diversity of bacteria associated with natural aphid populations.the bacterial communities of aphids were investigated by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of 16s rrna gene fragments generated by pcr with general eubacterial primers. by both methods, the gamma-proteobacterium buchnera was detected in laboratory cultures of six parthenogenetic lines of the pea aphid acyrthosiphon pisum and one line of the black bean aphid aphis fabae, and one or more of four previously described bacterial tax ...200314660369
attributes of bean yellow mosaic potyvirus transmission from clover to snap beans by four species of aphids (homoptera: aphididae).after characterization of the natural spread of necrosis-inducing bean yellow mosaic potyvirus (family potyviridae, genus potyvirus, bymv(n)), nonpersistently transmitted from clover, trifolium repens l., to an adjacent field of snap bean, phaseolus vulgaris l., in western oregon, we established a study site enabling us to investigate the virus reservoir, to observe en masse transmission of bymv(n) to bean plants, and to identify aphid species associated with virus spread. colonies of myzus pers ...200516539099
plum pox in north america: identification of aphid vectors and a potential role for fruit in virus spread.abstract thirteen aphid species were tested for their ability to transmit pennsylvania isolates of plum pox virus (ppv) collected in columbia (penn-3), franklin (penn-4), and york (penn-7) counties, pa. four species, aphis fabae, a. spiraecola, brachycaudus persicae, and myzus persicae, consistently transmitted ppv in preliminary transmission tests. two species, metopolophium dirhodum and rhopalosiphum padi, were occasional inefficient vectors. toxoptera citricida, from florida, also was an effe ...200418943108
parasitoids as vectors of facultative bacterial endosymbionts in aphids.heritable bacterial endosymbionts play an important role in aphid ecology. sequence-based evidence suggests that facultative symbionts such as hamiltonella defensa or regiella insecticola also undergo horizontal transmission. other than through male-to-female transfer during the sexual generation in autumn, the routes by which this occurs remain largely unknown. here, we tested if parasitoids or ectoparasitic mites can act as vectors for horizontal transfer of facultative symbionts. using symbio ...201222417790
toxicity of three insecticides to lysiphlebus fabarum, a parasitoid of the black bean aphid, aphis fabae.abstract the toxicity of three insecticides to lysiphlebus fabarum (marshall) (hymenoptera: braconidae: aphidiinae), a parasitoid of aphis fabae scopoli (hemiptera: aphididae), was investigated using iobc/wprs protocols. abamectin 1.8 ec, imidacloprid 350 sc, and pymetrozine 25 wp were tested under laboratory conditions at recommended field rates. immature stages of the parasitoid were exposed to materials by briefly dipping mummified aphids into insecticide solutions/suspensions or water (con ...201122221255
design, synthesis, and biological activities of milbemycin analogues.milbemycins have received considerable interest in agricultural chemistry due to a special action mode, extremely high activity against arachnoide pests, low toxicity to mammals, and environmentally benign characteristics. two series of novel milbemycin analogues (4ia-6iic) containing alkyl and aryl groups at the 4'- and 13-positions were designed and synthesized by five schemes. these analogues were identified by (1)h nmr, (13)c nmr, and elemental analysis (or hrms). their insecticidal activiti ...201121452899
isolation, pure culture and characterization of serratia symbiotica, the r-type of secondary endosymbionts of the black bean aphid aphis intracellular symbiotic bacterium was isolated from the flora of a natural clone of the black bean aphid aphis fabae. the strain was able to grow freely in aerobic condition on a rich medium containing 1% of each of following substrates; dextrose, yeast extract and peptone of casein. pure culture was achieved through the use of solid-phase culture on the same medium and was designated cwbi-2.3t. 16s ribosomal dna sequence analysis revealed that cwbi-2.3t strain was a member of the gamma-3 sub ...201020870890
genotypic variation and the role of defensive endosymbionts in an all-parthenogenetic host-parasitoid interaction.models of host-parasite coevolution predict pronounced genetic dynamics if resistance and infectivity are genotype-specific or associated with costs, and if selection is fueled by sufficient genetic variation. we addressed these assumptions in the black bean aphid, aphis fabae, and its parasitoid lysiphlebus fabarum. parasitoid genotypes differed in infectivity and host clones exhibited huge variation for susceptibility. this variation occurred at two levels. clones harboring hamiltonella defens ...200919228189
molecular analysis of predation on parasitized hosts.predation on parasitized hosts can significantly affect natural enemy communities, and such intraguild predation may indirectly affect control of herbivore populations. however, the methodological challenges for studying these often complex trophic interactions are formidable. here, we evaluate a dna-based approach to track parasitism and predation on parasitized hosts in model herbivore-parasitoid-predator systems. using singleplex polymerase chain reaction (sp-pcr) to target mtdna of the paras ...200818439340
