tick infestations of birds in coastal georgia and alabama.mist-netted birds were examined for ticks on jekyll island, glynn co., georgia (32 bird species) in 1996-1998, and at fort morgan, baldwin co., alabama (36 species) in 1998 during fall migration. sixty-two (14.7%) of 423 birds from jekyll island and 22 (13.3%) of 165 birds from fort morgan were infested with ticks. the mean number of ticks per infested bird was 2.0 on jekyll island and 6.3 at fort morgan. ten species of birds were infested with ticks on jekyl1 island where 87% of all ticks were ...200010780541
rodent ectoparasites from two locations in northwestern florida.from feb.-apr. 1999, 19 species of ectoparasitic arthropods (2 sucking lice, 4 fleas, 4 ticks, 2 mesostigmatid mites, 5 chiggers, 2 fur mites) were recovered from 106 rodents belonging to 5 species (cotton mouse, peromyscus gossypinus, n = 64; cotton rat, sigmodon hispidus, n = 23; eastern woodrat, neotoma floridana, n = 9; golden mouse, ochrotomys nuttalli, n = 9; eastern gray squirrel, sciurus carolinensis, n = 1) at tall timbers research station, leon county, florida. during the same period, ...200011217221
genetic heterogeneity of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the southern united states based on restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analysis.fifty-six strains of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, isolated from ticks and vertebrate animals in missouri, south carolina, georgia, florida, and texas, were identified and characterized by pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis of rrf (5s)-rrl (23s) intergenic spacer amplicons. a total of 241 to 258 bp of intergenic spacers between tandemly duplicated rrf (5s) and rrl (23s) was amplified by pcr. msei and drai restriction fragment polymorphisms were used to analyze these ...200111427560
host associations of ticks parasitizing rodents at borrelia burgdorferi enzootic sites in south carolina.a total of 237 rodents was collected in 4 regions of south carolina from july 1994 through december 1995. eight species were collected, including cotton mouse, hispid cotton rat, eastern woodrat, marsh rice rat, white-footed mouse, eastern harvest mouse, golden mouse, and black rat. of the 1,514 ticks recovered from these hosts, ixodes minor neumann, including larvae, nymphs, and adults, was the most abundant species, representing 54% of the total. only immature stages of other tick species were ...200111780825
an enzootic transmission cycle of lyme borreliosis spirochetes in the southeastern united states.lyme borreliosis, or lyme disease (ld), is a tick-borne zoonotic infection of biomedical significance, caused by borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) spirochetes and transmitted by ixodes species ticks. it usually circulates among wildlife vertebrate reservoirs and vector ticks but may infect humans, causing multisystem problems. in far western and northern north america, the host reservoirs, tick vectors, and genospecies of borrelia are well known but not so in the southern u.s., where there ...200314500917
confirmation of tick bite by detection of antibody to ixodes calreticulin salivary protein.ticks introduce a variety of pharmacologically active molecules into their host during attachment and feeding in order to obtain a blood meal. people who are repeatedly exposed to ticks may develop an immune response to tick salivary proteins. despite this response, people usually are unaware of having been bitten, especially if they are not repeatedly exposed to ticks. in order to develop a laboratory marker of tick exposure that would be useful in understanding the epidemiology of tick-borne i ...200616928887
delineation of a new species of the borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, borrelia americana sp. nov.analysis of borrelia isolates collected from ticks, birds, and rodents from the southeastern united states revealed the presence of well-established populations of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, borrelia bissettii, borrelia carolinensis, and borrelia sp. nov. multilocus sequence analysis of five genomic loci from seven samples representing borrelia sp. nov. isolated from nymphal ixodes minor collected in south carolina showed their close relatedness to california strains known as genomospec ...200919846628
ticks and rickettsiae from wildlife in belize, central america.the agents of spotted fevers in latin america are rickettsia rickettsii, r. parkeri, rickettsia sp. strain atlantic rainforest, and r. massiliae. in continental central america, r. rickettsii remains the only known pathogenic tick-borne rickettsia. in the present study, ticks were collected from wild mammals in natural areas of belize. besides providing new data of ticks from belize, we investigated rickettsial infection in some of these ticks. our results provide ticks harboring rickettsial age ...201626831147
