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[note on the immunization trials of rabbits against tsetse flies, glossina fuscipes fuscipes (diptera: glossinidae)].immunisation of rabbits against tsetse flies was attempted by injecting homogenized intestines or crops of these flies (glossina fuscipes fuscipes) together with freund's complete or incomplete adjuvant. the effect of the inoculations was assessed by monitoring the mortality and reproductive performance of flies fed on these rabbits. the results show only a modest but statistically significant increase in mortality in the batches of flies fed on immunized rabbits as compared to controls.19902132793
effects of carbon dioxide anaesthetic on glossina.exposure of 2 day old virgin females of glossina fuscipes fuscipes, g. pallidipes, g. brevipalpis, and g. morsitans centralis to carbon dioxide anaesthesia for 15 sec has the effect of suppressing their subsequent insemination frequency. this insemination-inhibitory effect of the gas is more pronounced in g. f. fuscipes and g. pallidipes than in g. brevipalpis and g. m. centralis. in g.f. fuscipes the adverse effect on insemination persists, albeit to a lesser degree, at least up to 72 hr. carbo ...1975240260
first record of glossina fuscipes fuscipes newstead, 1910 and glossina morsitans submorsitans newstead, 1910 in southwestern saudi arabia.two species of tsetse flies, glossina fuscipes fuscipes and g. morsitans submorsitans, are, for the first time, recorded from southwestern saudi arabia, near gizan. this discovery is shortly discussed in relation with the presently known distribution of these species.19902291693
the hosts of glossina fuscipes fuscipes. 19883257080
trypanosome infection rates in glossina fuscipes fuscipes newst. in the busoga sleeping sickness focus, uganda. 19863789847
glossina fuscipes fuscipes and glossina palpalis palpalis as joint vectors of sleeping sickness in the focus of nola-bilolo in the central african republic. 19921354934
[distribution and importance of sites of glossina fuscipes fuscipes newstead 1910 in the agglomeration of bangui (central africal republic)].the authors review urban sites of glossina fuscipes fuscipes in the suburbs of bangui and propose a classification of these sites. among them, two isolated breeding sites are characterized by a high density of tsetse and a close man/fly contact. to prevent a possible reactivation of the historical sleeping sickness focus of bangui-bimbo, a tsetse control programme in these two sites is necessary.19921596962
sexual compatibility among trypanosoma brucei isolates from an epidemic area in southeastern uganda.for the first time, two clones of trypanosoma brucei from the same epidemic area in southeastern uganda were successfully crossed. the cotransmission experiments were as close to natural conditions as possible in that two uncloned isolates from wild-caught glossina fuscipes fuscipes were directly cotransmitted in an initial recombination experiment. from the first uncloned progeny population, which revealed a majority of recombinants, two clones with different parental phenotypes [characterized ...19957770432
description of a mono-screen trap for glossina fuscipes fuscipes newstead in uganda.a low-cost mono-screen trap for glossina fuscipes fuscipes suitable for use by a rural community in uganda is described. the trap has a single blue/black screen and a cone made from mosquito netting. the supporting framework is made from indigenous plant materials. the differences in trap catches between the mono-screen, biconical, pyramidal and vavoua traps were highly significant (p less than 0.001). taking the standard biconical trap as control, the mono-screen trap was 1.25 times as efficien ...19911746979
the complex epidemiology of rhodesian sleeping sickness in kenya and uganda. iii. the epidemiology in the endemic areas along the lake shore between the nile and the yala swamp.the endemic rhodesian sleeping sickness belt along the shore of lake victoria between the nile and the yala swamp consists of two ecologically different areas: the busoga belt and the samia belt. the busoga belt is a country of forest and forest relics, full of game, with a high density of glossina fuscipes fuscipes but also inhabited by g. pallidipes, and with a people encroaching on the northern border who pass the forest on their way to the lake to catch and buy fish, but who seldom penetrate ...19744439469
trials of olfactory attractants to enhance trap catches of glossina fuscipes fuscipes (diptera: glossinidae) in the central african republic.host odours increased the trap catches of glossina fuscipes fuscipes in cattle breeding areas of the central african republic. the increase was significant with zebu urine (x 1.4) and the principal reptilian host, the monitor lizard (x 1.7). the greatest effect (x 4.2) was obtained for male g f fuscipes with zebu urine when the densities of flies were low (less than 5 males per trap per day). it seems that olfactory baits in urine could improve the control of g f fuscipes by trapping. reptile od ...19957550405
[the hosts of glossina fuscipes fuscipes newstead, 1910 (diptera: glossinidae) in 2 animal breeding zones in the central african republic].from 1987 to 1993, a survey on the feeding behavior of glossina fuscipes fuscipes was conducted in the central african republic. a total of 556 blood-meal samples was analyzed by elisa. according to the results, the number of blood meals from cattle was rather low (12% on average). during the rainy season, this number increased significantly and varied according to the sampling area. along the riverine forests, this amounted to 5%, while blood meals from wild ruminants amounted to 87%. in the ne ...19948142953
