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lesions caused by parelaphostrongylus odocoilei (nematoda: metastronglyloidea) in two cervid hosts.pathologic effects and host response were evaluated in seven white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and six mule deer (o. hemionus hemionus) each exposed per os to 300 or 1000 third-stage larvae of parelaphostrongylus odocoilei. pathologic effects in mule deer consisted of hemorrhagic myositis throughout skeletal muscles, severe verminous pneumonia, and moderate lymphadenitis. the major host response was a granulomatous inflammation associated with nematode eggs and larvae. granulomas oblite ...19846235669
differentiation of dorsal-spined elaphostrongyline larvae by polymerase chain reaction amplification of its-2 of rdna.molecular genetics was used to devise the first reliable diagnostic tool for differentiating morphologically indistinguishable dorsal-spined, first-stage larvae (l1's) and other stages of the nematode protostrongylid subfamily elaphostrongylinae. a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay employing specifically designed primers was developed to selectively amplify dna of the its-2 region of the ribosomal gene. amplification of the entire its-2 region differentiated between larvae of the genera elap ...200011085433
new host and geographic records for two protostrongylids in dall's sheep.biodiversity survey and inventory have resulted in new information on the distribution of protostrongylidae in dall's sheep (ovis dalli dalli) from the northwest territories (nt, canada) and from alaska (ak, usa). in 1998, parelaphostrongylus odocoilei adults were found for the first time in the skeletal muscles of dall's sheep in the mackenzie mountains (nt). adult p. odocoilei were associated with petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages and localized myositis; eggs and larvae in the lungs were as ...200111763740
geographic distribution of the muscle-dwelling nematode parelaphostrongylus odocoilei in north america, using molecular identification of first-stage larvae.molecular identification of dorsal-spined larvae (dsl) from fecal samples indicates that the protostrongylid parasite parelaphostrongylus odocoilei occupies a broader geographic range in western north america than has been previously reported. we analyzed 2,124 fecal samples at 29 locations from thinhorn sheep (ovis dalli dalli and o. d. stonei), bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis and o. c. californiana), mountain goats (oreamnos americanus), woodland caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou), ...200516108550
climate change and the epidemiology of protostrongylid nematodes in northern ecosystems: parelaphostrongylus odocoilei and protostrongylus stilesi in dall's sheep ( ovis d. dalli ).we describe the epidemiology of the protostrongylid parasites parelaphostrongylus odocoilei and protostrongylus stilesi in dall's sheep (ovis dalli dalli) from the mackenzie mountains, northwest territories, canada (65 degrees n; 128 degrees w). peak numbers of 1st-stage larvae of both parasites were shed by dall's sheep on their winter range from march until may. in larval development experiments in the mackenzie mountains, peak numbers of infective 3rd-stage larvae of p. odocoilei were availab ...200616332289
parelaphostrongylus odocoilei in columbian black-tailed deer from oregon.documenting the occurrence of parelaphostrongylus odocoilei has historically relied on the morphological examination of adult worms collected from the skeletal muscle of definitive hosts, including deer. recent advances in the knowledge of protostrongylid genetic sequences now permit larvae to be identified. dorsal-spined larvae (dsls) collected in 2003-2004 from the lung and feces of six columbian black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus) from oregon were characterized genetically. th ...200617092883
bighorn sheep, a new host record for parelaphostrongylus odocoilei (nematoda: protostrongylidae).larval nematodes with a dorsal spine on the tail were recovered from fecal samples of california bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis californiana) in northeastern washington state, usa. the identity of these dorsal-spined larvae (dsl) was established by single-strand conformation polymorphism (sscp) analyses of a partial fragment of the first internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal dna. the sscp profiles of individual dsl from bighorn sheep were compared with those of dsl of five protostrongylid ...200617255460
protostrongylid parasites and pneumonia in captive and wild thinhorn sheep (ovis dalli).we describe health significance of protostrongylid parasites (parelaphostrongylus odocoilei and protostrongylus stilesi) and other respiratory pathogens in more than 50 naturally infected dall's sheep (ovis dalli dalli) from the mackenzie mountains, northwest territories (1998-2002) as well as in three stone's sheep (o. d. stonei) experimentally infected with p. odocoilei (2000-2002). histological lesions in the brain and distribution of p. odocoilei in the muscles of experimentally and naturall ...200717495303
muscleworms, parelaphostrongylus andersoni (nematoda: protostrongylidae), discovered in columbia white-tailed deer from oregon and washington: implications for biogeography and host associations.parelaphostrongylus andersoni is considered a characteristic nematode infecting white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). host and geographic distribution for this parasite, however, remain poorly defined in the region of western north america. fecal samples collected from columbia white-tailed deer (o. v. leucurus) in a restricted range endemic to oregon and washington, usa, were examined for dorsal-spined larvae characteristic of many protostrongylid nematodes. multilocus dna sequence data ( ...200818263818
