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ganjam virus.ganjam virus (ganv), a member of genus nairovirus of family bunyavirdae is of considerable veterinary importance in india. though, predominantly tick borne, ganv was also isolated from mosquitoes, man and sheep. neutralizing and complement fixing antibodies to ganv have been detected in animal and human sera collected from different parts of the country. thirty three strains of ganv have been isolated from india, mainly from haemaphysalis ticks. the virus replicated in certain vertebrate and mos ...200920090098
the laboratory diagnosis of nairobi sheep disease.the laboratory methods available for the isolation and identification of nairobi sheep disease virus have been compared. the results show that inoculation of tissue culture (bhk 21 c 13) with suspensions of infected organs or plasma followed by fluorescent antibody tests on coverslip preparations gave the quickest means of identification. this test did not depend on the production of a cytopathic effect. primary isolation of the virus in infant mouse brain and identification either by fluorescen ...1977333678
biochemical and structural insights into the preference of nairoviral deisgylases for interferon-stimulated gene product 15 originating from certain species.the regulation of the interferon type i (ifn-i) response has been shown to rely on posttranslational modification by ubiquitin (ub) and ub-like interferon-stimulated gene product 15 (isg15) to stabilize, or activate, a variety of ifn-i signaling and downstream effector proteins. unlike ub, which is almost perfectly conserved among eukaryotes, isg15 is highly divergent, even among mammals. since zoonotic viruses rely on viral proteins to recognize, or cleave, isg15 conjugates in order to evade, o ...201627412597
ganjam virus/nairobi sheep disease virus induces a pro-inflammatory response in infected sheep.partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. nairobi sheep disease virus (nsdv) and ganjam virus (gv) are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in india and east africa. the virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. we have developed a real-time pcr assay for the virus genome and validated it in a pilo ...201223083136
nairobi sheep disease virus rna in ixodid ticks, china, 2013. 025811222
genomic characterization of yogue, kasokero, issyk-kul, keterah, gossas, and thiafora viruses: nairoviruses naturally infecting bats, shrews, and ticks.the genus nairovirus of arthropod-borne bunyaviruses includes the important emerging human pathogen, crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv), as well as nairobi sheep disease virus and many other poorly described viruses isolated from mammals, birds, and ticks. here, we report genome sequence analysis of six nairoviruses: thiafora virus (tfav) that was isolated from a shrew in senegal; yogue (yogv), kasokero (kkov), and gossas (gosv) viruses isolated from bats in senegal and uganda; issyk- ...201526324724
antibodies to the core proteins of nairobi sheep disease virus/ganjam virus reveal details of the distribution of the proteins in infected cells and tissues.nairobi sheep disease virus (nsdv; also called ganjam virus in india) is a bunyavirus of the genus nairovirus. it causes a haemorrhagic gastroenteritis in sheep and goats with mortality up to 90%. the virus is closely related to the human pathogen crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv). little is currently known about the biology of nsdv. we have generated specific antibodies against the virus nucleocapsid protein (n) and polymerase (l) and used these to characterise nsdv in infected cel ...201525905707
the nairovirus nairobi sheep disease virus/ganjam virus induces the translocation of protein disulphide isomerase-like oxidoreductases from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface and the extracellular space.nairobi sheep disease virus (nsdv) of the genus nairovirus causes a haemorrhagic gastroenteritis in sheep and goats with mortality up to 90%; the virus is found in east and central africa, and in india, where the virus is called ganjam virus. nsdv is closely related to the human pathogen crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever virus, which also causes a haemorrhagic disease. as with other nairoviruses, replication of nsdv takes place in the cytoplasm and the new virus particles bud into the golgi appar ...201424714576
genetic characterization of erve virus, a european nairovirus distantly related to crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus.erve virus (ervev) is a european nairovirus that is suspected to cause severe headache (thunderclap headache) and intracerebral hemorrhage. the mode of transmission to humans (ticks or mosquitoes) is still unknown. currently, no standardized testing method for ervev exists and only a small partial sequence of the polymerase gene is available. here, we present the first complete genome sequence of ervev s, m, and l segments. phylogenetic comparison of the amino acid sequence of the l-protein (rna ...201222864548
genomic analysis reveals nairobi sheep disease virus to be highly diverse and present in both africa, and in india in the form of the ganjam virus variant.nairobi sheep disease (nsd) virus, the prototype tick-borne virus of the genus nairovirus, family bunyaviridae is associated with acute hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in sheep and goats in east and central africa. the closely related ganjam virus found in india is associated with febrile illness in humans and disease in livestock. the complete s, m and l segment sequences of ganjam and nsd virus and partial sequence analysis of ganjam viral rna genome s, m and l segments encoding regions (396bp, 70 ...201121511058
ticks associated with macquarie island penguins carry arboviruses from four genera.macquarie island, a small subantarctic island, is home to rockhopper, royal and king penguins, which are often infested with the globally distributed seabird tick, ixodes uriae. a flavivirus, an orbivirus, a phlebovirus, and a nairovirus were isolated from these ticks and partial sequences obtained. the flavivirus was nearly identical to gadgets gully virus, isolated some 30 year previously, illustrating the remarkable genetic stability of this virus. the nearest relative to the orbivirus (for w ...200919194498