antibiotics, primary symbionts and wing polyphenism in three aphid species.the possible role of the primary buchnera symbionts in wing polyphenism is examined in three aphid species. presumptive winged aphids were fed on antibiotic-treated beans to destroy these symbionts. as previously reported, this leads to inhibited growth and low/zero fecundity. when such treatment is applied to the short-day-induced gynoparae (the winged autumn migrant) of the black bean aphid, aphis fabae, it also causes many insects to develop as wingless or winged/wingless intermediate adult f ...200717628287
characterization of a facultative endosymbiotic bacterium of the pea aphid acyrthosiphon pisum.the pea aphid u-type symbiont (paus) was investigated to characterize its microbiological properties. fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) and electron microscopy revealed that paus was a rod-shaped bacterium found in three different locations in the body of the pea aphid acyrthosiphon pisum: sheath cells, secondary mycetocytes, and hemolymph. artificial transfer experiments revealed that paus could establish stable infection and vertical transmission when introduced into uninfected pea aph ...200515690225
activity of aphids associated with lettuce and broccoli in spain and their efficiency as vectors of lettuce mosaic virus.this research sought to identify the aphid virus vector species associated with lettuce and broccoli crops in spain, and to determine their population dynamics and ability to transmit lettuce mosaic virus (lmv). green tile traps and moericke yellow water-pan traps were used to monitor aphid flights during the spring and autumn growing seasons of 2001. aphid species feeding on lettuce were counted weekly. the transmission efficiencies of lmv were determined for the aphid species caught most frequ ...200415036838
laboratory evaluation of temperature effects on the germination and growth of entomopathogenic fungi and on their pathogenicity to two aphid part of an approach to select potential mycoinsecticides for aphid biocontrol, we investigated the effects of temperature on the growth, germination and pathogenicity of some hyphomycete fungi. commercially available mycoinsecticides (based on beauveria bassiana (balsamo) vuillemin and verticillium lecanii (zimmermann) viegas) and other isolates of b bassiana, v lecanii, metarhizium anisopliae (metschnikoff) sorokin and paecilomyces fumosoroseus (wize) brown & smith were evaluated. the rate o ...200312587869
the persistence toxicity of three insecticides against adult of a thelytokous parasitoid, lysiphlebus fabarum (hymenoptera: aphidiidae).in order to investigate the effects of three insecticides on three day-old l. fabarum females (hymenoptera: aphidiidae), the parasitoid of aphis fabae, an experiment was carried out using iobc/wprs method. persistence toxicity of insecticides has been evaluated in the semifield condition. the trials were laid out in randomized complete block design (rcbd) with 3 replicates and an untreated check. the insecticides abamectin 1.8 ec, imidacloprid 350 sc, and pymetrozine 25 wp were used at recommend ...200920218524
host preference between symbiotic and aposymbiotic aphis fabae, by the aphid parasitoid, lysiphlebus ambiguus.few empirical studies have directly explored the association between buchnera aphidicola (enterobacteriales: enterobacteriaceae), the primary endosymbiont of aphids, and the life history strategies of aphid parasitoids. a series of paired-choice experiments were conducted to explore the preference of the parasitoid lysiphlebus ambiguus halliday (hymenoptera: aphididae) for symbiotic and aposymbiotic aphis fabae scopoli (hemiptera: aphididae) and the suitability of these hosts for parasitoid deve ...201121870967
Large interclone differences in melezitose secretion in the facultatively ant-tended black bean aphid Aphis fabae.Many aphids are known to engage in a trophic mutualism with ants, whereby the aphids secrete sugary-rich honeydew which is collected by the ants for food, and the ants, in exchange, protect the aphids against natural enemies. Previous results, however, suggest that the production of some of the honeydew sugars, such as the ant-attractant trisaccharide melezitose, may induce an indirect cost to the aphids. This led us to believe that large differences in the nature of the secreted honeydew might ...201121896277
effects of heat shock on resistance to parasitoids and on life history traits in an aphid/endosymbiont system.temperature variation is an important factor determining the outcomes of interspecific interactions, including those involving hosts and parasites. this can apply to variation in average temperature or to relatively short but intense bouts of extreme temperature. we investigated the effect of heat shock on the ability of aphids (aphis fabae) harbouring protective facultative endosymbionts (hamiltonella defensa) to resist parasitism by hymenopteran parasitoids (lysiphlebus fabarum). furthermore, ...201324143175