the resting breeding sites of glossina fuscipes fuscipes. 19854076040
peridomestic breeding sites of glossina fuscipes fuscipes newst. in busoga, uganda, and epidemiological implications for trypanosomiasis.a search for glossina fuscipes fuscipes puparia near homesteads in the sleeping sickness focus of busoga revealed puparia and puparial shells under coffea canephora (coffee), musa sp. (banana) and lantana camara thickets as well as under house verandahs and, once, inside a hut. this is the first description of g.f. fuscipes breeding sites in a peridomestic habitat. the implications of these findings in relation to the transmission of the current epidemic of sleeping sickness in busoga is discuss ...19862877555
isoenzyme characterization of some trypanozoon stocks from a recent trypanosomiasis epidemic in uganda.the 1976-82 epidemic of human trypanosomiasis in south-east uganda affected new foci to the north of the old endemic area bordering lake victoria, and was associated with a different vector, glossina fuscipes fuscipes; isoenzyme studies revealed that the epidemic involved different strains of pathogenic trypanosomes also. 58 trypanozoon isolates from the epidemic area and from the adjoining endemic area of west central kenya were compared by thin-layer starch gel electrophoresis for 11 enzymes. ...19836679356
analysis of the mating scar pattern of glossina palpalis palpalis (rob.-desv.) and glossina fuscipes fuscipes newstead (diptera: glossinidae).an analysis was made of the mating scar pattern of female glossina palpalis palpalis robineau-desvoidy and glossina fuscipes fuscipes newstead. measurements on fifty permanent preparations of the mating scars of females reared in the laboratory revealed significant differences in the length, width and in the distance between the centers of the mating scars of the two species. plotting the distance between the centers of the two mating scars against the ratio width/length resulted in a 93% separa ...19958849301
detection of infections of trypanosoma grayi in glossina fuscipes fuscipes in the central african republic. 19968915133
isoenzyme comparison of trypanozoon isolates from two sleeping sickness areas of south-eastern uganda.the study characterized 151 trypanozoon isolates from south-east uganda by isoenzyme electrophoresis. stocks were from a range of hosts, including man, cattle, pigs, dogs and glossina fuscipes fuscipes: 104 isolates were from the busoga area, 47 were from the tororo district. stocks were characterized on thin layer starch gel using eight enzyme systems: alat, asat, icd, mdh, me, nhd, nhi, pgm. enzyme profiles were generally typical of east africa; new patterns for icd and me were detected. trypa ...19937903841
are stable flies (diptera: stomoxyinae) vectors of trypanosoma vivax in the central african republic?the epidemiology of trypanosoma vivax infections was studied at a riverside site in the ouro-djafoun livestock area situated in the central african republic during the period between july 1991 and july 1992. this paper examines the possibility that stable flies (diptera: stomoxyinae) were also vectors of this trypanosome species in a non-cyclic way. previous studies have revealed that the usual cyclic transmission by the tsetse fly glossina fuscipes fuscipes was probably not the only transmissio ...19968721295
hosts of glossina fuscipes fuscipes and g. pallidipes in areas of western kenya with endemic sleeping sickness, as determined using an egg-yolk (igy) elisa.bloodmeal sources of glossina fuscipes fuscipes and g. pallidipes, from the western kenyan foci of human african trypanosomiasis (hat) on mageta island and in busia district, were identified using an elisa based on chicken egg-yolk (igy) antibodies. after absorption with cross-reacting antigens, the antibodies, which were produced against representatives of eight families of vertebrate host, were capable of differentiating serum from the different families. with the elisa, it was possible to ide ...200717362597
human igg antibody response to glossina saliva: an epidemiologic marker of exposure to glossina bites.the evaluation of human antibody response specific to arthropod saliva may be a useful marker of exposure to vector-borne disease. such an immunologic tool, applied to the evaluation of the exposure to glossina bites, could be integrated in the control of human african trypanosomiasis (hat). the antibody (igg) response specific to uninfected glossina fuscipes fuscipes saliva was evaluated according to the vector exposure and trypanic status in individuals residing in an hat-endemic area. a high ...200818458309
effects of fly abundance on catch index of traps for glossina fuscipes fuscipes (diptera: glossinidae).the effect of fly abundance on the catch index of traps and that of rain as a source of variation in fly abundance were investigated for glossina fuscipes fuscipes newstead around lake victoria, western kenya, using odor-baited and color-improved traps. there was a significant inverse relationship between the catch index of experimental traps and abundance of flies; the catch index being the ratio of catch in the experimental trap per catch in a reference trap. at low tsetse abundance (< 10 flie ...19989538575
[control by traps of glossina fuscipes fuscipes for protecting livestock in central african republic. iv. entomological, parasitological and zootechnical impact].neighteen mbororo zebu herds were monitored to evaluate the impact of a trapping campaign against glossina fuscipes fuscipes restricted to the watering places. this programme is part of the strategy of an integrated campaign against bovine trypanosomoses in the central african republic. trapping reduces the densities of g. f. fuscipes and causes trypanosome prevalence to fall. these effects are shown by the improved hematocrit values and the reduced number of trypanocidal treatments administered ...19958552847
