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elaphostrongylus cervi cameron 1931 (nematoda: metastrongyloidea) in caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou) of newfoundland. 197943773
letter: dictyocaulis viviparus and elaphostrongylus cervi in wapiti. 1976131918
letter: elaphostrongylus cervi in red deer. 19761063944
elaphostrongylus cervi in cervids in new zealand. 1. the gross and histological lesions in red deer (cervus elaphus). 19761071464
[pathologic changes in the lungs of deer spontaneously infected with nematodes from the protostrongylidae family].lungs of 30 animals of the red deer (cervus elaphus hippelaphus) attacked by parasitic helminths were submitted to a histological examination, and the changes which were caused by the nematodes of protostrongylidae family were estimated. the lungworm varestrongylus sagittatus (mueller, 1891) creates hatching tubercles of a dark-red or yellow-green and even ochre colour. the lobular catarrhal bronchopneumonia is a histological correlate. in hatching tubercles there are located adult nematodes, ov ...19911771735
[experimental infection of 2 species of laboratory rodents with invasive larvae of elaphostrongylus cervi (nematoda, metastrongyloidea)].single doses (from 300 to 1000 larvi per an animal) of invasive larvae e. cervi cameron, 1931, obtained from experimentally infected snails helix pomatia l. were given to 17 guinea pigs and 17 golden hamsters. clinical nervous symptoms in the form of paresis and paralysis of limbs occurred only in the guinea pigs which were given a dose of 1000 larvi. these animals died in the period from the 75th to 117th day of infection. from their central nervous system single adult males and females of e. c ...19892728450
elaphostrongylus cervi in danish wild red deer (cervus elaphus). 19892922906
[experimental infection of poikilothermic vertebrates with stages i and iii larvae of elaphostrongylus cervi cameron, 1931]. 19883218246
elaphostrongylus cervi infection in moose (alces alces). prevalence and pathological changes in relation to age and season. 19873447471
experimental elaphostrongylus cervi infection in moose (alces alces). 19873447472
the prevalence of elaphostrongylus cervi infection in moose (alces alces) in southern norway. 19863565201
larvae of elaphostrongylus cervi in the deer of scotland.protostrongylid larvae were recovered from the faeces or lungs of red deer (cervus elaphus), roe deer (capreolus capreolus) and reindeer (rangifer tarandus) in scotland during 1981. typical protostrongylid first-stage larvae were also recovered from possible intermediate hosts, the grey field slug (agriolimax reticulata) and the white-soled slug (arion fasciatus). all these protostrongylid larvae were microscopically identical to those of the nematode elaphostrongylus cervi. despite careful sear ...19853992820
elaphostrongylus cervi cervi in the central nervous system of red deer (cervus elaphus) in scotland. 19854013046
[seasonal rhythm of the discharge of dictyocaulus viviparus, varestrongylus sagittatus and elaphostrongylus cervi larvae from the red deer (cervus elaphus)].the discharging of the first larvae of distyocaulus viviparus, varestrongylus sagittatus and elaphostrongylus cervi is regulated by a seasonal rhythm. this rhythm was studied in a deer population of 150 +/- 10 animals over a period of 4 years. the maximum discharges of d. viviparus are in may and june and those of the 2 other species are in the time from february to april. very good results of treatment were achieved with 3 x 7.5 mg and 5 x 3 mg fenbendazole/kg live weight against d. viviparus a ...19826211112
histopathological findings in the lungs of scottish red and roe deer.histopathology on portions of lung collected from 34 red deer (cervus elaphus) and 15 roe deer (capreolus capreolus) between 1977 and 1981 revealed evidence of lungworm infestation in 16 red and 14 roe deer. in the red deer, dictyocaulus species, and the developmental stages of another parasite, believed to be elaphostrongylus cervi, were involved. dictyocaulus also affected the roe deer, but in them the major lesions were associated with protostrongylids. exudative bronchopneumonia, including t ...19836220510
susceptibility of mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and two species of north american molluscs to elaphostrongylus cervi (nematoda: metastrongyloidea).an experimental study was done to determine whether elaphostrongylus cervi can be transmitted to common intermediate and definitive hosts indigenous to north america. first-stage larvae of e. cervi obtained from red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus) in new zealand developed to the infective third stage in snails (triodopis multilineata) and slugs (deroceros reticulatum). two mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) were inoculated orally with 102 or 406 third-stage larvae. one animal developed a patent infec ...19957623202