metabolism-based synthesis, biological evaluation and structure-activity relationship analysis of spirotetramat analogues as potential lipid biosynthesis inhibitors.background: in previous studies, scientists found that, when spirotetramat was introduced into plants or animals, it was mainly metabolised at positions c-4 and c-8. that is to say, these two functional positions potentially played an important role in spirotetramat's bioactivities. in order to develop novel insecticides or miticides, the present authors designed and synthesised 35 spirotetramat analogues based on metabolite structures. results: all of the analogues have been identified on the b ...201223436572
quantifying nutrient production by the microbial symbionts in an aphid.the symbiotic bacteria buchnera sp. provide aphids with essential amino acids, nutrients in short supply in the aphid diet of plant phloem sap. the contribution of buchnera-derived amino acids to net protein growth of the aphid aphis fabae was quantified from the protein growth of aphids reared on chemically defined diets lacking individual amino acids. the amino acid production rates varied among the nine essential amino acids over the range 8-156 pmol microg(-1)protein day(-1) (for tryptophan ...200111136620
only helpful when required: a longevity cost of harbouring defensive symbionts.maternally transmitted symbionts can spread in host populations if they provide a fitness benefit to their hosts. hamiltonella defensa, a bacterial endosymbiont of aphids, protects hosts against parasitoids but only occurs at moderate frequencies in most aphid populations. this suggests that harbouring this symbiont is also associated with costs, yet the nature of these costs has remained elusive. here, we demonstrate an important and clearly defined cost: reduced longevity. experimental infecti ...201121569156
synergism of terramycin to inhibit the reproductivity of aphis fabae scop. 20165045184
the impact of host plant on the abundance and function of symbiotic bacteria in an aphid.the black-bean aphid aphis fabae bears populations of coccoid symbiotic bacteria buchnera spp. at 2.0-3.2 x 10(7)cells mg(-1)aphid mass and rod-shaped secondary symbionts of uncertain taxonomic affiliation at 0.1-0.6 x 10(7)cells mg(-1)aphid mass. buchnera provides essential amino acids, supplementing the poor supply in the aphid diet of plant phloem sap. comparison of the performance of a. fabae containing and experimentally deprived of their bacteria showed that the bacteria caused increased l ...200111551991
monitoring of aphid flight activities in seed potato crops in serbia.aphid flight activities in seed potato fields have been studied by the yellow water traps. it is a good method for monitoring aphids as vectors of viruses, but this study also showed it is a suitable method for insect-diversity research. during the four-year studies, over 11.500 specimens were collected and a total of 107 different taxa of aphids were identified. the most abundant species were polyphagous species, such as: acyrthosiphon pisum (haris), aphis fabae scopoli, aphis gossypii gloveran ...201324039529
effect of insecticide-treated potato plants on aphid behavior and potato virus y acquisition.the objective was to assess the effect of two contact insecticides, lambda-cyhalothrin and flonicamid, and three systemic insecticides, pymetrozine, dimethoate and imidacloprid, on the behavior and potato virus y (pvy) acquisition of three aphid species, macrosiphum euphorbiae (thomas), rhopalosiphum padi l. and aphis fabae (scopoli).201525159012
seasonal phenology and species composition of the aphid fauna in a northern crop production area.the species diversity of aphids and seasonal timing of their flight activity can have significant impacts on crop production, as aphid species differ in their ability to transmit plant viruses and flight timing affects virus epidemiology. the aim of the study was to characterise the species composition and phenology of aphid fauna in finland in one of the northernmost intensive crop production areas of the world (latitude 64°).201323967149
cross-species amplification and polymorphism of microsatellite loci in the soybean aphid, aphis glycines.we tested the utility of 18 previously characterized aphis spp. microsatellite loci for polymorphism and differentiation among populations of the soybean aphid, aphis glycines. loci were chosen from a closely related species (aphis gossypii) and a more distantly related species (aphis fabae). we found nine loci to be polymorphic among korean and north american populations. overall expected heterozygosity was moderate (average: 0.47; range: 0-1), although populations substantially differed in dev ...200919610462
ample genetic variation but no evidence for genotype specificity in an all-parthenogenetic host-parasitoid interaction.antagonistic coevolution between hosts and parasites can result in negative frequency-dependent selection and may thus be an important mechanism maintaining genetic variation in populations. negative frequency-dependence emerges readily if interactions between hosts and parasites are genotype-specific such that no host genotype is most resistant to all parasite genotypes, and no parasite genotype is most infective on all hosts. although there is increasing evidence for genotype specificity in in ...201020074305