[insecticide treatment (pour on and spot on) of cattle against glossina fuscipes fuscipes in the central african republic].four herds of mbororo zebu cattle (approximately 40 head each) in traditional situation of the fulani breeders were treated over a 12 month period. flumethrin pour on was first used every three weeks during the rainy season and then deltamethrin spot on was used every six weeks during the dry season. pour on treatments might affect the age structure and feeding patterns of the neighbouring populations of g fuscipes. however, the treatments had no impact on the apparent density of flies. they cha ...19968767889
tsetse survey in mukono district, south-east uganda: population structure, distribution and blood meal status.the population structure, feeding state and distribution of tsetse of glossina fuscipes fuscipes species in ssugu parish of mukono district, south-east uganda were investigated. tsetse caught with pyramidal traps were counted, sexed and dissected for age grading. it was observed that most tsetse were caught in valley habitats in the dry season, but the distribution was almost uniform within the parish in the wet season. the apparent density and prevalence of blood meals in tsetse fluctuated in d ...19968809978
[distribution and ecology of the savannah human african trypanosomiasis vectors in disturbed forest zone in south cameroon: about case in the doumé forest].vector control through trapping in the foci of humid forest areas is rather difficult because of the wide spreading of tsetse flies and transmission sites of human african trypanosomiasis. in fact, traps should be a priori set up everywhere to stop the transmission. the identification of the disease transmission sites enables efficient trapping through localisation of dangerous tsetse flies habitats needing vector control measures. the study of adult tsetse flies and teneral tsetse flies spatial ...200919583032
prospects for developing odour baits to control glossina fuscipes spp., the major vector of human african trypanosomiasis.we are attempting to develop cost-effective control methods for the important vector of sleeping sickness, glossina fuscipes spp. responses of the tsetse flies glossina fuscipes fuscipes (in kenya) and g. f. quanzensis (in democratic republic of congo) to natural host odours are reported. arrangements of electric nets were used to assess the effect of cattle-, human- and pig-odour on (1) the numbers of tsetse attracted to the odour source and (2) the proportion of flies that landed on a black ta ...200919434232
high levels of genetic differentiation between ugandan glossina fuscipes fuscipes populations separated by lake kyoga.glossina fuscipes fuscipes is the major vector of human african trypanosomiasis, commonly referred to as sleeping sickness, in uganda. in western and eastern africa, the disease has distinct clinical manifestations and is caused by two different parasites: trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and t. b. gambiense. uganda is exceptional in that it harbors both parasites, which are separated by a narrow 160-km belt. this separation is puzzling considering there are no restrictions on the movement of peop ...200818509474
improving the cost-effectiveness of artificial visual baits for controlling the tsetse fly glossina fuscipes fuscipes.tsetse flies, which transmit sleeping sickness to humans and nagana to cattle, are commonly controlled by stationary artificial baits consisting of traps or insecticide-treated screens known as targets. in kenya the use of electrocuting sampling devices showed that the numbers of glossina fuscipes fuscipes (newstead) visiting a biconical trap were nearly double those visiting a black target of 100 cm x 100 cm. however, only 40% of the males and 21% of the females entered the trap, whereas 71% an ...200919582138
glossina fuscipes fuscipes in the trypanosomiasis endemic areas of south eastern uganda: apparent density, trypanosome infection rates and host feeding preferences.a study was undertaken in three districts in south eastern uganda endemic for human and animal trypanosomiasis, to investigate the status of the vector tsetse fly population. apparent density (ad) of tsetse was between 2 and 21 flies/trap/day across the three districts, with glossinia fuscipes fuscipes identified as the predominant species. trypanosomes were observed in g.f. fuscipes with an infection rate, as determined by microscopy, of 1.55% across the three studied areas. however, trypanosom ...200616870129
phylogeography and population structure of glossina fuscipes fuscipes in uganda: implications for control of tsetse.glossina fuscipes fuscipes, a riverine species of tsetse, is the main vector of both human and animal trypanosomiasis in uganda. successful implementation of vector control will require establishing an appropriate geographical scale for these activities. population genetics can help to resolve this issue by characterizing the extent of linkage among apparently isolated groups of tsetse.201020300518
a global sensitivity analysis for african sleeping sickness.african sleeping sickness is a parasitic disease transmitted through the bites of tsetse flies of the genus glossina. we constructed mechanistic models for the basic reproduction number, r0, of trypanosoma brucei gambiense and trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, respectively the causative agents of west and east african human sleeping sickness. we present global sensitivity analyses of these models that rank the importance of the biological parameters that may explain variation in r0, using paramete ...201021078220
