[scanning electron microscopic observations of monochamus alternatus antennal sensilla and their electroantennographic responses].with scanning electron microscope (sem), this paper observed the shape, category, amount and distribution of the main antenna sensilla of adult monochamus alternatus, and tested their electroantennographic (eag) responses to the main volatiles of pinus spp.. there were seven types of antennal sensilla, i. e., sensilla trichoid, sensilla basiconica, sensilla digit-like, sensilla rod-like, sensilla bottle-like, sensilla bud-like and sensilla chaetica, among which, sensilla trichoid and sensilla ba ...200515852930
[electroantennogram and behavioral responses of monochamus alternatus to the volatiles from pinus thunbergii with different physiological status].the volatiles from healthy and pinewood nematode-infested branches of pinus thunbergii were collected by distillation, and analyzed by using hplc and gc-ms. electroantennogram (eag) and behavioral responses of monochamus alternatus with different physiological status to the volatiles were investigated respectively. the results showed that unmated beetle had a greater eag response potential to the volatiles from healthy branch than to those from infested branch, while it was reverse for mated bee ...200616964943
[three-dimensional spatial distribution patterns of monochamus alternatus and its natural enemy dastarcus helophoroides].in 2003 to approximately 2005, the monochamus alternatus-infected pinus thunbergii, p. massoniana and p. elliotii in pure and mixed forests were selected as attractants and dissected with one meter section manner, and five aggregation indices were used to analyze the spatial distribution patterns of m. alternatus and its natural enemy dastarcus helophoroides. the results showed that m. alternatus and d. helophoroides had the horizontal distribution indices of diffused coefficient c > 1, diffused ...200617066721
maturation feeding and transmission of bursaphelenchus xylophilus (nematoda: parasitaphelenchidae) by monochamus alternatus (coleoptera: cerambycidae) inoculated with beauveria bassiana (deuteromycotina: hyphomycetes).we examined the amount of maturation feeding and transmission of pinewood nematodes, bursaphelenchus xylophilus (steiner et buhrer) nickle (nematoda: parasitaphelenchidae), to healthy pine (pinus spp.) trees by pine sawyer monochamus alternatus hope (coleoptera: cerambycidae) adults infected with beauveria bassiana (balsamo) vuill. (deuteromycotina: hyphomycetes). inoculated beetles fed less than noninoculated beetles, probably because feeding by inoculated beetles began to decrease at about 4 d ...200717370808
chemotaxis of the pinewood nematode, bursaphelenchus xylophilus, to volatiles associated with host pine, pinus massoniana, and its vector monochamus alternatus.the pinewood nematode (pwn), bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the most important invasive species in pine forests of asia, is transported to new pine hosts by beetles of the genus monochamus. third-stage dispersal juveniles (j(iii)) aggregate in pupal chambers around the vector as it matures. we demonstrated that the ratio of three terpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and longifolene at 1:2.7:1.1) released by larval monochamus alternatus strongly attract j(iii), whereas the different ratio (1:0.1:0.0 ...200717447123
the cloning and expression of alpha-tubulin in monochamus alternatus.the japanese pine sawyer monochamus alternatus is one of the major forest pests. it damages pine directly and transfers the nematode bursaphelenchus xylophilus to pine wood; resulting in serious economic losses around the world every year. alpha-tubulin is one of most important proteins in most species. we cloned a ubiquitously expressed m. alternatus alpha-tubulin gene and analysed its nucleotides and protein structure; its sequence characters are consistent with what have been reported in othe ...200818754809
horizontal transmission of bursaphelenchus xylophilus between sexes of monochamus alternatus.four experiments were conducted using nematode-infested and nematode-free adults of the cerambycid beetle, monochamus alternatus, to determine horizontal transmission pathways of bursaphelenchus xylophilus. when nematode-infested beetles of one sex and nematode-free beetles of the opposite sex were paired in containers for 48 or 72 hours, the number of nematodes carried by nematode-free beetles tended to increase with increased number of nematodes carried by nematode-infested beetles. the nemato ...200319265968