modes of entry of the first-stage larvae of elaphostrongylus cervi (nematoda: protostrongylidae) into pulmonate snails arianta arbustorum and helix pomatia.experimental infection of the pulmonate snails arianta arbustorum l. and helix pomatia l. with first-stage larvae of protostrongylid nematode elaphostrongylus cervi cameron, 1931 was performed in order to determine modes of larval entry into the body of the snail intermediate host. groups by four individuals of both snail species were examined histologically 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after the beginning of exposure and 1, 2, 4, and 7 days post infection. all 64 snails examined were found to be ...19947883253
[occurrence of larvae of protostrongylidae family in terrestrial snails in the woods of olsztyn and silesian districts].during the years 1992-1993 terrestrial snails were examined to the infection with larvae of protostrongylidae family in the south and north of poland. using compressor method 2267 terrestrial snails from two areas (pszczyna and iława) were examined. collected gastropods belonged to the following species: arion subfuscus (45 specimens), bradybaena fruticum (9), cepaea nemoralis (29), succinea putris (2147), zonitoides nitidus (37). larvae of three species of protostrongylidae family were found: e ...19947975655
diagnosis of elaphostrongylus cervi infection in new zealand red deer (cervus elaphus) quarantined in canada, and experimental determination of a new extended prepatent period.a modified baermann assay was used to recover dorsal-spined, first stage larvae of elaphostrongylus cervi from feces and lungs of red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus) from three of four herds imported from new zealand into canadian quarantine facilities. tests done on a series of fecal collections showed that larval output from infected red deer was low and sporadic, casting doubt on the efficacy of the baermann assay to detect all infected individuals in the herds. the animals had passed repeated ...19948076289
[attempt of experimental infection of sheep by invasive larvae of elaphostrongylus cervi (nematoda, metastrongyloidea)].three 1 year old sheep were infected per os with 1000, 2000, and 13,000 invasive larvae of elaphostrongylus cervi. animals did not show any clinical symptoms of invasion. no larvae of this nematode were found in the samples of faeces during the experiment. during post mortem examination of infected sheep no parasites or their larvae were found in tissues, and no pathological lesions caused by parasites were observed.19938122423
[long term survival of first stage larvae of elaphostrongylus cervi (nematoda, metastrongyloidea) in a frozen state].faeces of red deer from białowieza forest containing first stage larvae of elaphostrongylus cervi have been stored during five years in -20 degrees c. after this time 52% of the larvae survived. these larvae were fully alive and in experimentally infected snails helix pomatia developed to the infectious stage.19938237006
[cerebrospinal nematodiasis in seven goats].clinical findings in seven goats affected with cerebrospinal nematodiasis are described. the animals originated from different parts of switzerland. the disease occurred mainly in winter. the animals were admitted to the clinic because of progressive pelvic limb ataxia, recumbency, vestibular disease and circling. clinical findings were complete or incomplete posterior paresis, pelvic limb ataxia, circling, reduced cutaneous sensation and proprioceptive deficits as well as cranial nerve reflexes ...19979411735
[the occurrence of lumbar paralysis in goats and the appearance of elaphostrongylus cervi in red deer in the canton ticino].the aim of the study was to examine the incidence of lumbar paralysis in goats and the possible role of elaphostrongylus cervi as an agent. for this reason questionnaires concerning the clinical pictures and the incidence of lumbar paralysis were sent to 200 owners of goats and to 9 veterinarians. the study showed that the symptoms of lumbar paralysis had been observed for many years mainly during the winter. most of the animals suffering from lumbar paralysis originated from the valley of leven ...19989492579