structure of some east african glossina fuscipes fuscipes populations.glossina fuscipes fuscipes newstead 1910 (diptera: glossinidae) is the primary vector of human sleeping sickness in kenya and uganda. this is the first report on its population structure. a total of 688 nucleotides of mitochondrial ribosomal 16s2 and cytochrome oxidase i genes were sequenced. twenty-one variants were scored in 79 flies from three geographically diverse natural populations. four haplotypes were shared among populations, eight were private and nine were singletons. the mean haplot ...200818816270
polymorphic microsatellite markers for the tsetse fly glossina fuscipes fuscipes (diptera: glossinidae), a vector of human african trypanosomiasis.our understanding of glossina fuscipes fuscipes, a major vector of sleeping sickness, has been severely constrained by a lack of genetic markers for mapping and population genetic studies. here we present 10 newly developed microsatellite loci for this tsetse species. heterozygosity levels in moyo, an ugandan population, averaged 0.57, with only two loci showing very low heterozygosity. five loci carried more than six alleles. together with five recently published microsatellite loci, this bring ...200821586090
[glossina feeding habits and diversity of species of trypanosomes in an active focus of human african trypanosomiasis in gabon].feeding host is an important factor upon which depend the glossina infection rate and the proportion of different species of trypanosome. glossina feed both upon animals and humans. in order to identify species of trypanosomes present in the komo-mondah focus and to verify whether there is any relationship between the prevalence of sleeping sickness and the feeding habits of glossina, we have carried out an entomological survey in this focus of gabon. flies were dissected and organs were analyse ...201020821180
temporal stability of glossina fuscipes fuscipes populations in uganda.glossina fuscipes, a riverine species of tsetse, is the major vector of human african trypanosomiasis (hat) in sub-saharan africa. understanding the population dynamics, and specifically the temporal stability, of g. fuscipes will be important for informing vector control activities. we evaluated genetic changes over time in seven populations of the subspecies g. f. fuscipes distributed across southeastern uganda, including a zone of contact between two historically isolated lineages. a total of ...201121320301
polyandry is a common event in wild populations of the tsetse fly glossina fuscipes fuscipes and may impact population reduction measures.glossina fuscipes fuscipes is the main vector of human and animal trypanosomiasis in africa, particularly in uganda. attempts to control/eradicate this species using biological methods require knowledge of its reproductive biology. an important aspect is the number of times a female mates in the wild as this influences the effective population size and may constitute a critical factor in determining the success of control methods. to date, polyandry in g.f. fuscipes has not been investigated in ...201121666797
Influence of host phylogeographic patterns and incomplete lineage sorting on within-species genetic variability in Wigglesworthia species, obligate symbionts of tsetse flies.Vertical transmission of obligate symbionts generates a predictable evolutionary history of symbionts that reflects that of their hosts. In insects, evolutionary associations between symbionts and their hosts have been investigated primarily among species, leaving population-level processes largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the tsetse (Diptera: Glossinidae) bacterial symbiont, Wigglesworthia glossinidia, to determine whether observed codiversification of symbiont and tsetse host sp ...201121948847
the tsetse fly glossina fuscipes fuscipes (diptera: glossina) harbours a surprising diversity of bacteria other than symbionts.three different bacterial species are regularly described from tsetse flies. however, no broad screens have been performed to investigate the existence of other bacteria in this medically and agriculturally important vector insect. utilising both culture dependent and independent methods we show that kenyan populations of glossina fuscipes fuscipes harbour a surprising diversity of bacteria. bacteria were isolated from 72% of flies with 23 different bacterial species identified. the firmicutes p ...201121203841
transmission of human african trypanosomiasis in the komo-mondah focus, gabon.knowledge about transmission of sleeping sickness in a given focus is of a great importance since it governs the efficacy and the cost-effectiveness of control strategy. the komo-mondah focus is the most endemic sleeping sickness focus of gabon. this focus has hardly been investigated and available publications are more than thirty years old. in order to update transmission features of sleeping sickness in that focus, we have conducted epidemiological and entomological surveys in march-april 200 ...201122121444
analysis of multiple tsetse fly populations in uganda reveals limited diversity and species-specific gut microbiota.the invertebrate microbiome contributes to multiple aspects of host physiology, including nutrient supplementation and immune maturation processes. we identified and compared gut microbial abundance and diversity in natural tsetse flies from uganda using five genetically distinct populations of glossina fuscipes fuscipes and multiple tsetse species (glossina morsitans morsitans, g. f. fuscipes, and glossina pallidipes) that occur in sympatry in one location. we used multiple approaches, includin ...201424814785