genetic diversity of the outer surface protein c gene of southern borrelia isolates and its possible epidemiological, clinical, and pathogenetic implications.the ospc genes of 20 southern borrelia strains were sequenced. the strains consisted of b. burgdorferi sensu stricto, b. andersonii, b. bissettii, one undescribed genospecies, mi-8, and one probably new borrelia species, txw-1. a high degree of similarity exists between b. burgdorferi sensu stricto and b. bissettii and between b. bissettii and b. andersonii. lateral transfers of the ospc gene probably occurred between b. burgdorferi sensu stricto and b. bissettii and between b. bissettii and b. ...200212089279
detection of lyme borrelia in questing ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) and small mammals in louisiana.lyme borreliosis is caused by spirochetes from the borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species complex. in the united states, b. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.; johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt, and brenner) is the most common cause of human lyme borreliosis. with >25,000 cases reported annually, it is the most common vector-borne disease in the united states. although approximately 90% of cases are contained to the northeastern and great lake states, areas in canada and some southern states are ...201424605479
divergence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes could be driven by the host: diversity of borrelia strains isolated from ticks feeding on a single bird.the controversy surrounding the potential impact of birds in spirochete transmission dynamics and their capacity to serve as a reservoir has existed for a long time. the majority of analyzed bird species are able to infect larval ticks with borrelia. dispersal of infected ticks due to bird migration is a key to the establishment of new foci of lyme borreliosis. the dynamics of infection in birds supports the mixing of different species, the horizontal exchange of genetic information, and appeara ...201424383476
an ixodes minor and borrelia carolinensis enzootic cycle involving a critically endangered mojave desert rodent.microtus californicus scirpensis is an endangered, isolated subspecies of california vole. it requires water pools and riparian bulrush (schoenoplectus americanus) and occupies some of the rarest habitat of any north american mammal. the minimally vegetated, extremely arid desert surrounding the pools is essentially uninhabitable for ixodes species ticks. we describe an enzootic cycle of borrelia carolinensis in ixodes minor ticks at a site 3500 km distant from the region in which i. minor is kn ...201425035799
invasive potential of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto ospc type l strains increases the possible disease risk to humans in the regions of their distribution.analysis of borrelia burgdorferi ospc types from the southeastern u.s.a. supported the common belief that various ospc types are geographically restricted and host specific. being widely distributed in the region, the southeastern population of b. burgdorferi is represented by a surprisingly small number of ospc types. types b, g and h are dominant or common and are invasive, while scarce type l, restricted mostly to the southeastern u.s.a., is believed to rarely if ever cause human lyme disease ...201425430588
the western progression of lyme disease: infectious and nonclonal borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato populations in grand forks county, north dakota.scant attention has been paid to lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi, ixodes scapularis, or reservoirs in eastern north dakota despite the fact that it borders high-risk counties in minnesota. recent reports of b. burgdorferi and i. scapularis in north dakota, however, prompted a more detailed examination. spirochetes cultured from the hearts of five rodents trapped in grand forks county, nd, were identified as b. burgdorferi sensu lato through sequence analyses of the 16s rrna gene, the 16s rrna ...201425304515
single-tube real-time pcr assay for differentiation of ixodes affinis and ixodes scapularis.ixodes affinis neumann (1899) and ixodes scapularis say (1821) are tick vectors of the etiologic agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. ixodes affinis and i. scapularis are morphologically very similar, and as they are sympatric in the mid- and south-atlantic u.s. coastal states, their accurate identification is crucial to studies of disease and vector ecology in this area. this work describes a rapid, single-tube sybr(®) green-based real-time pcr assay for differentiation of ...201324192510
pathogen infection and exposure, and ectoparasites of the federally endangered amargosa vole (microtus californicus scirpensis), california, usa.abstract we surveyed pathogens and ectoparasites among federally endangered amargosa voles (microtus californicus scirpensis) and sympatric rodents in tecopa hot springs, inyo county, california, december 2011-november 2012. we aimed to assess disease and detect possible spillover from or connectivity with other hosts within and outside the amargosa ecosystem. we assessed 71 individual voles and 38 individual sympatric rodents for current infection with seven vector-borne zoonotic pathogens and ...201425121407
