriyama, fukushima prefecture. two tufted ducks were examined histopathologically, immunohistochemically and molecularly. gross findings included marked dark-red clotted blood in the pectoral muscles and multifocal hemorrhages on the serous membranes. microscopically, non-suppurative menin ...201424881650
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