implications of microfauna-host interactions for trypanosome transmission dynamics in glossina fuscipes fuscipes in uganda.tsetse flies (diptera: glossinidae) are vectors for african trypanosomes (euglenozoa: kinetoplastida), protozoan parasites that cause african trypanosomiasis in humans (hat) and nagana in livestock. in addition to trypanosomes, two symbiotic bacteria (wigglesworthia glossinidia and sodalis glossinidius) and two parasitic microbes, wolbachia and a salivary gland hypertrophy virus (sghv), have been described in tsetse. here we determined the prevalence of and coinfection dynamics between wolbachia ...201222544247
genetically distinct glossina fuscipes fuscipes populations in the lake kyoga region of uganda and its relevance for human african trypanosomiasis.tsetse flies (glossina spp.) are the sole vectors of trypanosoma brucei--the agent of human (hat) and animal (aat) trypanosomiasis. glossina fuscipes fuscipes (gff) is the main vector species in uganda--the only country where the two forms of hat disease (rhodesiense and gambiense) occur, with gambiense limited to the northwest. gff populations cluster in three genetically distinct groups in northern, southern, and western uganda, respectively, with a contact zone present in central uganda. unde ...201324199195
glossina fuscipes populations provide insights for human african trypanosomiasis transmission in uganda.uganda has both forms of human african trypanosomiasis (hat): the chronic gambiense disease in the northwest and the acute rhodesiense disease in the south. the recent spread of rhodesiense into central uganda has raised concerns given the different control strategies the two diseases require. we present knowledge on the population genetics of the major vector species glossina fuscipes fuscipes in uganda with a focus on population structure, measures of gene flow between populations, and the occ ...201323845311
standardizing visual control devices for tsetse flies: east african species glossina fuscipes fuscipes and glossina tachinoides.riverine species of tsetse are responsible for most human african trypanosomiasis (hat) transmission and are also important vectors of animal trypanosomiasis. this study concerns the development of visual control devices for two such species, glossina fuscipes fuscipes and glossina tachinoides, at the eastern limits of their continental range. the goal was to determine the most long-lasting, practical and cost-effective visually attractive device that induces the strongest landing responses in t ...201425411931
prevalence of sghv among tsetse species of economic importance in tanzania and their implication for sit application.sterile insect technique is an important component in area-wide integrated tsetse control. the presence of the salivary glands hypertrophy virus (sghv) in the wild tsetse, which are the seeds for colony adaptations in the laboratory has become a stumbling block in establishing and maintaining colonies in the laboratory. the virus is transmitted both vertically (in the wild) and horizontally (in the laboratory). however, its prevalence is magnified in the laboratory as a result of the use of in v ...201322841949
optimizing the colour and fabric of targets for the control of the tsetse fly glossina fuscipes fuscipes.most cases of human african trypanosomiasis (hat) start with a bite from one of the subspecies of glossina fuscipes. tsetse use a range of olfactory and visual stimuli to locate their hosts and this response can be exploited to lure tsetse to insecticide-treated targets thereby reducing transmission. to provide a rational basis for cost-effective designs of target, we undertook studies to identify the optimal target colour.201222666511
vegetation and the importance of insecticide-treated target siting for control of glossina fuscipes fuscipes.control of tsetse flies using insecticide-treated targets is often hampered by vegetation re-growth and encroachment which obscures a target and renders it less effective. potentially this is of particular concern for the newly developed small targets (0.25 high × 0.5 m wide) which show promise for cost-efficient control of palpalis group tsetse flies. consequently the performance of a small target was investigated for glossina fuscipes fuscipes in kenya, when the target was obscured following t ...201121949897
evidence of temporal stability in allelic and mitochondrial haplotype diversity in populations of glossina fuscipes fuscipes (diptera: glossinidae) in northern uganda.glossina fuscipes fuscipes is a tsetse species of high economic importance in uganda where it is responsible for transmitting animal african trypanosomiasis (aat) and both the chronic and acute forms of human african trypanosomiasis (hat). we used genotype data from 17 microsatellites and a mitochondrial dna marker to assess temporal changes in gene frequency for samples collected between the periods ranging from 2008 to 2014 in nine localities spanning regions known to harbor the two forms of h ...201627141947
comparative gamma-radiation sensitivity of glossina tachinoides westv., glossina fuscipes fuscipes newst. and glossina brevipalpis newst. (diptera, glossinidae).the effect of gamma-radiation doses ranging between 10 and 180 gy on 4-6-day-old adult males of glossina tachinoides, glossina fuscipes fuscipes and glossina brevipalpis was studied. fecundity of their mates was reduced by 95% following exposure to 120, 80-100 and 50 gy of adult male g. tachinoides, g. f. fuscipes and g. brevipalpis respectively. insemination ability of the males and sperm motility were not adversely affected by the radiation treatment. the higher proportion of dominant lethals ...19968601757
