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infestation of sheep dung by nematophagous fungi and implications for the control of free-living stages of gastro-intestinal nematodes.a field trial was conducted to assess the rate at which dung becomes infested by fungi which parasitise nematodes (nematophagous fungi) after deposition. sheep dung was placed on field plots of bare ground, ryegrass (lolium perenne), browntop (agrostis capillaris) and white clover (trifolium repens) in summer (february) and autumn (april), and subsamples were examined at intervals for the presence of nematophagous fungi. nematophagous fungi occurred in 71% of 129 samples recovered in february an ...19979211650
agrobacterium-mediated transformation of herbicide resistance in creeping bentgrass and colonial bentgrass.embryogenic calli were induced from the seeds of creeping bentgrass (agrostis palustris huds.) cv. regent and colonial bentgrass (agrostis tenuis sibth. fl. oxen.) cv. tiger. the embryogenic calli were precultured on fresh medium for 4-7 days and then co-cultivated with agrobacterium tumefaciens, lba4404, which contains plasmid vector-psbgm harboring bar coding region, synthetic green fluorescent protein (sgfp) coding region and matrix attachment region (mar). after 3 days of co-cultivation, the ...200312765291
impact of lime, nitrogen and plant species on bacterial community structure in grassland microcosms.a microcosm-based approach was used to study impacts of plant and chemical factors on the bacterial community structure of an upland acidic grassland soil. seven perennial plant species typical of both natural, unimproved (nardus stricta, agrostis capillaris, festuca ovina and f. rubra) and fertilized, improved (holcus lanatus, lolium perenne and trifolium repens) grasslands were either left unamended or treated with lime, nitrogen, or lime plus nitrogen in a 75-day glasshouse experiment. lime a ...200415344932
evaluation of cyclonic ash, commercial na-silicates, lime and phosphoric acid for metal immobilisation purposes in contaminated soils in flanders (belgium).in order to reduce the health risks associated with historically enriched metal smelting sites in flanders (belgium), the capacities of a non-beringite cyclonic ash and commercial na-silicates to fix metals and create conditions to restore vegetation cover were evaluated and compared to lime and h(3)po(4). all tested amendments reduced ca(no(3))(2)-extractable soil metal concentrations and reduced metal uptake in agrostis capillaris seedlings. sodium released by na-silicates was possibly toxic t ...200616507330
digestible energy content of pasture species in growing european wild boar (sus scrofa l.).the objectives were to determine the apparent energy digestibility of six pasture species frequently grazed by european wild boar (sus scrofa l.) and to estimate the digestible energy (de) consumption from pasture by grazing wild boar. seven diets were prepared; a base diet (bd) which did not contain any pasture species, diets d1 to d5 which included 75% of the bd and 25% of the dried pasture species lolium perenne (d1), festuca arundinacea (d2), agrostis capillaris (d3), bromus staminius (d4) o ...201121575078
an evaluation of the use of individual grass species in retaining polluted soil and dust particulates in vegetated sustainable drainage devices.a sustainable means of preventing polluted particulates carried in urban storm water entering rivers, groundwater and lakes is by employing vegetated sustainable drainage system (suds) devices, or best management practices to trap or biodegrade them. in the uk, a mixture of grass species is recommended for use in devices such as swales or filter strips. however, there is little evidence in support of the efficiency of the individual grasses or mixtures to deal with such contaminated material. a ...201626753553
copper stress-induced changes in leaf soluble proteome of cu-sensitive and tolerant agrostis capillaris l. populations.changes in leaf soluble proteome were explored in 3-month-old plants of metallicolous (m) and nonmetallicolous (nm) agrostis capillaris l. populations exposed to increasing cu concentrations (1-50 μm) to investigate molecular mechanisms underlying plant responses to cu excess and tolerance of m plants. plants were cultivated on perlite (cuso4 spiked-nutrient solution). soluble proteins, extracted by the trichloroacetic acid/acetone procedure, were separated with 2-de (linear 4-7 ph gradient). an ...201626900021
long-term changes of metal contents in two metallophyte species (olkusz area of zn-pb ores, poland).the authors present the changes of the as, cd, fe, mn, pb and zn contents in two plant-considered metallophytes: common bent agrostis capillaris (blades) and birch betula pendula (leaves and seeds), recorded in a zn-pb industrial region of olkusz (poland) in 1994 and 2014. the highest amounts of cd (12 ppm) and zn (2524 ppm) in the common bent occur in the vicinity of the mining and metallurgical works 'bolesław' in bukowno. however, these values are significantly lower than those in 1994: cd by ...201627165603