history of pine wilt disease in japan.pine wilt disease induced by the pinewood nematode, bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a great threat to pine forests in japan. the first occurrence of the disease was reported in nagasaki, kyushu. during the 1930s the disease occurrence was extended in 12 prefectures, and in the 1940s the disease was found in 34 prefectures. the annual loss of pine trees increased from 30,000 m(3) to 1.2 million m(3) during these two decades. the enormous increase in timber loss in the 1970s resulted in 2.4 million ...198819290205
nemtaode-vector relationships in the pine wilt disease system.pinewood nematode, bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the causal agent of pine wilt disease in north america and japan. dispersal stage dauer larvae are transported to new host trees on the body surface and within the tracheal system of several beetle species. worldwide, 21 species of cerambycidae, 1 genus of buprestidae, and 2 species of curculionidae are known to carry pinewood nematode dauer larvae upon emerging from nematode-infested trees. five species of cerambycids in the genus monochamus are ...198819290206
longicorn beetle that vectors pinewood nematode carries many wolbachia genes on an autosome.monochamus alternatus is the longicorn beetle notorious as a vector of the pinewood nematode that causes the pine wilt disease. when two populations of m. alternatus were subjected to diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (pcr) detection of four wolbachia genes, only the ftsz gene was detected from one of the populations. the wolbachia ftsz gene persisted even after larvae were fed with a tetracycline-containing diet for six weeks. the inheritance of the ftsz gene was not maternal but biparental, ...200919692404
structure-based analysis of the ligand-binding mechanism for dhelobp21, a c-minus odorant binding protein, from dastarcus helophoroides (fairmaire; coleoptera: bothrideridae).odorant binding proteins (obps) transport hydrophobic odor molecules across the sensillar lymph to trigger a neuronal response. herein, the minus-c obp (dhelobp21) was characterized from dastarcus helophoroides, the most important natural parasitic enemy insect that targets monochamus alternatus. homology modeling and molecular docking were conducted on the interaction between dhelobp21 and 17 volatile molecules (including volatiles from pine bark, the larva of m. alternatus, and the faeces of t ...201526435694
preliminary trials of the ethanedinitrile fumigation of logs for eradication of bursaphelenchus xylophilus and its vector insect monochamus alternatus.the nematode bursaphelenchus xylophilus and its insect vectors from the monochamus genus are major global quarantine pests of timber products. owing to the phase-out of methyl bromide for plant quarantine and preshipment treatments, an alternative fumigant is essential. based on preliminary laboratory studies on the efficacy of ethanedinitrile (c2 n2 ) to b. xylophilus and monochamus alternatus, three quarantine trials were conducted at three dosages and three temperatures. potential for inhalat ...201627862932
dispersal of the japanese pine sawyer, monochamus alternatus (coleoptera: cerambycidae), in mainland china as inferred from molecular data and associations to indices of human activity.the japanese pine sawyer, monochamus alternatus hope (coleoptera: cerambycidae), is an important forest pest as well as the principal vector of the pinewood nematode (pwn), bursaphelenchus xylophilus (steiner et buhrer), in mainland china. despite the economic importance of this insect-disease complex, only a few studies are available on the population genetic structure of m. alternatus and the relationship between its historic dispersal pattern and various human activities. the aim of the prese ...201323469026
maternal care in the parasitoid sclerodermus harmandi (hymenoptera: bethylidae).guarding behavior is an important activity in sub-social insects, and this behavior is believed to improve the survival of offspring. sclerodermus harmandi (hymenoptera: bethylidae) is one of most powerful epizoic parasitoid wasps, and it parasitizes monochamus alternatus, a borer of wood and also the primary vector of the pinewood nematode bursaphelenchus xylophilus. after laying eggs, s. harmandi exhibits sub-social behavior involving the female tending the clutch of eggs until emergence (guar ...201223251468