tissue migration of elaphostrongylus spp. in guinea pigs (cavia porcellus).third-stage larvae of elaphostrongylus cervi, originating from red deer (cervus elaphus), first reached the central nervous system (cns) of guinea pigs (cavia porcellus) 11 days postinfection (dpi). neurologic signs were seen between 11 and 62 dpi in 4 of a total of 18 infected guinea pigs killed up to 112 dpi. animals showing signs had 3 or more larvae in the cns. only 1, of a total of 1,114 larvae recovered, had developed to the fourth stage at 40 dpi. a direct tissue migration by third-stage ...19989794639
comparative evaluation of two emigration/sedimentation techniques for the recovery of dictyocaulid and protostrongylid larvae from faeces.a comparison between the performance of a flask and a funnel method in recovering dictyocaulid and protostrongylid larvae from faeces revealed the clear superiority of the former. on an average, 137% (p<0.01) more dictyocaulus viviparus, 175% (p<0.05) more muellerius capillaris and 1709% (p < 0.01) more elaphostrongylus cervi larvae were recovered from samples processed by flask rather than funnel. attempts to further improve the flask method by substituting cloth stockinette for paper tissue, t ...19999950340
[investigations on the treatment of cerebrospinal nematode infections in goats].in 17 goats the therapeutical outcome of cerebrospinal nematodiasis, a parasitic infection in the central nervous system with the nematode elaphostrongylus cervi, is described. the diagnosis was made on the basis of physical findings and cerebrospinal fluid eosinophilia. the therapy was based on the administration of a non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug (flunixin meglumine) and two anthelmintics (fenbendazol, ivermectin) for five days. the response to therapy was documented immediately and 30 d ...199910028755
experimental elaphostrongylus cervi infection in sheep and goats.the pathogenesis and migratory life cycle of elaphostrongylus cervi were studied in four sheep and six goats killed and examined 6 days to 5 months after inoculation with infective third-stage larvae (l3). detailed histological studies demonstrated that the l3 followed a porto-hepatic, and probably also a secondary lymphatic, migratory route from the abomasum and small intestine to the lungs, with subsequent spread via the general circulation to the central nervous system (cns) and other tissues ...200011041994
differentiation of dorsal-spined elaphostrongyline larvae by polymerase chain reaction amplification of its-2 of rdna.molecular genetics was used to devise the first reliable diagnostic tool for differentiating morphologically indistinguishable dorsal-spined, first-stage larvae (l1's) and other stages of the nematode protostrongylid subfamily elaphostrongylinae. a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay employing specifically designed primers was developed to selectively amplify dna of the its-2 region of the ribosomal gene. amplification of the entire its-2 region differentiated between larvae of the genera elap ...200011085433
aspects of the life cycle and pathogenesis of elaphostrongylus cervi in red deer (cervus elaphus).aspects of the migratory life cycle and pathogenesis of elaphostrongylus cervi were studied in red deer (cervus elaphus) using 2 farmed calves experimentally infected with 450 third-stage larvae killed 40 and 45 days postinfection and using 3 wild calves and 3 wild yearlings with natural infections killed during autumn hunting. a full necropsy was carried out on the experimental calves, but only the head, eviscerated carcass, and lungs were examined from the naturally infected animals. histologi ...200011128481
purification of first-stage larvae of elaphostrongylus cervi (nematoda: protostrongylidae) from feces.parasites are often found in a milieu that requires extensive preparation and labor-intensive cleaning before they are suitable for use in analytical procedures. application of modern techniques in immunology and molecular biology demands pure yields of parasites. to purify first-stage (l1) larvae of elaphostrongylus cervi, fecal suspensions from an infected red deer were processed by the baermann method and embedded in a gel matrix with the objective of selectively trapping fecal debris. about ...200011191912
high prevalence of large spiny-tailed protostrongylid larvae in iberian red deer.the prevalence and abundance of protostrongylid larvae (nematoda: protostrongylidae) in 173 fecal samples of iberian red deer (cervus elaphus hispanicus erxleben, 1777) are presented. large (401(365-425)+/-24 micom) spiny-tailed larvae, comparable to the descriptions of first stage elaphostrongylus cervi larvae were found in 66.47+/-0.7% of the samples (range 6.8-100%, depending on the locality). the overall abundance of larvae in faces was overdispersed with an average of 24.94+/-96.23 (range 0 ...200111230923