chlorophyll loss associated with heat-induced senescence in bentgrass.heat stress-induced leaf senescence is characterized by the loss of chlorophyll from leaf tissues. the objectives of this study were to examine genetic variations in the level of heat-induced leaf senescence in hybrids of colonial (agrostis capillaris)×creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera) contrasting in heat tolerance, and determine whether loss of leaf chlorophyll during heat-induced leaf senescence was due to suppressed chlorophyll synthesis and/or accelerated chlorophyll degradation in t ...201627297985
responses of poa annua and three bentgrass species (agrostis spp.) to adult and larval feeding of annual bluegrass weevil, listronotus maculicollis (coleoptera: curculionidae).the annual bluegrass weevil (abw), listronotus maculicollis kirby, is an economically important pest of short-cut turfgrass in eastern north america. wide spread insecticide resistance warrants the development of alternative management strategies for this pest. abw damage typically occurs in areas with a high percentage of annual bluegrass, poa annua l., the preferred abw host. damage to bentgrasses, agrostis spp., is much rarer and usually less severe. to aid the implementation of host plant re ...201627353253
aided phytostabilisation reduces metal toxicity, improves soil fertility and enhances microbial activity in cu-rich mine tailings.(aided) phytostabilisation has been proposed as a suitable technique to decrease the environmental risks associated with metal(loid)-enriched mine tailings. field scale evaluations are needed for demonstrating their effectiveness in the medium- to long-term. a field trial was implemented in spring 2011 in cu-rich mine tailings in the nw of spain. the tailings were amended with composted municipal solid wastes and planted with salix spp., populus nigra l. or agrostis capillaris l. cv. highland. p ...201727817970
candidate genes and molecular markers associated with heat tolerance in colonial bentgrass.elevated temperature is a major abiotic stress limiting the growth of cool-season grasses during the summer months. the objectives of this study were to determine the genetic variation in the expression patterns of selected genes involved in several major metabolic pathways regulating heat tolerance for two genotypes contrasting in heat tolerance to confirm their status as potential candidate genes, and to identify pcr-based markers associated with candidate genes related to heat tolerance in a ...201728187136
selecting plants and nitrogen rates to vegetate crude-oil-contaminated soil.phytoremediation can be effective for remediating contaminated soils in situ and generally requires the addition of nitrogen (n) to increase plant growth. our research objectives were to evaluate seedling emergence and survival of plant species and to determine the effects of n additions on plant growth in crude-oil-contaminated soil. from a preliminary survival study, three warm-season grasses--pearlmillet (pennisetum glaucum [l.] r. br.), sudangrass (sorghum sudanense [piper] stapf [piper]), a ...200617305303
analysis of est sequences suggests recent origin of allotetraploid colonial and creeping bentgrasses.advances in plant genomics have permitted the analysis of several members of the grass family, including the major domesticated species, and provided new insights into the evolution of the major crops on earth. two members, colonial bentgrass (agrostis capillaris l.) and creeping bentgrass (a. stolonifera l.) have only recently been domesticated and provide an interesting case of polyploidy and comparison to crops that have undergone human selection for thousands of years. as an initial step of ...200717497174
amino acids as a nitrogen source in temperate upland grasslands: the use of dual labelled ((13)c, (15)n) glycine to test for direct uptake by dominant grasses.it is becoming increasingly apparent that soil amino acids are a principal source of nitrogen (n) for certain plants, and especially those of n-limited environments. this study of temperate upland grasslands used glycine-2-(13)c-(15)n and ((15)nh4)(2)so(4) labelling techniques to test the hypothesis that plant species which dominate 'unimproved' semi-natural grasslands (festuca-agrostis-galium) are able to utilise amino acid n for growth, whereas those plants which dominate 'improved' grasslands ...200010920354
endophytic bacteria take the challenge to improve cu phytoextraction by sunflower.endophytic bacteria from roots and crude seed extracts of a cu-tolerant population of agrostis capillaris were inoculated to a sunflower metal-tolerant mutant line, and their influence on cu tolerance and phytoextraction was assessed using a cu-contaminated soil series. ten endophytic bacterial strains isolated from surface-sterilized a. capillaris roots were mixed to prepare the root endophyte inoculant (re). in parallel, surface-sterilized seeds of a. capillaris were crushed in mgso4 to prepar ...201525561255
long-term persistence of seeded grass species: an unwanted side effect of ecological restoration.spoil heaps are the visible footprint of hydropower production, particularly in vulnerable alpine environments. speeding up vegetation development by seeding commercial grass species has been a common restoration practice for the last 50 years, but we lack information on whether seeded species decline and allow native plant cover to develop. we visually estimated cover of native vascular plants and five seeded grass species (agrostis capillaris, festuca ovina, festuca rubra, schedonorus pratensi ...201625687605