qualitative and quantitative detection of nairobi sheep disease virus antigen by immunoperoxidase in bhk-, sheep kidney- and tick cell cultures. 19846375215
the antibody response of sheep following infection with nairobi sheep disease virus. 1976791975
tick-borne viruses.at least 38 viral species are transmitted by ticks. virus-tick-vertebrate host relationships are highly specific and less than 10% of all tick species (argasidae and ixodidae) are known to play a role as vectors of arboviruses. however, a few tick species transmit several (e.g. ixodes ricinus, amblyomma variegatum) or many (i. uriae) tick-borne viruses. tick-borne viruses are found in six different virus families (asfarviridae, reoviridae, rhabdoviridae, orthomyxoviridae, bunyaviridae, flaviviri ...200415938513
nairobi sheep disease virus isolated from haemaphysalis intermedia ticks collected in sri lanka. 19968729633
the molecular biology of nairoviruses, an emerging group of tick-borne arboviruses.the nairoviruses are a rapidly emerging group of tick-borne bunyaviruses that includes pathogens of humans (crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus [cchfv]) and livestock (nairobi sheep disease virus [nsdv], also known as ganjam virus), as well as a large number of viruses for which the normal vertebrate host has not been established. studies on this group of viruses have been fairly limited, not least because cchfv is a bsl4 human pathogen, restricting the number of labs able to study the live vi ...201424327094
an indirect haemagglutination test for the detection of antibody to nairobi sheep disease virus.an indirect haemagglutination test was developed for the detection of antibody to nairobi sheep disease virus and shown to be specific and highly sensitive. the optimum conditions necessary to achieve maximal sensitivity were determined. sheep and goat sera were tested in parallel with an indirect fluorescent antibody test and close correlation of results was demonstrated.1976778950
inhibition of interferon induction and action by the nairovirus nairobi sheep disease virus/ganjam virus.the nairoviruses are an important group of tick-borne viruses that includes pathogens of man (crimean congo hemorrhagic fever virus) and livestock animals (dugbe virus, nairobi sheep disease virus (nsdv)). nsdv is found in large parts of east africa and the indian subcontinent (where it is known as ganjam virus). we have investigated the ability of nsdv to antagonise the induction and actions of interferon. both pathogenic and apathogenic isolates could actively inhibit the induction of type 1 i ...201122163042
nairobi sheep disease virus, an important tick-borne pathogen of sheep and goats in africa, is also present in asia.nairobi sheep disease (nsd) virus is the prototype of the tick-borne nsd serogroup, genus nairovirus, family bunyaviridae. it is highly pathogenic for sheep and goats, causes disease in humans, and is widespread throughout east africa. ganjam virus has caused disease in goats and humans in india. due to their occurrence on different continents and association with different ticks, these viruses were considered distinct despite serologic cross-reactivity. their s rna genome segments and encoded n ...200212482666
ultrastructural studies on the replication and morphogenesis of nairobi sheep disease virus, a nairovirus.the nairovirus nairobi sheep disease virus (nsdv) affects sheep and goats causing severe hemorrhagic gastroenteritis and high mortality. replication and morphogenesis of nsdv was determined by electron microscopic examination of ultra-thin sections of 143b and bhk-21 cells at varying times after infection. by 4 h post-infection (p.i.) of 143b cells, virions budding from the luminal side of the bilayer membrane of smooth membrane vesicles were observed. morphologically mature virus particles were ...19968856028
qualitative studies of the transmission of nairobi sheep disease virus by rhipicephalus appendiculatus (ixodoidea, ixodidae). 19827068952
an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection of antibodies to nairobi sheep disease virus in comparison with an indirect immunofluorescent and hemagglutination test. i. development and testing of the elisa with sera of experimentally infected rabbits and sheep. 19836650018
electron microscopic studies on the morphology of nairobi sheep disease virus. 19817331596
nairobi sheep disease virus/ganjam virus.nairobi sheep disease virus (nsdv) is a tick-borne virus which causes a severe disease in sheep and goats, and has been responsible for several outbreaks of disease in east africa. the virus is also found in the indian subcontinent, where it is known as ganjam virus. the virus only spreads through the feeding of competent infected ticks, and is therefore limited in its geographic distribution by the distribution of those ticks, rhipicephalus appendiculata in africa and haemaphysalis intermedia i ...201526647464
physical and biological properties of nairobi sheep disease virus.thermal and ph stability of nairobi sheep disease (nsd) virus were studied. the 180th mouse brain passage lost infectivity at a higher rate than "wild" virus at 4 degrees c. at 37 degrees c and neutral ph, "wild" virus again was more stable than cell culture and mouse brain attenuated strains with half-life periods of 104, 87 and 51 min, respectively. at 0 degrees c the cell culture attenuated virus was most stable at ph 7.4 with an estimated half-life of 164 h. the density of the virus in sucro ...19836659312
the effect of nairobi sheep disease virus on tissue culture systems. 19655849622
the serological relationships of nairobi sheep disease virus. 1978101557
an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection of antibodies to nairobi sheep disease virus in comparison with an indirect immunofluorescent- and haemagglutination test. ii. results observed with sera of experimentally infected rabbits and sheep and with african sheep sera. 19846385572
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