worldwide populations of the aphid aphis craccivora are infected with diverse facultative bacterial symbionts.facultative bacterial endosymbionts can play an important role in the evolutionary trajectory of their hosts. aphids (hemiptera: aphididae) are infected with a wide variety of facultative endosymbionts that can confer ecologically relevant traits, which in turn may drive microevolutionary processes in a dynamic selective environment. however, relatively little is known about how symbiont diversity is structured in most aphid species. here, we investigate facultative symbiont species richness and ...201424233285
larval performance and kill rate of convergent ladybird beetles, hippodamia convergens, on black bean aphids, aphis fabae, and pea aphids, acyrthosiphon pisum.generalist predator guilds play a prominent role in structuring insect communities and can contribute to limiting population sizes of insect pest species. a consequence of dietary breadth, particularly in predatory insects, is the inclusion of low-quality, or even toxic, prey items in the predator's diet. consumption of low-quality prey items reduces growth, development, and survival of predator larvae, thereby reducing the population sizes of generalist predators. the objective of this paper wa ...201323909291
relative importance of semiochemicals from first and second trophic levels in host foraging behavior ofaphidius ervi.the responses of femaleaphidius ervi to odors from a host food plant (vicia faba), host aphids (acyrthosiphon pisum), nonhost aphids (aphis fabae), and aphid-plant complexes were investigated in a specially designed wind tunnel and a y-tube olfactometer. in single-target (no-choice) and two-target (dual-choice) experiments, plant volatiles played a crucial role in the host foraging behavior ofa. ervi. the odor from thea. pisum-plant complex elicited the strongest responses bya. ervi females, fol ...199624226473
temporal dynamics of the arthropod community in pear orchards intercropped with aromatic plants.background: increasing attention has been paid to enhancing biological control through habitat management in agricultural systems for enhanced pest management. pest management benefits can be realised by intercropping, which can increase natural enemy abundance and, in turn, reduce pest abundance. in this study, the composition and temporal dynamics of arthropod communities in pear orchards when intercropped with aromatic plants were investigated, and the effectiveness and applicability of aroma ...201121480464
ribosomal dna is frequently concentrated on only one x chromosome in permanently apomictic aphids, but this does not inhibit male determination.the ribosomal dna arrays in the nucleolar organizer regions (nors) of aphids are generally-located in a telomeric or subtelomeric position on the x chromosomes. in aphid populations or species that have lost the sexual part of their life cycle and become permanent apomicts, multiple rdna copies are often concentrated on only one of the original x chromosomes. this situation has been found in apomictic members of three aphid subfamilies, although not as yet in the tribe aphidini, which includes s ...19968817074
identification of aphid (hemiptera: aphididae) species of economic importance in kenya using dna barcodes and pcr-rflp-based approach.aphids are among pests of economic importance throughout the world. together with transmitting plant viruses, aphids are capable of inflicting severe crop production losses. they also excrete honeydew that favours the growth of sooty mold which reduces the quality of vegetables and fruits and hence their market values. rapid and accurate identification of aphids to the species level is a critical component in effective pest management and plant quarantine systems. even though morphological taxon ...201626490301
interference of field evidence, morphology, and dna analyses of three related lysiphlebus aphid parasitoids (hymenoptera: braconidae: aphidiinae).this study provides evidence on integrating the morphological, field, and laboratory data, and application of the cytochrome oxidase subunit i (coi) barcoding gene to the three asexual or sexual lysiphlebus spp., i.e., lysiphlebus cardui (marshall), lysiphlebus confusus tremblay and eady and lysiphlebus fabarum (marshall) (hymenoptera: braconidae: aphidiinae). new aphid- invasive plant association, aphis fabae scopoli (hemipreta: aphididae) on impatiens glandulifera royle, has been used in the s ...201425399432
impact of imidacloprid on life-cycle development of coccinella septempunctata in laboratory microcosms.long-term effects of a single application of imidacloprid on ladybird beetle, coccinella septempunctata l., were studied in indoor laboratory microcosms, starting with the 2nd instar larvae of c. septempunctata but covering the full life cycle. the microcosms comprised enclosures containing a pot with soil planted with broad bean plants and black bean aphid, aphis craccivora koch, as food. exposure doses (0.85-13.66g a.i. ha(-1)) in the long-term microcosm experiment were based on a preliminary ...201425240465