the effect of nitrogen and glyphosate on survival and colonisation of perennial grass species in an agro-ecosystem: does the relative importance of survival decrease with competitive ability?the ecological success of a plant species is typically described by the observed change in plant abundance or cover, but in order to more fully understand the fundamental plant ecological processes, it is necessary to inspect the underlying processes of survival and colonization and how they are affected by environmental conditions. a general ecological hypothesis on the effect of environmental gradients on demographic parameters is proposed and tested. the hypothesis is that decreasing fitness ...201323593371
physiological impacts of soil pollution and arsenic uptake in three plant species: agrostis capillaris, solanum nigrum and vicia faba.in order to revegetate an industrial soil polluted by trace metals and metalloids (as, pb, cu, cd, sb), the impact of pollution on three plant species, solanum nigrum and agrostis capillaris, both native species in an industrial site, and vicia faba, a plant model species, is studied. following the study of soil pollution from the industrial wasteland of auzon, it appears that the as is the principal pollutant. particular attention is given to this metalloid, both in its content and its speciati ...201323321366
seasonal abundance and phenology of oebalus pugnax (hemiptera: pentatomidae) on graminaceous hosts in the delta region of mississippi.the rice stink bug, oebalus pugnax (f.), is a graminaceous feeder, and the most injurious insect pest of heading rice, oryza sativa l., in the united states. rice growers are aware of the economic importance of host grasses in o. pugnax abundance. however, the need for increased knowledge of host sequence relative to o. pugnax abundance is vital. densities of o. pugnax on 15 graminaceous hosts were evaluated in the central mississippi delta from april through august in 2011 and 2012. two cultiva ...201526314038
pb pollution in soils from a trap shooting range and the phytoremediation ability of agrostis capillaris l.pb pollution caused by shooting sport activities is a serious environmental problem that has increased considerably in recent decades. the aims of this study were firstly to analyze pb pollution in soils from a trap shooting range abandoned in 1999, secondly to study the effectiveness of different extractants [cacl2, dtpa, nh4oac, low molecular weight organic acids (lmwoa), and bidistilled water (bdw)] in order to determine pb bioavailability in these soils, and finally to evaluate the phytoreme ...201626358215
the herbaceous landlord: integrating the effects of symbiont consortia within a single host.plants are typically infected by a consortium of internal fungal associates, including endophytes in their leaves, as well as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (amf) and dark septate endophytes (dse) in their roots. it is logical that these organisms will interact with each other and the abiotic environment in addition to their host, but there has been little work to date examining the interactions of multiple symbionts within single plant hosts, or how the relationships among symbionts and their hos ...201526557442
phosphate addition and plant species alters microbial community structure in acidic upland grassland soil.agricultural improvement (addition of fertilizers, liming) of seminatural acidic grasslands across ireland and the uk has resulted in significant shifts in floristic composition, soil chemistry, and microbial community structure. although several factors have been proposed as responsible for driving shifts in microbial communities, the exact causes of such changes are not well defined. phosphate was added to grassland microcosms to investigate the effect on fungal and bacterial communities. plan ...200918581037
field-scale study of the influence of differing remediation strategies on trace metal geochemistry in metal mine tailings from the irish midlands.mine tailings represent a globally significant source of potentially harmful elements (phes) to the environment. the management of large volumes of mine tailings represents a major challenge to the mining industry and environmental managers. this field-scale study evaluates the impact of two highly contrasting remediation approaches to the management and stabilisation of mine tailings. the geochemistry of the tailings, overlying amendment layers and vegetation are examined in the light of the di ...201626578371
impact of biochar and root-induced changes on metal dynamics in the rhizosphere of agrostis capillaris and lupinus albus.rhizosphere interactions are deemed to play a key role in the success of phytoremediation technologies. here, the effects of biochar and root-induced changes in the rhizosphere of agrostis capillaris l. and lupinus albus l. on metal (cd, pb and zn) dynamics were investigated using a biotest on a 2mm soil layer and a sequential extraction procedure (tessier's scheme). in the bulk soil, the application of 5% biochar significantly reduced the exchangeable pool of metals primarily due to a liming ef ...201525559173