mitochondrial dna sequence divergence and diversity of glossina fuscipes fuscipes in the lake victoria basin of uganda: implications for control.glossina fuscipes fuscipes is the main vector of african trypanosomiasis affecting both humans and livestock in uganda. the human disease (sleeping sickness) manifests itself in two forms: acute and chronic. the lake victoria basin in uganda has the acute form and a history of tsetse re-emergence despite concerted efforts to control tsetse. the government of uganda has targeted the basin for tsetse eradication. to provide empirical data for this initiative, we screened tsetse flies from the basi ...201526197892
costs of using "tiny targets" to control glossina fuscipes fuscipes, a vector of gambiense sleeping sickness in arua district of uganda.to evaluate the relative effectiveness of tsetse control methods, their costs need to be analysed alongside their impact on tsetse populations. very little has been published on the costs of methods specifically targeting human african trypanosomiasis.201525811956
correction: standardizing visual control devices for tsetse flies: east african species glossina fuscipes fuscipes and glossina tachinoides. 201525790438
a colour opponent model that explains tsetse fly attraction to visual baits and can be used to investigate more efficacious bait materials.palpalis group tsetse flies are the major vectors of human african trypanosomiasis, and visually-attractive targets and traps are important tools for their control. considerable efforts are underway to optimise these visual baits, and one factor that has been investigated is coloration. analyses of the link between visual bait coloration and tsetse fly catches have used methods which poorly replicate sensory processing in the fly visual system, but doing so would allow the visual information dri ...201425473844
the population structure of glossina fuscipes fuscipes in the lake victoria basin in uganda: implications for vector control.glossina fuscipes fuscipes is the primary vector of trypanosomiasis in humans and livestock in uganda. the lake victoria basin has been targeted for tsetse eradication using a rolling carpet initiative, from west to east, with four operational blocks (3 in uganda and 1 in kenya), under a pan-african tsetse and trypanosomiasis eradication campaign (pattec). we screened tsetse flies from the three ugandan pattec blocks for genetic diversity at 15 microsatellite loci from continental and offshore p ...201223036153
adding tsetse control to medical activities contributes to decreasing transmission of sleeping sickness in the mandoul focus (chad).gambian sleeping sickness or hat (human african trypanosomiasis) is a neglected tropical disease caused by trypanosoma brucei gambiense transmitted by riverine species of tsetse. a global programme aims to eliminate the disease as a public health problem by 2020 and stop transmission by 2030. in the south of chad, the mandoul area is a persistent focus of gambian sleeping sickness where around 100 hat cases were still diagnosed and treated annually until 2013. pre-2014, control of hat relied sol ...201728750007
an exploratory gis-based method to identify and characterise landscapes with an elevated epidemiological risk of rhodesian human african trypanosomiasis.specific land cover types and activities have been correlated with trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense distributions, indicating the importance of landscape for epidemiological risk. however, methods proposed to identify specific areas with elevated epidemiological risk (i.e. where transmission is more likely to occur) tend to be costly and time consuming. this paper proposes an exploratory spatial analysis using geo-referenced human african trypanosomiasis (hat) cases and matched controls from serer ...201223171150
wolbachia association with the tsetse fly, glossina fuscipes fuscipes, reveals high levels of genetic diversity and complex evolutionary dynamics.wolbachia pipientis, a diverse group of α-proteobacteria, can alter arthropod host reproduction and confer a reproductive advantage to wolbachia-infected females (cytoplasmic incompatibility (ci)). this advantage can alter host population genetics because wolbachia-infected females produce more offspring with their own mitochondrial dna (mtdna) haplotypes than uninfected females. thus, these host haplotypes become common or fixed (selective sweep). although simulations suggest that for a ci-medi ...201323384159
evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of pyramidal, modified pyramidal and monoscreen traps for the control of the tsetse fly, glossina fuscipes fuscipes, in uganda.several trap designs have been used for sampling and control of the tsetse fly, glossina fuscipes fuscipes, newstead (diptera: glossinidae) based on preferences of individual researchers and program managers with little understanding of the comparative efficiency and cost-effectiveness of trap designs. this study was carried out to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of four commonly used trap designs: monoscreen, modified pyramidal and pyramidal, relative to the standard biconical trap. the study w ...200720345292
permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 december 2010-31 january 2011.this article documents the addition of 238 microsatellite marker loci to the molecular ecology resources database. loci were developed for the following species: alytes dickhilleni, arapaima gigas, austropotamobius italicus, blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, cobitis lutheri, dendroctonus ponderosae, glossina morsitans morsitans, haplophilus subterraneus, kirengeshoma palmata, lysimachia japonica, macrolophus pygmaeus, microtus cabrerae, mytilus galloprovincialis, pallisentis (neosentis) celatus, ...201121457476