survey of aphid population in a yellow passion fruit crop and its relationship on the spread cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus in a subtropical region of brazil.passion fruit woodiness may be caused by cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (cabmv) and is currently the major passion fruit disease in brazil. to assess the virus-vector-host interactions, a newly introduced golden passion fruit plantation located in eastern region of são paulo state, brazil, was monitored.201526413443
ant mimicry by an aphid parasitoid, lysiphlebus iran, lysiphlebus fabarum (marshall) (hymenoptera: braconidae: aphidiinae) is a uniparental parasitoid of the black bean aphid, aphis fabae scopoli (hemiptera: aphididae), that possesses various highly evolved adaptations for foraging within ant-tended aphid colonies. direct observations and video recordings were used to analyze the behavior of individual females foraging for a. fabae on bean leaf disks in open arenas in the laboratory. females exploited aphids as hosts and as a source of foo ...201020879920
three odorant binding proteins may regulate the behavioural response of chrysopa pallens to plant volatiles and the aphid alarm pheromone (e)-β-farnesene.artificial chrysopa pallens release is a well-known method for suppressing aphids, but it is difficult to establish lacewing populations in the field. understanding the functions of c. pallens odorant-binding proteins (cpalobps) and behavioural responses of c. pallens to plant volatiles and aphid alarm pheromone (e)-ß-farnesene has important implications for population establishment after lacewing release. based on our previous study, five antennae-enriched cpalobps were selected. sequence align ...201728247518
effect of petroleum-derived substances on life history traits of black bean aphid (aphis fabae scop.) and on the growth and chemical composition of broad bean.the aim of the study was to determine the effects of various petroleum-derived substances, namely petrol, diesel fuel and spent engine oil, on life history traits and population dynamics of the black bean aphid aphis fabae scop. and on growth and chemical composition of its host plant vicia faba l. each substance was tested separately, using two concentrations (9 g kg(-1) and 18 g kg(-1)). the experiment was conducted in four replications (four pots with five plants in each pot per treatment). p ...201728144803
are aphid parasitoids locally adapted to the prevalence of defensive symbionts in their hosts?insect parasitoids are under strong selection to overcome their hosts' defences. in aphids, resistance to parasitoids is largely determined by the presence or absence of protective endosymbionts such as hamiltonella defensa. hence, parasitoids may become locally adapted to the prevalence of this endosymbiont in their host populations. to address this, we collected isofemale lines of the aphid parasitoid lysiphlebus fabarum from 17 sites in switzerland and france, at which we also estimated the f ...201627955622
bacterial endosymbionts protect aphids in the field and alter parasitoid community has become increasingly evident that many organisms rely on microbial symbionts for defense against natural enemies, but the ecological importance of defensive symbionts for natural communities still needs to be investigated. a well-known example is hamiltonella defensa, a heritable endosymbiotic bacterium commonly found in aphids. laboratory experiments have shown that h. defensa strongly protects aphids against parasitic wasps (parasitoids), although this protection is not equally effective ...201627859175
whole-genome sequence of serratia symbiotica strain cwbi-2.3t, a free-living symbiont of the black bean aphid aphis fabae.the gammaproteobacterium serratia symbiotica is one of the major secondary symbionts found in aphids. here, we report the draft genome sequence of s. symbiotica strain cwbi-2.3(t), previously isolated from the black bean aphid aphis fabae. the 3.58-mb genome sequence might provide new insights to understand the evolution of insect-microbe symbiosis.201425146134
aphid specialization on different summer hosts is associated with strong genetic differentiation and unequal symbiont communities despite a common mating habitat.specialization on different host plants can promote evolutionary diversification of herbivorous insects. work on pea aphids (acyrthosiphon pisum) has contributed significantly to the understanding of this process, demonstrating that populations associated with different host plants exhibit performance trade-offs across hosts, show adaptive host choice and genetic differentiation and possess different communities of bacterial endosymbionts. populations specialized on different secondary host plan ...201728055138
bacteria may contribute to distant species recognition in ant-aphid mutualistic relationships.mutualistic interactions between ant and aphid species have been the subject of considerable historical and contemporary investigations, the primary benefits being cleaning and protection for the aphids and carbohydrate-rich honeydew for the ants. questions remained, however, as to the volatile semiochemical factor influencing this relationship. a recent study highlighted the role of bacterial honeydew volatile compounds in ant attraction. here, ant's ability to distantly discriminate 2 aphid sp ...201726639575