ectoparasite fauna of the eastern woodrat, neotoma floridana: composition, origin, and comparison with ectoparasite faunas of western woodrat species.we collected ectoparasites from eastern woodrats, neotoma floridana, from 3 sites in the southeastern united states: coastal south carolina, southeast georgia, and south-central georgia. twelve ectoparasite species were recovered from 47 woodrats in south carolina (5 ticks, 5 mites, 2 fleas), 13 from 35 woodrats in south-central georgia (1 tick, 10 mites, 2 fleas), and 4 from a small host sample (7) in southeast georgia (2 ticks, 1 mite, 1 flea). new state records are established for the listrop ...19979194815
ixodes venezuelensis, a new species of tick from venezuela, with notes on ixodes minor neumann, 1902 (acarina: ixodidae). 195313053315
ticks of south carolina (acari: ixodoidea).county and host records are reported for 19 species of ticks from south carolina: amblyomma americanum, amblyomma maculatum, amblyomma tuberculatum, aponomma latum, boophilus annulatus, boophilus microplus, dermacentor albipictus, dermacentor variablis, haemaphysalis leporispalustris, ixodes affinis, ixodes brunneus, ixodes cookei, ixodes marxi, ixodes minor, ixodes scapularis, ixodes texanus, ixodes woodi, rhipicephalus sanguineus, and ornithodoros capensis. ixodes woodi is recorded from south ...199910672552
ectoparasites collected from bobwhite quail in the southeastern united states.twenty-one species of ectoparasites representing 19 genera were collected from 481 bobwhite quail (colinus virginianus) from nine areas in four southeastern states. sixteen species, amblyomma americanum, haemaphysalis chordeilis, haemaphysalis leporispalustris, eutrombicula alfreddugesi alfreddugesi, neoschoengastia americana, boydaia colini, pterolichus sp., colinophilus wilsoni, megninia sp., apionacarus wilsoni, colinoptes cubanensis, menacanthus pricei, colinicola numidiana, gonoides ortygis ...19807463603
bacteria of the genus rickettsia in ticks (acari: ixodidae) collected from birds in costa rica.the aim of this study was to document the presence of rickettsia spp. in ticks parasitizing wild birds in costa rica. birds were trapped at seven locations in costa rica during 2004, 2009, and 2010; then visually examined for the presence of ticks. ticks were identified, and part of them was tested individually for the presence of rickettsia spp. by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using primers targeting fragments of the rickettsial genes glta and ompa. pcr products were dna-sequenced and analyz ...201525869035
nested coevolutionary networks shape the ecological relationships of ticks, hosts, and the lyme disease bacteria of the borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.) complex.the bacteria of the borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.) (bbg) complex constitute a group of tick-transmitted pathogens that are linked to many vertebrate and tick species. the ecological relationships between the pathogens, the ticks and the vertebrate carriers have not been analysed. the aim of this study was to quantitatively analyse these interactions by creating a network based on a large dataset of associations. specifically, we examined the relative positions of partners in the network, the phylog ...201627662832
borrelia carolinensis sp. nov., a novel species of the borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex isolated from rodents and a tick from the south-eastern usa.a group of 16 isolates with genotypic characteristics different from those of known species of the borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex were cultured from ear biopsies of the rodents peromyscus gossypinus and neotoma floridana trapped at five localities in south carolina, usa, and from the tick ixodes minor feeding on n. floridana. multilocus sequence analysis of members of the novel species, involving the 16s rrna gene, the 5s-23s (rrf-rrl) intergenic spacer region and the flagellin, ospa an ...201120305062
borrelia carolinensis sp. nov., a new (14th) member of the borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex from the southeastern region of the united states.approximately 118 borrelia isolates were cultured from a variety of rodents, birds, and ticks collected in the southern united states. in addition to a highly diverse group of borrelia bissettii strains and a homogenous group of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strains, a group of 16 isolates with unusual characteristics was found. the isolates were cultured from ear biopsy samples of the rodents peromyscus gossypinus and neotoma floridana trapped at five localities in south carolina. a multil ...200919020062
molecular identification and analysis of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in lizards in the southeastern united states.lyme borreliosis (lb) group spirochetes, collectively known as borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, are distributed worldwide. wild rodents are acknowledged as the most important reservoir hosts. ixodes scapularis is the primary vector of b. burgdorferi sensu lato in the eastern united states, and in the southeastern united states, the larvae and nymphs mostly parasitize certain species of lizards. the primary aim of the present study was to determine whether wild lizards in the southeastern united ...200515870353