the effect of glyphosate on the growth and competitive effect of perennial grass species in semi-natural grasslands.biodiversity within european semi-natural biotopes in agro-ecosystem is declining, and herbicide drift from neighbouring fields is considered as an important factor for the decline. the aim of the present study was to investigate whether the growth and competitive interactions in a model system of two perennial grass species, festuca ovina and agrostis capillaris, are affected by sub-lethal doses of glyphosate in field margins. in a glasshouse experiment with ample nitrogen, the interspecific co ...201425310805
impact of root-induced mobilization of zinc on stable zn isotope variation in the soil-plant system.stable zn isotopes are increasingly used to trace the source of metal pollution in the environment and to gain a better understanding of the biogeochemical cycle of zn. in this work, we investigated the effect of plants on zn isotope fractionation in the soil-plant system of the surface horizon of two zn-rich technosols (ph 6.73-7.51, total zn concentration = 9470-56600 mg kg(-1)). in a column experiment, the presence of agrostis capillaris l. significantly increased the mobilization of zn from ...201424955480
the effect of long-term cd and ni exposure on seed endophytes of agrostis capillaris and their potential application in phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soils.we examined whether long-term cd exposure leads to beneficial changes in the cultivable endophytic bacteria present in the seeds of agrostis capillaris. therefore the cultivable seed endophytes of agrostis capillaris growing on a long-term cd/ni-contaminated plot (cd/ni seeds) were compared with those originating from a non-contaminated plot (control seeds). we observed plant- and contaminant-dependent effects on the population composition between control and cd/ni seeds. also differences in phe ...201424933875
differential accumulation of soluble proteins in roots of metallicolous and nonmetallicolous populations of agrostis capillaris l. exposed to cu.differential expression of soluble proteins was explored in roots of metallicolous (m) and non-m (nm) plants of agrostis capillaris l. exposed to increasing cu to partially identify molecular mechanisms underlying higher cu tolerance in m plants. plants were cultivated for 2 months on perlite with a cuso4 (1-30 μm) spiked-nutrient solution. soluble proteins extracted by the trichloroacetic acid/acetone procedure were separated with 2de (linear 4-7 ph gradient). after coomassie blue staining and ...201424842164
conditioning sulfidic mine waste for growth of agrostis capillaris--impact on solution chemistry.contamination of the environment due to mining and mineral processing is an urgent problem worldwide. it is often desirable to establish a grass cover on old mine waste since it significantly decreases the production of leachates. to obtain sustainable growth, it is often necessary to improve several properties of the waste such as water-holding capacity, nutrient status, and toxicity. this can be done by addition of organic materials such as wood residues, e.g., compost. in this study, we focus ...201424519747
coupled pot and lysimeter experiments assessing plant performance in microbially assisted phytoremediation.we performed an experiment at pot scale to assess the effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria (pgpb) on the development of five plant species grown on a tailing dam substrate. none of the species even germinated on inoculated unamended tailing material, prompting use of compost amendment. the effect of inoculation on the amended material was to increase soil respiration, and promote elements immobilisation at plant root surface. this was associated with a decrease in the concentrations of elem ...201424407790
Soil microorganisms alleviate the allelochemical effects of a thyme monoterpene on the performance of an associated grass species.Plant allelochemicals released into the soil can significantly impact the performance of associated plant species thereby affecting their competitive ability. Soil microbes can potentially affect the interaction between plant and plant chemicals by degrading the allelochemicals. However, most often plant-plant chemical interactions are studied using filter paper bioassays examining the pair-wise interaction between a plant and a plant chemical, not taking into account the potential role of soil ...201122125596
[seed dispersal efficiency of forest herbaceous plant species by the ant myrmica ruginodis].we compared the ability of 33 plant species collected in forest to have their seeds dispersed by the wood red ant myrmica ruginodis. the elaiosome-bearing seeds (species chelidonium majus, colchicum autumnale, luzula forsteri, viola reichenbachiana, luzula multiflora, melica uniflora) and the small and light caryopses of the grasses (holcus mollis, agrostis capillaris, deschampsia flexuosa, poa trivialis, holcus lanatus) are the most efficiently collected by ants. the seed quantity removed by an ...200818355754