interspecific transfer of bacterial endosymbionts between tsetse fly species: infection establishment and effect on host fitness.tsetse flies (glossina spp.) can harbor up to three distinct species of endosymbiotic bacteria that exhibit unique modes of transmission and evolutionary histories with their host. two mutualist enterics, wigglesworthia and sodalis, are transmitted maternally to tsetse flies' intrauterine larvae. the third symbiont, from the genus wolbachia, parasitizes developing oocytes. in this study, we determined that sodalis isolates from several tsetse fly species are virtually identical based on a phylog ...200616950907
tsetse flies are attracted to the invasive plant lantana camara.in tsetse both sexes feed exclusively on the blood of vertebrates for a few minutes every 2-3 days. tsetse flies seek cover from high temperatures to conserve energy and plants provide shelter for tsetse in all the biotopes they occupy. recently, tsetse have taken cover in plantations and under the invasive bush lantana camara that has invaded large areas of the tsetse fly belt of africa. flies from such refugia are implicated in sleeping sickness epidemics. in a wind tunnel we show that both fo ...200415037092
patterns of genome-wide variation in glossina fuscipes fuscipes tsetse flies from uganda.the tsetse fly glossina fuscipes fuscipes (gff) is the insect vector of the two forms of human african trypanosomiasis (hat) that exist in uganda. understanding gff population dynamics, and the underlying genetics of epidemiologically relevant phenotypes is key to reducing disease transmission. using ddrad sequence technology, complemented with whole-genome sequencing, we developed a panel of ∼73,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) distributed across the gff genome that can be used for po ...201627172181
acute haemorrhagic syndrome of bovine trypanosomosis in uganda.a study was undertaken in july 2005 to investigate an acute haemorrhagic syndrome that caused cattle mortality starting march 2005 in mifumi, senda, kainja and nyagoke villages of tororo district in uganda; areas dominantly infested with glossina fuscipes fuscipes with scanty g. pallidipes. four hundred and one (401) cattle belonging to 158 farmers were randomly sampled from a population of 549 and screened using a combination of haematocrit centrifugation technique (hct) and buffy coat techniqu ...200818599006
immunogenicity and serological cross-reactivity of saliva proteins among different tsetse species.tsetse are vectors of pathogenic trypanosomes, agents of human and animal trypanosomiasis in africa. components of tsetse saliva (sialome) are introduced into the mammalian host bite site during the blood feeding process and are important for tsetse's ability to feed efficiently, but can also influence disease transmission and serve as biomarkers for host exposure. we compared the sialome components from four tsetse species in two subgenera: subgenus morsitans: glossina morsitans morsitans (gmm) ...201526313460
responses of tsetse flies, glossina morsitans morsitans and glossina pallidipes, to baits of various size.recent studies of palpalis group tsetse [glossina fuscipes fuscipes (diptera: glossinidae) in kenya] suggest that small (0.25 × 0.25 m) insecticide-treated targets will be more cost-effective than the larger (=1.0 × 1.0 m) designs currently used to control tsetse. studies were undertaken in zimbabwe to assess whether small targets are also more cost-effective for the morsitans group tsetse, glossina morsitans morsitans and glossina pallidipes. numbers of tsetse contacting targets of 0.25 × 0.25 ...201121414020
a density-dependent model with reinvasion for estimating tsetse fly populations (diptera: glossinidae) through trapping.a simple density-dependent reinvasion model is described and used to estimate tsetse fly populations on the basis of removal trapping experiments. the model was tested on glossina fuscipes fuscipes newstead in the central african republic and g. palpalis palpalis (robineau-desvoidy) in the republic of congo (brazzaville). the density-dependence is modelled by postulating that the inflow of flies each day is proportional to the deficit relative to the equilibrium population. non-linear least squa ...200111415471
glossina proteolytic lectin does not require a carbohydrate moiety for enzymatic or trypanosome-transforming activities.the developmental cycle of the cyclically transmitted african trypanosome involves an obligatory passage through the tsetse fly, glossina spp. this intricate relationship requires the presence of molecules within the insect vector, including a midgut lectin, that interact with the trypanosome. recently, a gene encoding for a proteolytic lectin, with trypanosome-transforming activity, was isolated from a midgut cdna library of glossina fuscipes fuscipes austen in our laboratory. using the same ap ...200616619615
estimating tsetse population parameters: application of a mathematical model with density-dependence.a density-dependent model is used to describe the dynamics of an open population of tsetse flies (diptera: glossinidae). immigration (or emigration) takes place when the total population is below (or above) a biologically determined threshold value. the population is also subjected to birth and death rates, as well as to the risk of being trapped (continuously or intermittently). during trapping the population decreases toward a 'low' equilibrium population and when trapping ceases the populatio ...200312941011