chemical compositions of ligusticum chuanxiong oil and lemongrass oil and their joint action against aphis citricola van der goot (hemiptera: aphididae).in order to develop novel botanical insecticides, the joint action of ligusticum chuanxiong oil (lco) and lemongrass oil (lo) against aphis citricola van der goot was determined systematically indoors and outdoors. the chemical profiles of lco and lo as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms) analysis revealed that the main compounds from lco were (z)-ligustilide (44.58%) and senkyunolide a (26.92%), and that of lo were geranial (42.16%) and neral (32.58%), respectively. the m ...201627754334
the effect of host plants on genotype variability in fitness and honeydew composition of aphis fabae.aphid species can be polyphagous, feeding on multiple host plants across genera. as host plant species can have large variation in their phloem composition, this can affect aphid fitness and honeydew composition. previous research showed significant intraspecific genotype variation in the composition of the honeydew carbohydrates of the black bean aphid aphis fabae, with the ant attractant trisaccharide melezitose showing especially large variation across different genotypes. in this study, we t ...201627226343
susceptibility of five sugar beet cultivars to the black bean aphid, aphis fabae scopoli (hemiptera: aphididae).the black bean aphid, aphis fabae scopoli (hemiptera: aphididae), is one of the important pests of sugar beet. the relative impact of resistance, including antibiosis and antixenosis of five sugar beet cultivars (doroti, perimer, pershia, rozier and 006) on a. fabae was studied under laboratory conditions using clip cages. the antibiosis test was based on life table parameters. significant differences on developmental time, mean number of nymphs/aphid/day, fecundity, and adult longevity of a. fa ...201626927334
comparative morphology of the forewing base articulation in sternorrhyncha compared with a representative of fulgoromorpha (insecta, hemiptera).the forewing articulation of single species from each of the four subgroups of sternorrhyncha (aleyrodomorpha, aphidomorpha, coccomorpha, psyllomorpha) was examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy. the species were compared with a species of cixiidae (fulgoromorpha), as an outgroup of sternorrhyncha. we present the results of a comparative analysis of the forewing articulation in these five groups, propose a standardized terminology and compare our findings with those previously repo ...201726893533
ants learn aphid species as mutualistic partners: is the learning behavior species-specific?in ant-aphid associations, many aphid species provide ants with honeydew and are tended by ants, whereas others are never tended and are frequently preyed upon by ants. in these relationships, ants must have the ability to discriminate among aphid species, with mutualistic aphids being accepted as partners rather than prey. although ants reportedly use cuticular hydrocarbons (chcs) of aphids to differentiate between mutualistic and non-mutualistic species, it is unclear whether the ability to re ...201526590597
plant genetic variation mediates an indirect ecological effect between belowground earthworms and aboveground aphids.interactions between aboveground and belowground terrestrial communities are often mediated by plants, with soil organisms interacting via the roots and aboveground organisms via the shoots and leaves. many studies now show that plant genetics can drive changes in the structure of both above and belowground communities; however, the role of plant genetic variation in mediating aboveground-belowground interactions is still unclear. we used an earthworm-plant-aphid model system with two aphid spec ...201425331082
does mutual interference affect the feeding rate of aphidophagous coccinellids? a modeling interference involves direct interactions between individuals of the same species that may alter their foraging success. larvae of aphidophagous coccinellids typically stay within a patch during their lifetime, displaying remarkable aggregation to their prey. thus, as larvae are exposed to each other, frequent encounters may affect their foraging success. a study was initiated in order to determine the effect of mutual interference in the coccinellids' feeding rate. one to four 4th larval ...201626756980
secondary bacterial symbiont community in aphids responds to plant diversity.biodiversity is important for ecosystem functioning and biotic interactions. in experimental grasslands, increasing plant species richness is known to increase the diversity of associated herbivores and their predators. if these interactions can also involve endosymbionts that reside within a plant or animal host is currently unknown. in plant-feeding aphids, secondary bacterial symbionts can have strong fitness effects on the host, e.g. resistance to natural enemies or fungal pathogens. we exam ...201626603858