ophiostoma ips from pinewood nematode vector, japanese pine sawyer beetle (monochamus alternatus), in korea.japanese pine sawyer beetle (monochamus alternatus) is an economically important pest in coniferous trees. ophiostoma ips was isolated from the beetle and identified based on analysis of morphological properties and the β-tubulin gene sequence. the fungus easily produced perithecia with a long neck on malt extract agar and its ascospores were rectangular shaped. this is first report of ophiostoma species associated with the pinewood nematode vector beetle in korea.201323610541
complete coding region of the mitochondrial genome of monochamus alternatus hope (coleoptera: cerambycidae).the japanese pine sawyer, monochamus alternatus hope, 1842, an important forest pest, mainly occurs in far east. it is the main vector of pine wood nematode bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which causes pine wilt disease. we determined the complete mitochondrial genome coding region of m. alternatus using long pcr and conserved primer walking. our results show that the entire mitogenome coding region is 14,649 bp long, with 78.22% a+t content [deposited in genbank (jx987292)]. positions and arrangeme ...201323829217
pathogenicity of the pinewood nematode, bursaphelenchus xylophilus, to japanese larch, larix kaempferi, seedlings.pathogenicity of the pine wood nematode, bursaphelenchus xylophilus, to japanese larch, larix kaempferi, seedlings was tested with inoculation experiments under nursery conditions. water suspensions of nematodes (mixed stages cultured on botrytis cinerea or dispersal fourth-stage juveniles (dj4) extracted from the adult japanese pine sawyer, monochamus alternatus) were injected into the stems of 2- and 3-year-old japanese larch and japanese black pine, pinus thunbergii, seedlings growing in a nu ...200922661789
identification of genes relevant to pesticides and biology from global transcriptome data of monochamus alternatus hope (coleoptera: cerambycidae) larvae.monochamus alternatus hope is the main vector in china of the pine wilt disease caused by the pine wood nematode bursaphelenchus xylophilus. although chemical control is traditionally used to prevent pine wilt disease, new strategies based in biological control are promising ways for the management of the disease. however, there is no deep sequence analysis of monochamus alternatus hope that describes the transcriptome and no information is available about gene function of this insect vector. we ...201626815657
temperature effects on the transmission of bursaphelenchus xylophilus (nemata: aphelenchoididae) by monochamus alternatus (coleoptera: cerambycidae).the object of this research was to investigate the effects of ambient temperature on the transmission of the pinewood nematode, bursaphelenchus xylophilus, by its vector, monochamus alternatus. ninety m. alternatus were reared individually at one of three constant temperatures (16, 20, and 25 degrees c). as the ambient temperature decreased from 25 to 16 degrees c, longevity of vectors decreased, nematode transmission efficiency decreased, and the peak period of nematode transmission was delayed ...200019270955
newly discovered transmission pathway of bursaphelenchus xylophilus from males of the beetle monochamus alternatus to pinus densiflora trees via oviposition wounds.the transmission of bursaphelenchus xylophilus from monochamus alternatus males to pinus densiflora trees via oviposition wounds has been determined. nematode-infested males, with mandibles fixed experimentally to prevent feeding, were placed for 48 hours with pine bolts containing oviposition wounds that had been made by nematode-free females. after removal of the nematode-infested males, the pine bolts were held for 1 month and then examined for the presence of nematodes. reproducing nematode ...200219265963
cloning and rnai-mediated functional characterization of malac2 of the pine sawyer, monochamus alternatus.laccase, a member of a group of proteins collectively known as multicopper oxidases, is hypothesized to play an important role in insect cuticle sclerotization by oxidizing catechols in the cuticle to their corresponding quinones, which then catalyze protein cross-linking reactions. laccase 2 has been proved as the gene required for beetle cuticle tanning through rna interference (rnai) experiments on red flour beetle tribolium castaneum. the pine sawyer beetle, monochamus alternatus (coleoptero ...200818477244
[molecular evaluation on the efficacy of sustainable control of monochamus alternatus by non-woven fabric fungal bands impregnated with beauveria bassiana].by using molecular marker of group i intron, a field evaluation was made on the efficacy of sustainable control of monochamus alternatus by non-woven fabric bands impregnated with beauveria bassiana. the results showed that the control efficacy in two treated plots was 19.5% and 10.8%, and 14.2% and 11% when evaluated with conventional and molecular evaluation methods, respectively, suggesting that the conventional method which evaluated the control efficacy in terms of microbes mortality or inf ...200717552194