ectoparasites and other epifaunistic arthropods of sympatric cotton mice and golden mice: comparisons and implications for vector-borne zoonotic diseases.ectoparasite and epifaunistic arthropod biodiversity and infestation parameters were compared between 2 sympatric small rodent species, the cotton mouse (peromyscus gossypinus (le conte)) and golden mouse (ochrotomys nuttalli (harlan)), in southern georgia from 1992 to 2003. because the cotton mouse is known to be a reservoir of more vector-borne zoonotic pathogens than the golden mouse, we hypothesized that it would be parasitized by more ectoparasites that are known to be vectors of these path ...200415715219
ticks (acari: ixodidae) and spirochetes (spirochaetaceae: spirochaetales) recovered from birds on a georgia barrier island.from september 1997 through july 1999, 300 individuals and 46 species of birds were mist-netted and screened for ticks and spirochetes on st. catherine's island, liberty county, ga. seventy-six (25%) of the birds were parasitized by a meal intensity of 4.6 ticks. seasonally, more birds were infested with ticks during the summer (50% in 1998, 34% in 1999) than in spring (15% in 1998, 11% in 1999) or fall (21% in 1997, 20% in 1998), mainly because of severe infestations on some birds by immature s ...200111296828
life cycle of ixodes minor (acari: ixodidae) in the laboratory.details of the laboratory life cycle of 3 generations of ixodes minor neumann were recorded. larvae and nymphs were fed on white laboratory mice and adults were fed on woodrats. nymphs fed for 4 d and larvae for an average of 4 d; approximately 10 to 11 d were required for females to engorge. after feeding, females laid approximately 1,600 eggs that required an average of 39.7 d to hatch. eggs were maintained at 97.5% rh and approximately 25 degrees c as were all stages of the ticks when not fee ...19989701934
distribution, abundance, and seasonal activities of ticks collected from rodents and vegetation in south carolina.ixodid ticks were collected from live-trapped rodents and by flagging vegetation at sites in the piedmont, sandhills, coastal plain, and coastal zone of south carolina from may 1994 through december 1995. a total of 1,514 ticks was recovered from 237 live-trapped rodents. host-attached species included ixodes minor neumann (n = 818), dermacentor variabilis (say) (n = 346), amblyomma maculatum koch (n = 209), ixodes affinis neumann (n = 89), and ixodes scapularis say (n = 52). species of questing ...19989673934
first report of ixodes (ixodes) minor neumann (acari: ixodidae) from south carolina.previous reports from the literature have indicated the northernmost range of extension of ixodes minor neumann to be southern georgia with the greatest number of collections having been made in the coastal regions of that state. an unpublished record in the u.s. national tick collection indicated that i. minor had been collected as far north as south island, georgetown county, s.c., as early as 1933. i. minor was collected on three separate occasions in charleston county, s.c., between october ...19921495043
ectoparasites of microtus californicus and possible emergence of an exotic ixodes species tick in california.california voles (microtus californicus peale) harbor fleas and ticks, may be infected with vector-borne pathogens, and could themselves suffer from disease and serve as a source of infection for people and other animals. here we summarize publications, museum archives, and recent records of ticks and fleas from california voles. there have been 18 flea species reported on california voles with geographic locations reported for 13. during recent statewide surveys, we found six flea species, with ...201526336217
molecular genetic key for the identification of 17 ixodes species of the united states (acari:ixodidae): a methods model.a taxonomic key, based on restriction enzyme analysis of the second internal-transcribed spacer (its-2) in the nuclear ribosomal dna gene, was developed for identification of 17 ixodes tick species in the united states. this key includes: ixodes affinis neumann, ixodes angustus neumann, ixodes baergi cooley and kohls, ixodes brunneus koch, ixodes cookei packard, ixodes dentatus marx, ixodes jellisoni cooley and kohls, ixodes kingi bishopp, ixodes minor neumann, ixodes muris bishopp and smith, ix ...199910461941
ticks, lyme disease spirochetes, trypanosomes, and antibody to encephalitis viruses in wild birds from coastal georgia and south carolina.ticks and blood samples were collected from wild birds mist-netted on st. catherine's island, georgia, and at the wedge plantation in coastal south carolina in 1994 and 1995. immature stages of 5 species of ixodid ticks were recovered from 10 of 148 (7%) birds belonging to 6 species in georgia, whereas 6 ixodid species were recovered from 45 of 259 (17%) birds representing 10 avian species in south carolina. borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was isolated from 27 of 120 (23%) screened ticks (ixodes ...19979406799
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