demography and population projection of aphis fabae (hemiptera: aphididae): with additional comments on life table research criteria.we collected developmental, survival, and reproduction data for aphis fabae scopoli (hemiptera: aphididae) reared on faba bean, vicia faba l. 'sevilla' at four constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, and 30°c), 70% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (l:d) h. the highest intrinsic rate of increase (r = 0.4347 d(-1)) and finite rate (λ = 1.5445 d(-1)) were observed at 25°c. the population projection based on the age-stage, two-sex life table quantitatively revealed the growth potential and st ...201526470285
the influence of natural enemies on wing induction in aphis fabae and megoura viciae (hemiptera: aphididae).previous studies have shown that the aphid species, aphis fabae scopoli and megoura viciae buckton, do not produce winged offspring in the presence of natural enemies, in contrast to results for the pea aphid (acyrthosiphon pisum (harris)) and the cotton aphid (aphis gossypii glover); but these studies did not involve exposing aphids directly to natural enemies. we exposed colonies of both a. fabae and m. viciae to foraging lacewing (chrysoperla carnea (stephens)) larvae and found that the preda ...200818076776
interactions between extrafloral nectaries, aphids and ants: are there competition effects between plant and homopteran sugar sources?broad bean (vicia faba), an annual plant bearing extrafloral nectaries (efn) at the base of the upper leaves, is regularly infested by two aphid species, aphis fabae and acyrthosiphon pisum. efn and a. fabae are commonly attended by the ant, lasius niger, while ac. pisum usually remains uninfested. sugar concentration and sugar composition of extrafloral nectar did not change significantly after aphid infestation. the sugar concentration was significantly higher in efn (c. 271 µg µl(-1)) than in ...200124577698
[effect of sinigrin on sucrose uptake by some polyphagous and oligophagous aphids (aphididae)].the effect of 0.1% sinigrin on sucrose uptake (20% aqueous solution) by some polyphagous and oligophagous aphid species was tested using the tracer method. in the presence of sinigrin the sucrose ingestion of brevicoryne brassicae, myzus persicae and megoura viciae was promoted. with rhopalosiphum padi there was a strong, and with aphis fabae and acyrthosiphon pisum only a slight inhibition of sucrose uptake. aulacorthum circumflexum reacted positively in some experiments, but negatively in othe ...197228313041
long-term phenological trends, species accumulation rates, aphid traits and climate: five decades of change in migrating aphids.aphids represent a significant challenge to food production. the rothamsted insect survey (ris) runs a network of 12·2-m suction-traps throughout the year to collect migrating aphids. in 2014, the ris celebrated its 50th anniversary. this paper marks that achievement with an extensive spatiotemporal analysis and the provision of the first british annotated checklist of aphids since 1964. our main aim was to elucidate mechanisms that advance aphid phenology under climate change and explain these ...201525123260
do aphids actively search for ant partners?the aphid-ant mutualistic relationships are not necessarily obligate for neither partners but evidence is that such interactions provide them strong advantages in terms of global fitness. while it is largely assumed that ants actively search for their mutualistic partners namely using volatile cues; whether winged aphids (i.e., aphids' most mobile form) are able to select ant-frequented areas had not been investigated so far. ant-frequented sites would indeed offer several advantages for these a ...201524659520
experimental evolution of parasitoid infectivity on symbiont-protected hosts leads to the emergence of genotype interactions may lead to strong reciprocal selection for traits involved in host defense and parasitoid counterdefense. in aphids, individuals harboring the facultative bacterial endosymbiont, hamiltonella defensa, exhibit enhanced resistance to parasitoid wasps. we used an experimental evolution approach to investigate the ability of the parasitoid wasp, lysiphlebus fabarum, to adapt to the presence of h. defensa in its aphid host aphis fabae. sexual populations of the parasitoi ...201424495148
[host preference and fitness of aphis citricola (hemiptera: aphididae) to mature and young apple leaves].in order to understand the differences of aphis citricola in its original and final selectivity to the apple leaves with different leaf age, and to ascertain the effects of mature and young apple leaves on the growth and development, survival, and fecundity of a. citricola, this paper studied the host preference of a. citricola to mature and young apple leaves, with the related age-stage two-type life tables constructed. a. citricola more preferred to oviposit on the young leaves. there existed ...201324175533
aphids (hemiptera, aphididae) on ornamental plants in greenhouses in bulgaria.investigations on the species composition and host range of aphids on ornamental greenhouse plants in bulgaria was conducted over a period of five years, from 2008 to 2012. twenty greenhouses, growing ornamentals for landscaping, plant collections and other purposes were observed. they were located in the regions of sofia, plovdiv, smolyan, pavlikeni, varna and burgas. the total number of collected aphid samples was 279. their composition included 33 aphid species and one subspecies from 13 gene ...201324039530