oviposition deterrence associated with larval frass of the japanese pine sawyer, monochamus alternatus (coleoptera: cerambycidae).to determine the effect of larval frass of monochamus alternatus on oviposition preference of the female adults, three tests were performed in the laboratory. individual females were provided with a frass-coated, pinus densiflora bolt and an untreated bolt simultaneously and were allowed to oviposit for 24 h. they deposited a significantly smaller number of eggs on frass-coated bolts. the females supplied with frass-coated bolts deposited no eggs on them, indicating that the larval frass deterre ...200212770095
a demographic analysis of mortality caused by the pine wood nematode (bursaphelenchus xylophilus) and pine sawyer beetles (monochamus alternatus) in pine forests in the seto inland sea-side, japan.demographic characteristics were examined in 51 study sites in naturally occurring pine populations in the seto inland sea-side. the pine forests consisted on average of 51.4% japanese red pine,pinus densiflora, 28.9% japanese black pine,pinus thunbergii, and 19.7% hybrids of the two species, and occurred along an elevatinal gradient from denser, younger secondary forest regrowing after disturbance, to more mature stands at higher elevations. the proportion of dead trees did not vary much among ...198628311773
fungi isolated from pine wood nematode, its vector japanese pine sawyer, and the nematode-infected japanese black pine wood in korea.pine tree death caused by pine wood nematode (pwn) involves phoretic relationships between pwn and its vector japanese pine sawyer beetle (jps). in an effort to understand the diversity of fungi involved in pwn life cycle, a total of 176 fungal isolates were collected from pwns, adults and larvae of jps, pwn-diseased japanese black pine that was cut down in 2005 at jinju, korea. based on microscopic observation and colony morphology, and sequence analysis of the its rdna, the fungal isolates wer ...200724015089
a male-produced aggregation pheromone of monochamus alternatus (coleoptera: cerambycidae), a major vector of pine wood nematode.the beetle monochamus alternatus hope (coleoptera: cerambycidae) is an efficient vector of pine wood nematode, the causal pathogen of pine wilt disease, that has resulted in devastating losses of pines in much of asia. we assessed the response of adult m. alternatus to 2-(undecyloxy)-ethanol, the male-produced pheromone of the congeneric m. galloprovincialis dejean, in field experiments in fujian province, people's republic of china. both sexes of m. alternatus were attracted to lures consisting ...201122066189
the ratio and concentration of two monoterpenes mediate fecundity of the pinewood nematode and growth of its associated fungi.the pinewood nematode (pwn) bursaphelenchus xylophilus, vectored primarily by the sawyer beetle, monochamus alternatus, is an important invasive pest and causal agent of pine wilt disease of chinese masson pine, pinus massoniana. previous work demonstrated that the ratios and concentrations of α-pinene:β-pinene differed between healthy trees and those trees containing blue-stain fungus (and m. alternatus pupae). however, the potential influence of the altered monoterpene ratios and concentration ...201222363713
a native fungal symbiont facilitates the prevalence and development of an invasive pathogen-native vector symbiosis.invasive pathogen-insect symbioses have been extensively studied in many different ecological niches. whether the damage of symbioses in different introduced regions might be influenced by other microorganisms has, however, received little attention. eight years of field data showed that the varied levels of the nematode and beetle populations and infested trees of the invasive bursaphelenchus xylophilus--monochamus alternatus symbiosis were correlated with patterns in the isolation frequencies ...201324597227
metabolic profiling of somatic tissues from monochamus alternatus (coleoptera: cerambycidae) reveals effects of irradiation on metabolism.a high-level of sexual sterility is of importance for the sterile insect technique (sit). however, the use of high-dose-intensity gamma radiation to induce sterility has negative impacts not only on reproductive cells but also on somatic cells. in this study, we investigated the metabolite differences in somatic tissues between non-irradiated, 20-gy-irradiated, and 40-gy-irradiated male monochamus alternatus, an important vector of the pathogenic nematode, bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which kills ...201424937685