effects of vector control on the population structure of tsetse (glossina fuscipes fuscipes) in western kenya.displacement rates of tsetse affect performance of targets during vector control. fly size, one of the indicators of population structure usually obtained from wing measurement, is among the determinants of displacement rates. although recovery of tsetse in previous intervention areas has been widely reported, the population structure of tsetse that recover is rarely evaluated despite being associated with displacements rates. previously, intervention trials had reduced tsetse densities by over ...201729248414
viruslike particles of glossina fuscipes fuscipes newst. 1910. 19744153162
[variations in cerebral neurosecretion during the reproductive cycle of a viviparous insect, glossina fuscipes fuscipes (diptera, muscidae)].the neurosecretory a cells of the pars intercerebralis of the viviparous fly glossina fuscipes fuscipes present important changes during the genital cycle. a slight release of neurosecretory products occurs at the moment of the first ovulation and at the hatching. an important discharge takes place just before the larviposition and the second ovulation.1976817815
cuticular hydrocarbons of tsetse flies ii:glossina fuscipes fuscipes, g. palpalis palpalis, g. p. gambiensis, g. tachinoides, andg. brevipalpis.the alkanes (methylalkanes) were analyzed from both sexes of four members of thepalpalis group of tsetse flies,glossina fuscipes fuscipes, g. palpalis gambiensis, g. palpalis palpalis, g. tachinoides plus onefusca group member, g. brevipalpis, to determine structures, abundances, and the presence of unique or specific methylalkanes. these insects are unique in that trimethylalkanes were major components except in femaleg. tachinoides and both sexes ofg. brevipalpis where 2-methylalkanes were the ...198824276145
comparison of single cell sensitivities to attractants in the tsetse glossina fuscipes fuscipes, g. morsitans morsitans and g. pallidipes. 199910608238
challenging the wigglesworthia, sodalis, wolbachia symbiosis dogma in tsetse flies: spiroplasma is present in both laboratory and natural populations.profiling of wild and laboratory tsetse populations using 16s rrna gene amplicon sequencing allowed us to examine whether the "wigglesworthia-sodalis-wolbachia dogma" operates across species and populations. the most abundant taxa, in wild and laboratory populations, were wigglesworthia (the primary endosymbiont), sodalis and wolbachia as previously characterized. the species richness of the microbiota was greater in wild than laboratory populations. spiroplasma was identified as a new symbiont ...201728680117
genetic diversity and population structure of the tsetse fly glossina fuscipes fuscipes (diptera: glossinidae) in northern uganda: implications for vector control.uganda is the only country where the chronic and acute forms of human african trypanosomiasis (hat) or sleeping sickness both occur and are separated by < 100 km in areas north of lake kyoga. in uganda, glossina fuscipes fuscipes is the main vector of the trypanosoma parasites responsible for these diseases as well for the animal african trypanosomiasis (aat), or nagana. we used highly polymorphic microsatellite loci and a mitochondrial dna (mtdna) marker to provide fine scale spatial resolution ...201728453513
genetic diversity of glossina fuscipes fuscipes along the shores of lake victoria in tanzania and kenya: implications for management.tsetse flies (diptera: glossinidae) are sole vectors for trypanosomiasis, which affect human health and livestock productivity in africa. little is known about the genetic diversity of glossina fuscipes fuscipes, which is an important species in tanzania and kenya. the main objective of the study was to provide baseline data to determine the genetic variability and divergence of g. f. fuscipes in the lake victoria basin of tanzania and kenya in order to guide future vector control efforts in the ...201728558831
sustainability of tsetse control by subsequent treatment of 10% of a previously treated ugandan cattle population with 1% w/v deltamethrin.this study was conducted in masaba and masafu sub-counties, busia district, uganda to assess the effect on the tsetse fly population of first treating all cattle with 1% w/v deltamethrin pour-on for a few months, followed by treating 10% of the cattle population. treatment of all cattle for 6 months resulted in a significant reduction in the density of tsetse flies from 6.3 to 0.1 flies/trap/day (ftd), a 98.4% reduction. during the same period, the point prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis dropp ...200211969108
the effect of age on the mating competitiveness of male glossina fuscipes fuscipes and g. palpalis palpalis.the effect of age on male glossina fuscipes fuscipes, newstead, and glossina palpalis palpalis, austin (diptera: glossinidae) competiveness were investigated with a view to estimate optimal age for sterile male release. sterile insect technique involves the mass production, sterilization and sequential release of males of the target species to out compete the wild male population. mating between released sterile males and wild females produce inviable progeny and the population is reduced over s ...200315841229
uncovering genomic regions associated with trypanosoma infections in wild populations of the tsetse fly glossina fuscipes.vector-borne diseases are responsible for more than one million deaths every year but genomic resources for most species responsible for their transmission are limited. this is true for neglected diseases such as sleeping sickness (human african trypanosomiasis), a disease caused by trypanosoma parasites vectored by several species of tseste flies within the genus glossina we describe an integrative approach that identifies statistical associations between trypanosome infection status of glossin ...201829343494
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