co-existing grass species have distinctive arbuscular mycorrhizal communities.arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungi are biotrophic symbionts colonizing the majority of land plants, and are of major importance in plant nutrient supply. their diversity is suggested to be an important determinant of plant community structure, but the influence of host-plant and environmental factors on am fungal community in plant roots is poorly documented. using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-rflp) strategy, the diversity of am fungi was assessed in 89 roots of three ...200314629388
the development of trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae on a range of herbage species or on plots of differing topographical aspect.five "contaminations", where faeces containing trichostrongylus colubriformis eggs were deposited on pasture and serially recovered, were used to compare the rate of decline of faecal mass and larval development. in the first three contaminations, faeces from a common source were deposited on swards of browntop (agrostis capillaris cv grasslands muster), ryegrass (lolium perenne cv grassland nui), white clover (trifolium pratense cv grassland tahora), or onto bare ground in the late spring, summ ...200312591198
the effect of pasture species on parasitism and performance of lambs grazing one of three grass-white clover pasture swards.lamb parasitism and performance were compared on three pasture treatments: browntop/white clover, yorkshire fog/white clover, and ryegrass/white clover swards maintained at a sward height of 5cm in each of two years by using continuous variable stocking management. in year 1, lamb performance (both suppressively drenched (sd) and trigger drenched (td)) was similar on ryegrass and browntop swards but was poorer (p<0.05) on yorkshire fog swards. in year 2, lamb performance (both sd and td) was mar ...200211983305
effect of plant species on the larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes which parasitise sheep.faeces containing trichostrongylus colubriformis and/or ostertagia circumcincta eggs were used to provide four contaminations in each of 2 years on plots of browntop, yorkshire fog, ryegrass, tall fescue, lucerne, chicory, cocksfoot, white clover, and prairie grass and in the second year a mixed sward of ryegrass/white clover. third stage larvae were recovered from faeces and from four strata of herbage, 0-2.5, 2.5-5, 5-7.5 and > 7.5 cm above the soil surface at 2, 4, 6, 8, 11, and 14 weeks afte ...19989650060
nitrogen fixation associated with grasses in oregon.nitrogen fixation associated with both natural grasslands and grain crops of oregon was studied using the acetylene-reduction assay. a number of the grasses collected has some acetylene-reducing activity. agrostis tenuis sibth. had substantially greater activity than any of the other species, with a mean rate estimated at 37 g n2 fixed per hectare per day. assuming 100 days of activity, about 3 kg of n2 would be fixed per hectare per year. this quantity of nitrogen may be important in the mainte ...19761260544
effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on agrostis capillaris grown on amended mine tailing substrate at pot, lysimeter, and field plot scales.applied research programs in the remediation of contaminated areas can be used also for gaining insights in the physiological and ecological mechanisms supporting the resistance of plant communities in stress conditions due to toxic elements. the research hypothesis of this study was that in the heavily contaminated but nutrient-poor substrate of mine tailing dams, the beneficial effect of inoculation with arbuscular mychorrizal fungi (amf) is due to an improvement of phosphorus nutrition rather ...201423821250
soil fertilization leads to a decline in between-samples variability of microbial community δ13c profiles in a grassland fertilization experiment.gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (gc-c-irms) was used to measure the (13)c/(12)c ratios of plfas at natural abundance levels from a temperate grassland nitrogen (n) and phosphorus (p) factorial fertilization experiment in northern greece. in each plot two rhizosphere samples were derived centred around individual agrostis capillaris and prunella vulgaris plants. it was hypothesized that the isotopic signal of microbes that preferentially feed on recalcitrant litter s ...201222962602
seed bank of cu-contaminated topsoils at a wood preservation site: impacts of copper and compost on seed germination.is identification of seed bank (sb) species useful for sustainable management of vegetation restoration on cu-contaminated soils? how does cu contamination of the soil affect the sb and can incorporating compost into cu-contaminated soils counter the effects of cu? the topsoil sb was investigated at seven contaminated sub-sites of a wood preservation site. the germination parameters of the seeds were recorded using three substrates: a washed river sand (sand), the same sand spiked with cuso(4) t ...201322648020