comparison of ethanedinitrile (c2n2) and metam sodium for control of bursaphelenchus xylophilus (nematoda: aphelenchidae) and monochamus alternatus (coleoptera: cerambycidae) in naturally infested logs at low temperatures.the bursaphelenchus xylophilus, commonly known as pinewood nematode in japan, is a quarantine pest and is most often associated with beetles of the genus monochamus, the pine sawyers, particularly monochamus alternatus. long-distance dispersal of the nematode and its vectors led to widespread losses in pine forests. two fumigation trials were conducted for treatment of logs naturally infested with both m. alternatus and b. xylophilus. the logs were treated with ethanedinitrile or metam sodium at ...201426470069
bacterial community associated to the pine wilt disease insect vectors monochamus galloprovincialis and monochamus alternatus.monochamus beetles are the dispersing vectors of the nematode bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causative agent of pine wilt disease (pwd). pwd inflicts significant damages in eurasian pine forests. symbiotic microorganisms have a large influence in insect survival. the aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial community associated to pwd vectors in europe and east asia using a culture-independent approach. twenty-three monochamus galloprovincialis were collected in portugal (two differe ...201627045340
comparative analysis of the monochamus alternatus immune system.the pine sawyer beetle, monochamus alternatus, is regarded as a notorious forest pest in asia, vectoring an invasive pathogenic nematode, bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which is known to cause pine wilt disease. however, little sequence information is available for this vector beetle. this hampered the research on its immune system. based on transcriptome of m. alternatus, we have identified and characterized 194 immunity-related genes in m. alternatus, and compared them with homologues molecules f ...201728247970
evaluation of different applications of ethanedinitrile (c2n2) in various fumigation chambers for control of monochamus alternatus (coleoptera: cerambycidae) in naturally infested logs.monochamus alternatus hopeis is an important vector of nematode pests of timber in korea, particularly bursaphelenchus xylophilus (steiner & buhrer) nickle. previously, we reported that ethanedinitrile (c2n2) has the potential to replace methyl bromide and metam sodium to control m. alternatus larvae and b. xylophilus under low-temperature (<5 °c) conditions. herein, we report on fumigation trials of c2n2 over a 3-yr period (february 2013-october 2015) conducted at higher temperatures. the trial ...201728334182
identification of differentially expressed genes in monochamus alternatus digested with azadirachtin.the pine sawyer beetle monochamus alternatus hope, a major forest insect pest, is the primary vector of the destructive forest pest pine wood nematode, bursaphelenchus xylophilus. azadirachtin, an active compound of neem, is biologically interesting because it represents a group of important, successful botanical pesticides. we provide insight into the molecular effects of azadirachtin on m. alternatus at the transcriptional level to provide clues about possible molecular-level targets and to es ...201627629396
dna barcoding for biosecurity: case studies from the uk plant protection program.since its conception, dna barcoding has seen a rapid uptake within the research community. nevertheless, as with many new scientific tools, progression towards the point of routine deployment within diagnostic laboratories has been slow. in this paper, we discuss the application of dna barcoding in the defra plant health diagnostic laboratories, where dna barcoding is used primarily for the identification of invertebrate pests. we present a series of case studies that demonstrate the successful ...201627792411
analysis of chemosensory gene families in the beetle monochamus alternatus and its parasitoid dastarcus helophoroides.we assembled antennal transcriptomes of pest monochamus alternatus and its parasitoid dastarcus helophoroides to identify the members of the major chemosensory multi-gene families. gene ontology (go) annotation indicated that the relative abundance of transcripts associated with specific go terms was highly similar in the two species. in chemosensory gene families, we identified 52 transcripts encoding putative odorant-binding proteins (obps), 19 chemosensory proteins (csps), 10 olfactory recept ...201424893337