elaphostrongylus cervi infection in a swiss goat. 200111321555
health protocol for translocation of free-ranging elk.when considering an elk (cervus elaphus) restoration program, wildlife managers must evaluate the positive and negative elements of translocation. we prepared this protocol to give an overview of health considerations associated with translocation of elk, with an emphasis on movement of free-ranging elk from western north america to the southeastern usa. we evaluated infectious agents and ectoparasites reported in elk from two perspectives. first, we made a qualitative estimate of the ability of ...200111504216
first report of elaphostrongylus cervi in spanish red deer cervus elaphus hispanicus.elaphostrongylus cervi cameron, 1931 was identified in six cervus elaphus hispanicus sampled in cuenca, central spain. a total of 23 adult worms were found in the central nervous system with a mean of 3.8. although e. cervi is reported to be widespread in cervids, this is the first time it has been recorded in spanish red deer.200212018203
assessment of domestic goats as a patent host of elaphostrongylus cervi.a study was undertaken to determine whether domestic goats can serve as patent hosts of elaphostrongylus cervi under natural or experimental conditions. three-hundred and two fecal samples from 124 domestic goats raised outdoors in new zealand, where e. cervi is enzootic, were tested for nematode larvae by the baermann method. all samples were negative for e. cervi dorsal-spined larvae. twenty juvenile male nubian and saanen goats obtained locally were assigned randomly to 5 dosage groups and we ...200212053987
identification of antigens with potential for immunodiagnosis of parelaphostrongylus tenuis and elaphostrongylus cervi infections in red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus).red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus) were infected experimentally with parelaphostrongylus tenuis in new brunswick, canada, and with elaphostrongylus cervi in new zealand. excretory-secretory (e-s) antigens from adult p. tenuis were evaluated for their serodiagnostic potential in identifying p. tenuis and heterologous e. cervi infections in a western blot. the antigen recognition profile of sera from animals infected with p. tenuis varied between individuals and with duration of infections, whereas ...200212099432
epidemiology of cerebrospinal elaphostrongylus cervi infection in red deer in central spain.elaphostrongylus cervi produces a subclinical cerebrospinal disease in many wild and domestic ruminants from europe, north america and new zealand and has recently been described in spain. to determine some aspects of its epidemiology, 121 red deer (cervus elaphus) from central spain were sampled during 2000. the prevalence (7%) and mean worm burden (3.8 worms per brain) were similar to the values previously recorded in other european areas. the infection was only detected in young deer during t ...200415469631
seasonal dynamics of the fecal excretion of elaphostrongylus cervi (nematoda, metastrongyloidea) first-stage larvae in iberian red deer (cervus elaphus hispanicus) from southern spain.elaphostrongylus cervi (nematoda, metastrongyloidea) is an extrapulmonary lungworm of red deer (cervus elaphus) whose first-stage larvae (l1) require terrestrial gastropods as intermediate hosts. the seasonal pattern of fecal excretion of e. cervi l1 in iberian red deer (cervus elaphus hispanicus) was monitored during three annual periods (june 2000-may 2003) on a hunting estate from south-central spain. the lowest rates of mean intensity of fecal l1 were found in summer, whereas no seasonal var ...200515565462
survey of internal parasitism and anthelmintic use in farmed deer.faecal samples and questionnaires from 115 and 130 farms respectively were used to survey the internal parasite status of the national deer herd and examine current drenching practices. the survey included farms with red deer and wapiti-red deer crosses (cervus elaphus), and fallow deer (dama dama). gastrointestinal nematode eggs were recorded from 84% of all farms, dictyocaulus viviparus larvae from 85% of all farms, and elaphostrongylus cervi larvae from 35% of the farms with c. elaphus. faeca ...198316030938