the impact of nitrogen deposition on acid grasslands in the atlantic region of europe.a survey of 153 acid grasslands from the atlantic biogeographic region of europe indicates that chronic nitrogen deposition is changing plant species composition and soil and plant-tissue chemistry. across the deposition gradient (2-44 kg n ha(-1) yr(-1)) grass richness as a proportion of total species richness increased whereas forb richness decreased. soil c:n ratio increased, but soil extractable nitrate and ammonium concentrations did not show any relationship with nitrogen deposition. the a ...201121163563
genetic diversity in colonial bentgrass (agrostis capillaris l.) revealed by ecori-msei and psti-msei aflp markers.colonial bentgrass (agrostis capillaris l.) is a potential source for genetic improvement of resistance to environmental stress and disease for other bentgrass species (agrostis spp.). to conserve and study the existing genetic resources of colonial bentgrass for use in breeding, genetic diversity was investigated using amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) markers. included in this study were 22 accessions from us department of agriculture germplasm collected from 11 countries, in conju ...200616699552
host use of a hemiparasitic plant: no trade-offs in performance on different hosts.to examine putative specialization of a hemiparasitic plant to the most beneficial host species, we studied genetic variation in performance and trade-offs between performance on different host species in the generalist hemiparasite, rhinanthus serotinus. we grew 25 maternal half-sib families of the parasite on agrostis capillaris and trifolium pratense and without a host in a greenhouse. biomass and number of flowers of the parasite were the highest when grown on t. pratense. there were signifi ...200616599927
does interspecific competition alter effects of early season ozone exposure on plants from wet grasslands? results of a three-year experiment in open-top chambers.chronic effects of ozone on wet grassland species early in the growing season might be altered by interspecific competition. individual plants of holcus lanatus, lychnis flos-cuculi, molinia caerulea and plantago lanceolata were grown in monocultures and in mixed cultures with agrostis capillaris. mesocosms were exposed to charcoal-filtered air plus 25 nl l(-1) ozone (cf+25), non-filtered air (nf), non-filtered air plus 25 nl l(-1) ozone (nf+25) and non-filtered air plus 50 nl l(-1) ozone (nf+50 ...200415234087
the influence of season and leaf age on concentrations of radiocaesium (137cs), stable caesium (133cs) and potassium in agrostis capillaris.the transfer of radioactive caesium from soils to plants has been well researched. in contrast there is limited knowledge on natural stable 133cs and its potential role as a predictor for radiocaesium behaviour. in a pot experiment with agrostis capillaris close correlations were found between plant 137cs and plant 133cs concentrations (r2 90-96%). season and leaf age had significant effects with concentrations increasing 10-30-fold between june and december. simultaneously the plant concentrati ...200415182969
effect of plant growth on copper solubility and speciation in soil solution samples.the effect of plant growth on copper solubility and speciation was studied in a 10-week pot experiment. a copper-tolerant grass variety (agrostis capillaris l. var. parys mountain) was grown in pots that contained either clean (copper-total approx. 30 mg kg(-1)) or copper contaminated soil (copper-total approx. 170 mg kg(-1)) at two ph levels (4.7 and 5.5). also, similar pots without vegetation were included in the study. due to the addition of nh(4)no(3) fertilizer and subsequent nitrification ...199915093027
diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonising roots of the grass species agrostis capillaris and lolium perenne in a field experiment.analysis of arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungal diversity through morphological characters of spores and intraradicular hyphae has suggested previously that preferential associations occur between plants and am fungi. a field experiment was established to investigate whether am fungal diversity is affected by different host plants in upland grasslands. indigenous vegetation from plots in an unimproved pasture was replaced with monocultures of either agrostis capillaris or lolium perenne. modifica ...200412768382
arbuscular mycorrhizal community composition associated with two plant species in a grassland ecosystem.arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungi are biotrophic symbionts colonizing about two-thirds of land plant species and found in all ecosystems. they are of major importance in plant nutrient supply and their diversity is suggested to be an important determinant of plant community composition. the diversity of the am fungal community composition in the roots of two plant species (agrostis capillaris and trifolium repens) that co-occurred in the same grassland ecosystem was characterized using molecular ...200212144674
arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduce the differences in competitiveness between dominant and subordinate plant species.in grassland communities, plants can be classified as dominants or subordinates according to their relative abundances, but the factors controlling such distributions remain unclear. here, we test whether the presence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungus glomus intraradices affects the competitiveness of two dominant (taraxacum officinale and agrostis capillaris) and two subordinate species (prunella vulgaris and achillea millefolium). plants were grown in pots in the presence or absence of ...201323064770
impact of sheep urine deposition and plant species on ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in upland grassland soil.the effects of different concentrations of synthetic sheep urine and plant species on ammonia-oxidizing bacterial (aob) communities in an upland grassland soil were investigated using a microcosm approach. plant species characteristic of unimproved and improved agricultural pastures (agrostis capillaris and lolium perenne, respectively) were planted in soil microcosms, and different levels of synthetic sheep urine were applied, with harvests 10 and 50 days following urine application. shifts in ...200818772943
microbially assisted phytoremediation approaches for two multi-element contaminated sites.phytoremediation is an environmental friendly, cost-effective technology for a soft restoration of abandoned mine sites. the grasses agrostis capillaris, deschampsia flexuosa and festuca rubra, and the annual herb helianthus annuus were combined with microbial consortia in pot experiments on multi-metal polluted substrates collected at a former uranium mine near ronneburg, germany, and a historic copper mine in kopparberg, sweden, to test for phytoextraction versus phytostabilization abilities. ...201424081921
effect of sheep urine deposition on the bacterial community structure in an acidic upland grassland soil.the effect of the addition of synthetic sheep urine (ssu) and plant species on the bacterial community composition of upland acidic grasslands was studied using a microcosm approach. low, medium, and high concentrations of ssu were applied to pots containing plant species typical of both unimproved (agrostis capillaris) and agriculturally improved (lolium perenne) grasslands, and harvests were carried out 10 days and 50 days after the addition of ssu. ssu application significantly increased both ...200617088382
plant growth promotion by inoculation with selected bacterial strains versus mineral soil supplements.in the process of remediation of mine sites, the establishment of a vegetation cover is one of the most important tasks. this study tests two different approaches to manipulate soil properties in order to facilitate plant growth. mine waste from ingurtosu, sardinia, italy rich in silt, clay, and heavy metals like cd, cu, and zn was used in a series of greenhouse experiments. bacteria with putative beneficial properties for plant growth were isolated from this substrate, propagated and consortia ...201423990253
herbivory by canada geese: diet selection and effect on lawns.flocks of free-ranging canada geese (branta canadensis) often are considered nuisances when they graze on lawns because they litter the sites with fecal material, and their grazing often is perceived to be detrimental to the turf. i tested whether goose grazing had changed the composition of grass species at 20 sites in connecticut where geese were considered nuisances. at these sites kentucky bluegrass (poa pratensis) was less prevalent in areas grazed heavily by geese than in areas of the same ...199127755658
within-population variation in localized and integrated responses of trifolium repens to biotically patchy environments.genets of trifolium repens (white clover) were collected from three patches of old permanent pasture dominated by agrostis capillaris, holcus lanatus or lolium perenne. plants derived from the genets were grown with plants of one grass species present on one side of each t. repens, and a different grass species on the other side, in all combinations of two of the three grasses. different modules (a node with its associated internode, leaf, and axillary bud) on the same clover plant responded ind ...199128313200
the accumulation and assimilation of dimethylselenide by four plant species.plants of agrostis tenuis sibth., hordeum vulgare l., lycopersicon esculentum mill. and raphanus sativus l. were grown hydroponically in sealed systems and fumigated with 8 μg m(-3) [(75)se]-dimethylselenide. the accumulation of (75)se was measured and the shoot tissues were extracted to examine the products of the (75)se assimilation. characteristic differences were observed between species in the accumulation of (75)se and the transport from shoots to roots. high-voltage electrophoresis and ch ...198424258422
influence of soil temperature on the development of colonial bent grass. 194216653748
predicting the transfer of radiocaesium from organic soils to plants using soil characteristics.a model predicting plant uptake of radiocaesium based on soil characteristics is described. three soil parameters required to determine radiocaesium bioavailability in soils are estimated in the model: the labile caesium distribution coefficient (kd1), k+ concentration in the soil solution [mk] and the soil solution-->plant radiocaesium concentration factor (cf, bq kg-1 plant/bq dm-3). these were determined as functions of soil clay content, exchangeable k+ status, ph, nh4+ concentration and org ...200111202684