diplogasteroides asiaticus n. sp. is associated with monochamus alternatus in japan.diplogasteroides asiaticus n. sp. is described and illustrated, and its molecular profile and phylogenetic status within the family diplogastridae are inferred. morphologically, the new species is characterized by its stomatal structure, a tube-like stoma with three small, rod-like dorsal teeth and two subventral ridges; a spicule clearly ventrally bent at 1/3 from the anterior end; a gubernaculum with a rounded anterior end and sharply pointed distal end in lateral view; nine pairs of genital p ...201526170472
antennal sensilla in the parasitoid sclerodermus sp. (hymenoptera: bethylidae).parasitoid wasps of the genus sclerodermus (hymenoptera: bethylidae) are an important natural enemy of the japanese pine sawyer beetle monochamus alternatus hope (coleoptera: cerambycidae). in this study, we used scanning electron microscopy to examine the external morphology of the antennal sensilla of sclerodermus sp. antennae of females and males comprised the scape, pedicel, and 11 flagellomere segments. based on the morphology of the sensilla in each sex, seven types of sensillum were ident ...201525843589
inhibitory effect of bursaphelenchus mucronatus (nematoda: aphelenchoididae) on b. xylophilus boarding adult monochamus alternatus (coleoptera: cerambycidae).inhibitory effects of bursaphelenchus mucronatus on the number of b. xylophilus carried by an adult monochamus alternatus were investigated using artificial pupal chambers. when pupal chambers were infested with either b. xylophilus or b. mucronatus, the load of b. xylophilus onto the beetle was greater (p < 0.001) than that of b. mucronatus. however, within the pupal chamber there was no difference in the abundance of the third-stage dispersal juveniles, which would molt to the fourth-stage dis ...200419262792
effect of bombyx mori chitinase against japanese pine sawyer (monochamus alternatus) adults as a biopesticide.bombyx mori chitinase (bm-chi), with a molecular mass of 75 kda, was investigated on the possibility that it can serve as a biocontrol agent against the adult japanese pine sawyer (jps), monochamus alternatus (coleoptera: cerambycidae). oral ingestion of purified chitinase at concentrations of 3 microm (11.25 microg/50 microl) and 0.3 micom (1.125 microg/50 microl) caused high mortality in jps, a significant decrease in bark consumption, and, only in high concentration, a slight reduction of bod ...200616428840
a new method for loading bursaphelenchus xylophilus (nematoda: aphelenchoididae) on adult monochamus alternatus (coleoptera: cerambycidae).a new method was developed for loading the pinewood nematode, bursaphelenchus xylophilus (steiner et buhrer) nickle, on the beetle monochamus alternatus hope. postdiapause beetle larvae were sterilized with 70 and 99.9% aqueous ethanol and placed singly in flasks where b. xylophilus reproduced on the fungus ophiostoma minus (hedgcock) h. et p. sydow that had been grown on autoclaved barley grain and pinus densifiora sieb. et zucc. wood chips. the fungus produced a large nematode population that ...200415279275
current research on the major nematode problems in japan.among important nematode species occurring in japan, current research achievements with the following four nematodes are reviewed: 1) soybean cyst nematode (scn), heterodera glycines - breeding for resistance, race determination, association with cephalosporium gregatum in azuki bean disease, and isolation of hatching stimulant. 2) potato-cyst nematode (pcn), globodera rostochiensis - pathotype determination (ro 1), breeding for resistance, and control recommendations. 3) pinewood nematode (pwn) ...198819290201
a nondestructive method of determining bursaphelenchus xylophilus infestation of monochamus spp. vectors.pine wilt is caused by the nematode bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which is transported to host trees in the trachea of monochamus spp. (coleoptera: cerambycidae). the study of the relationship between the nematode and its beetle vectors has been hampered by the inability to estimate nematode presence or density within live beetles. this report describes a rapid method for estimating nematode load within live m. carolinensis and m. alternatus by visual examination of the atrium of the first abdomin ...199519277259
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