the experimental infection of guinea pigs with the tissue worm of deer - elaphostrongylus cervi.infection of six guinea pigs with up to 100 third-stage larvae of elaphostrongylus cervi produced clinical signs of severe weight loss and ataxia or death in five. these signs occurred approximately eighty days after the larvae had been given per os. single female e. cervi sub-adults were recovered from four affected animals and both a male and female e. cervi from one animal. individual worms were found at the base of the brain against the internal surface of the dura mater. histological and ha ...198516031168
epidemiology and risk factors analysis of elaphostrongylosis in red deer (cervus elaphus) from spain.we studied the distribution and faecal shedding pattern of the first-stage larvae (l1) of elaphostrongylus cervi (nematoda: protostrongylidae) in the red deer (cervus elaphus) across spain, where excretion was widespread. we evaluated the effects of individual, population and environmental factors on e. cervi l1 counts in 18 free-ranging red deer populations in south central spain. in this area, prevalence was 71.42+/-2.14% (n = 448) and mean intensity (n = 320) was 74.50+/-10.35. aggregation of ...200616265599
efficacy of in-feed-administered ivermectin on elaphostrongylus cervi first-stage excretion in red deer (cervus elaphus). 200616331471
[attempt of deworming of red and fallow deer in deer farm with rintal premix].rintal 2.4% premix (bayer) in single dose 7.5 mg of active substance on kg body weight was given to the calves of red and fallow deer. effectiveness of deworming against nematodes from family trichostrongylidae was 85.2% in red and 97.8% in fallow deer. against namatodes from genus trichocephalus the effectiveness was higher extending in red deer 98.1%, and in fallow deer 99.5%. anthelmintic was not effective against nematodes varestrongylus sagittatus and elaphostrongylus cervi.199916888990
[case report of elaphostrongylus cervi in a goat in north italy].a case of cerebral nematodiasis in a goat from lombardy (north italy) is described. clinical signs, histopathological lesions and the finding of a nematode in cerebral tissue sections of the affected animal confirmed the diagnosis of infection with elaphostrongylus cervi.200617176957
[cerebrospinal nematodosis in sheep in switzerland].in december 2005 three sheep, originating from canton tessin, were presented with cerebrospinal nematodosis. the animals had a history of progressive pelvic limb ataxia and recumbency. the most important clinical findings were an abnormal gait (wide stance, pelvic limb paresis) and decreased sensitivity of the pelvic limbs. the general condition was slightly or moderately disturbed, appetite was normal. examination of the cerebrospinal fluid revealed mononuclear cells and eosinophils, suggesting ...200617209510
larvae of elaphostrongylus cervi in a population of free-living red deer in italy.hunter-killed red deer (n = 68; cervus elaphus) harvested from the italian provinces of bologna (emilia romagna) and pistoia (tuscany) (44 degrees 00'n 11 degrees 00'e) from october 2001 to january 2002 were examined for protostrongylid larvae. twenty-eight animals (41%) had protostrongylid larvae in feces, lungs, and inguinal and iliac lymph nodes. of these 28 animals, 20 were adults (71%), four were yearlings (14%), and four were calves (14%). shape, length, width, and the location to the nema ...200617255458
sex, age, spleen size, and kidney fat of red deer relative to infection intensities of the lungworm elaphostrongylus cervi.we analyzed the relationships among spleen size, body condition (measured as kidney fat), and larval counts of the nematode elaphostrongylus cervi in red deer (cervus elaphus). the aim was to investigate the interaction between host body condition and intensity of infection with parasites. as red deer are highly polygynous, we also tested whether these relationships varied with sex and age of the hosts. kidney fat and spleen size were positively correlated in subadults (2-3 years old) and adults ...200717340117
the importance of parasite life history and host density in predicting the impact of infections in red deer.we studied a macroparasite (elaphostrongylus cervi, nematoda) and a microparasite infection (tuberculosis, tb) in red deer (cervus elaphus) across different populations where managers manipulated host condition, density and aggregation by providing supplemental food. we aimed to test whether and, if so, how persistence and transmission of both parasites differentially varied as host body condition and population density varied. we took account of sex, as red deer life history greatly concerns se ...200717401583