local adaptation, resistance, and virulence in a hemiparasitic plant-host plant interaction.coevolution may lead to local adaptation of parasites to their sympatric hosts. locally adapted parasites are, on average, more infectious to sympatric hosts than to allopatric hosts of the same species or their fitness on the sympatric hosts is superior to that on allopatric hosts. we tested local adaptation of a hemiparasitic plant, rhinanthus serotinus (scrophulariaceae), to its host plant, the grass agrostis capillaris. using a reciprocal cross-infection experiment, we exposed host plants fr ...200010937220
phytotoxins from the leaves of laggera decurrens.upon biological screening of a series of african medicinal plants, substantial phytotoxic activity was found in the leaves of laggera decurrens (vahl.) hepper & wood (asteraceae), using a lemna minor bioassay. bioassay-guided fractionation of the leaves led to the isolation of two physiologically active compounds: 3-hydroxythymoquinone and 5-acetoxy-2-hydroxythymol, causing death of lemna minor in the 25-100 microm range. symptoms were a rapidly developing chlorosis, followed by necrosis of fron ...199910552505
patterns of soil copper contamination and temporal changes in vegetation in the vicinity of a copper rod rolling factory.patterns of soil copper contamination have been examined in the vicinity of a copper rod rolling plant in prescot, merseyside, uk. the site, established in 1975, was found to possess clear patterns of soil copper contamination, with the highest levels of hno3 and water-extractable fractions encountered in the factory grounds adjacent to the location of the furnace chimney. the majority of the copper had accumulated in the upper soil horizons. the site is surrounded by planted lawns, established ...199715093451
the effect of mollusc grazing on seedling recruitment in artificially created grassland gaps.two experiments conducted in spring and autumn 1992 examined the effect of mollusc grazing on seedling regeneration from natural grassland seedbanks by creating artificial gaps in plots in a grassland sward. molluscs were excluded from half the gaps by application of molluscicide. mollusc grazing in both the spring and autumn experiment significantly reduced seedling recruitment, though the intensity of grazing was greatest in autumn. recruitment of five species was markedly influenced by mollus ...199628307649
effects of elevated co2 and nutrient supply on the seasonal growth and morphology of agrostis capillaris.responses to elevated co2 have been studied using an upland grass species, agrostis capillaris l. the plants were grown in sand culture with a range of n, p and k concentrations, in 'solardome' growth chambers with either ambient air or a co2 concentration of 250μmol co2 mol(-1) above ambient the interactive effects of high co2 and nutrient supply (in plant growth and morphology were monitored throughout the growing season. a. capillaris exhibited positive growth responses to enhanced co2 even a ...199626763636
effects of elevated co2 , nitrogen form and concentration on growth and photosynthesis of a fast- and slow-growing grass.growth and photosynthesis of agrostis capillaris l. and nardus stricta l. were measured for plants grown under ambient and elevated concentrations of co2 (340 and 550 μl co2 l(-1) respectively) and a range of nitrogen concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1 and 5 mg n l(-1) ) supplied as either ammonium sulphate or sodium nitrate. after 42 d of growth for a. capillaris and 49 d of growth for n. stricta, the higher nitrogen concentrations resulted in stimulation of growth. the form of nitrogen did not affec ...199626763635
reclamation of a bare industrial area contaminated by non-ferrous metals: physico-chemical and biological evaluation of the durability of soil treatment and revegetation.in 1990, 3 ha of a highly metal polluted acid sandy soil at the site of a former pyrometallurgical zinc smelter was treated with a combination of beringite and compost; beringite is a substance that has a strong metal immobilization capacity. after soil treatment and sowing of a mixture of metal-tolerant agrostis capillaris and festuca rubra, a healthy vegetation cover developed. five years later, an evaluation was made of soil physico-chemical parameters, potential phytotoxicity, floristic and ...199615093499
polarography as a tool in peptide and protein analysis: studies on metal-chelating substances induced by cadmium in the algae pheodactylum tricornutum and the graminae agrostis capillaris.methods to determine characteristics and quantities of metal-binding substances are needed in order to identify phytochemical systems for use in agriculture and waste treatment. a metal-binding polypeptide (phytochelatin) was prepared by liquid chromatography from the algae pheodactylum tricornutum and roots of the graminae agrostis capillaris after exposure to cadmium. polarographic (voltammetric) analysis indicated binding of cadmium by the polypeptide at different stabilities. no catalytic hy ...19958575359
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