identification of parelaphostrongylus odocoilei (nematoda: protostrongylidae) first-stage larvae in the feces of gray wolves (canis lupus) by molecular methods.first-stage nematode larvae with a dorsal-spine (dsl) were detected in five of 1,565 fecal samples from gray wolves (canis lupus) collected in british columbia, canada, between 2005 and 2008. molecular techniques were used to identify the dsl because it was not possible to determine their species identity using morphologic characters. the dsl were identified as parelaphostrongylus odocoilei based on the results of single-strand conformation polymorphism (sscp) analyses and dna sequencing of the ...201020090048
retrospective study of central nervous system lesions and association with parelaphostrongylus species by histology and specific nested polymerase chain reaction in domestic camelids and wild ungulates.formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from elk (cervus elaphus), goats, and camelids with case histories and lesions suggestive of parelaphostrongylus tenuis were examined by histology to characterize lesions that could aid in definitively diagnosing p. tenuis infection. additionally, sections of paraffin-embedded tissue were used in a nested polymerase chain reaction (npcr) using parelaphostrongylus-specific primers to determine how pcr results corresponded with histological findings. histo ...201425274743
bionomics of larvae of parelaphostrongylus odocoilei (nematoda: protostrongylidae) in experimentally infected gastropod intermediate hosts.parelaphostrongylus odocoilei is a protostrongylid parasite that has recently been recognized at several locations in sub-arctic, but not arctic, north america. we investigated factors that may determine the distribution of p. odocoilei, including suitable gastropod intermediate hosts, temperature requirements for larval development in gastropods, and larval emergence facilitating overwinter transmission. we collected and experimentally infected gastropods from a site in the sub-arctic where p. ...200616729686
development and pathogenesis of parelaphostrongylus odocoilei (nematoda: protostrongylidae) in experimentally infected thinhorn sheep (ovis dalli ).recently, the protostrongylid nematode parelaphostrongylus odocoilei has been reported in a new host species, thinhorn sheep (ovis dalli). for the first time, we completed the life cycle of p. odocoilei in three stone's sheep (o. dalli stonei) and two thinhorn hybrids (o. dalli stonei x o. dalli dalli), each infected with 200 third-stage larvae from slugs (deroceras laeve). the prepatent period ranged from 68 days to 74 days, and shedding of first-stage larvae (l1) peaked at >10,000 l1 per gram ...200516456155
moisture and temperature effects on survival and infectivity of first-stage larvae of parelaphostrongylus odocoilei and p. tenuis (nematoda: metastrongyloidea).the survival of first-stage larvae (l1) of parelaphostrongylus odocoilei and p. tenuis (nematoda: metastrongyloidea) and their infectivity to the snail triodopsis multilineata were determined experimentally in a variety of temperature and moisture conditions. survival of larvae of p. odocoilei increased with decreasing temperature. survival of larvae in water was similar to survival in air at 17 and 45% rh; survival of larvae in air at 75, 85, and 95% rh was considerably lower at corresponding t ...19846470888
caudal polymorphism and cephalic morphology among first-stage larvae of parelaphostrongylus odocoilei (protostrongylidae: elaphostrongylinae) in dall's sheep from the mackenzie mountains, canada.we demonstrate polymorphism in the structure of the tail among first-stage larvae of parelaphostrongylus odocoilei (protostrongylidae). two distinct larvae, both with a characteristic dorsal spine, include (1) a morphotype with a kinked conical tail marked by 3 distinct transverse folds or joints and a symmetrical terminal tail spike and (2) a morphotype with a digitate terminal region lacking folds or joints and with an asymmetrical, subterminal tail spike. these divergent larval forms had been ...200516539011
a redescription and neotype designation for parelaphostrongylus odocoilei (nematoda: metastronglyoidea).parelaphostrongylus odocoilei is redescribed from worms collected from the type host (odocoileus hemionus columbianus) in california, as well as material from experimentally infected mule deer (o. h. heminus) in alberta. a single male specimen from the california material is designated as the neotype of p. odocoilei, the type species of parelaphostrongylus. the male copulatory structures of the 3 species of parelaphostrongylus (p. tenuis, p. anderscni, and p. odocoilei) are reviewed and a key fo ...1978641663
parelaphostrongylus odocoilei (nematoda: protostrongylidae) and a protostrongylid nematode in woodland caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou) of alberta, canada.two size-groups of dorsal-spined, first-stage, nematode larvae were found in feces of woodland caribou, rangifer tarandus caribou (gmelin), in alberta from 1976-1982. larvae from caribou feces in northeastern alberta were 451 +/- 17 micrograms in length, while those from west-central alberta were 362 +/- 18 micrograms in length. larvae collected from west-central alberta developed to the infective stage, experimentally, in the terrestrial gastropod triodopsis multilineata (say) and were infectiv ...19862869151
parelaphostrongylus odocoilei: life cycle in experimentally infected cervids including the mule deer, odocoileus h. hemionus. 1978729704
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