minimum sampling effort for reliable non-invasive estimations of excretion abundance of elaphostrongylus cervi l1 in red deer (cervus elaphus) populations.faecal surveys are commonly used as non-invasive means to evaluate population abundance of animals as well as comparable indexes of prevalence and intensity of diseases between populations, especially macroparasites. while faecal surveys are among one of the simplest means to perform these evaluations, they are time consuming and labour intensive. the present study evaluated 80 red deer (cervus elaphus) faecal samples collected in two study sites for the presence and abundance of first-stage lar ...200818416882
[investigations on the biology of nematodes elaphostrongylus cervi and epizootiology of elaphostrongylosis].elaphostrongylus cervi is a parasite of the family protostrongylidae, occurring in cervids in eurasia. this nematode has hitherto been recorded in some woodland areas in poland. the current distribution of e. cervi in poland was studied in the frames of the presently reported thesis. the above-mentioned nematode was found in deer in eight additional voivodeships, and in all thirteen forest management units examined. the prevalence values ranged from 66.7% to 100%. the above facts justify the sta ...200919579790
[an attempt of experimental infection of fishes and chickens with invasive larvae of elaphostrongylus cervi (nematoda, protostrongylidae)].elaphostrongylus cervi is a parasite of skeletal muscles and central nervous system of wild and farm red deer in europe and asia. numerous species of terrestrial snails can be its intermediate hosts. considering the fact that invasive larvae of e. cervi are released by deer to the external environment in huge numbers, fishes and birds can be accidentally infect by them. in this study the development of larvae e. cervi in those nonspecific hosts was discussed. it was determined that invasive larv ...200919856837
[the way of penetration of first stage larvae of elaphostrongylus cervi (nematoda, protostrongylidae) to the intermediate host and their development to the invasive stage].the aim of the study was the way of penetration of the first stage larvae of elaphostrongylus cervi to the intermediate host and their development to the invasive stage. the first stage larvae of e. cervi penetrate to the body of a snail by the epithelium of its foot, and localise in tissue of muscles. the period of their development to the second stage is 7 to 9 days, and to the third stage is 21 to 28 days.200919856838
elaphostrongylus cervi in a population of red deer ( cervus elaphus) and evidence of cerebrospinal nematodiasis in small ruminants in the province of varese, italy.thirty-one faecal samples were collected from red deer in the northern area of varese, in the italian region of lombardy, between august and october 2008. the animals had either been hunted or accidently killed. examination for internal parasites showed a prevalence of 45.2% for elaphostrongylus cervi larvae and species identification was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). ninety-seven faecal samples were also collected from two goat flocks grazing in the same area between december 20 ...201020923583
molecular phylogeny and diagnosis of species of the family protostrongylidae from caprine hosts in uzbekistan.protostrongylids are important pulmonary parasites of ungulates, particularly caprines. their complex life cycles involve terrestrian gastropods as intermediate hosts. morphological discrimination of larvae in feces and snails is impossible to the species level, and molecular data are missing for many species. to improve diagnosis and epidemiology of protostrongylids, this study describes internal transcribed spacer 2 (its-2) sequences for five protostrongylid and one metastrongylid species from ...201525595657
lungworm (nematoda: protostrongylidae) infection in wild and domestic ruminants from małopolska region of poland.the conducted study has focused on domestic, as well as wild ruminant species. the post mortem examination was carried out on 68 animals, including three wild species: roe deer (capreolus capreolus) (25 indyviduals), red deer (cervus elaphus) (6), fallow deer (dama dama) (5) and two domestic: sheep (ovis aries) (14) and cattle (bos taurus) (18). some of the species have also been investigated in the field by the coproscopical analyses. the faecal samples from roe deer (27), fallow deer (20), red ...201627262959
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