colonization of the biomass energy crop miscanthus by the three aphid species, aphis fabae, myzus persicae, and rhopalosiphum padi.miscanthus is a perennial c4-grass that has received much interest as a potential of impact on the local agroecosytem. in this context, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the potential colonization of this new exotic plant species by three of the main aphid pest species of common crops in picardie, northern france. in host preference experiments, the two polyphagous aphid species studied, aphis fabae (scop) and myzus persicae (sulzer), exhibited an xclusive preference for their ...201323786055
transgenerational effects and the cost of ant tending in mutualistic interactions, partners obtain a net benefit, but there may also be costs associated with the provision of benefits for a partner. the question of whether aphids suffer such costs when attended by ants has been raised in previous work. transgenerational effects, where offspring phenotypes are adjusted based on maternal influences, could be important in the mutualistic interaction between aphids and ants, in particular because aphids have telescoping generations where two offspring ...201323689730
genotype-by-genotype specificity remains robust to average temperature variation in an aphid/endosymbiont/parasitoid system.genotype-by-genotype interactions demonstrate the existence of variation upon which selection acts in host-parasite systems at respective resistance and infection loci. these interactions can potentially be modified by environmental factors, which would entail that different genotypes are selected under different environmental conditions. in the current study, we checked for a g × g × e interaction in the context of average temperature and the genotypes of asexual lines of the endoparasitoid was ...201323663140
comparing constitutive and induced costs of symbiont-conferred resistance to parasitoids in defenses against parasites do not come for free. the evolution of increased resistance can be constrained by constitutive costs associated with possessing defense mechanisms, and by induced costs of deploying them. these two types of costs are typically considered with respect to resistance as a genetically determined trait, but they may also apply to resistance provided by 'helpers' such as bacterial endosymbionts. we investigated the costs of symbiont-conferred resistance in the black bea ...201323533102
host specialization of parasitoids and their hyperparasitoids on a pair of syntopic aphid species.parasitoids of herbivorous insects have frequently evolved specialized lineages exploiting hosts occurring on different plants. this study investigated whether host specialization is also observed when closely related parasitoids exploit herbivorous hosts sharing the same host plant. the question was addressed in economically relevant aphid parasitoids of the lysiphlebus fabarum group. they exploit two aphid species (aphis fabae cirsiiacanthoides and brachycaudus cardui), co-occurring in mixed c ...201323480317
strong specificity in the interaction between parasitoids and symbiont-protected hosts.coevolution between hosts and parasites may promote the maintenance of genetic variation in both antagonists by negative frequency-dependence if the host-parasite interaction is genotype-specific. here we tested for specificity in the interaction between parasitoids (lysiphlebus fabarum) and aphid hosts (aphis fabae) that are protected by a heritable defensive endosymbiont, the γ-proteobacterium hamiltonella defensa. previous studies reported a lack of genotype specificity between unprotected ap ...201222998667
aphid alarm pheromone as a cue for ants to locate aphid partners.the mutualistic relationships that occur between myrmecophilous aphids and ants are based on the rich food supply that honeydew represents for ants and on the protection they provide against aphid natural enemies. while aphid predators and parasitoids actively forage for oviposition sites by using aphid semiochemicals, scouts of aphid-tending ant species would also benefit from locating honeydew resources by orienting toward aphid pheromone sources. the present study aims to provide additional i ...201222870255
design, synthesis, and analysis of the quantitative structure-activity relationships of 4-phenyl-acyl-substituted 3-(2,5-dimethylphenyl)-4-hydroxy-1-azaspiro[4.5]dec-3-ene-2,8-dione derivatives.a series of 4-phenyl-acyl-substituted 3-(2,5-dimethylphenyl)-4-hydroxy-1-azaspiro[4.5]dec-3-ene-2,8-dione derivatives were designed and synthesized, and their structures were characterized using (1)h nmr (or (13)c nmr), mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. the bioactivities of the new compounds were evaluated. these compounds exhibited good inhibition activities against bean aphids (aphis fabae) and carmine spider mite (tetranychus cinnabarinus), and 4-phenyl acyl esters showed stronger bi ...201222531003
seasonal abundance of allothrombium monochaetum and allothrombium pulvinum in navarra-nafarroa (northern spain), with notes on larval host preference and rate of this paper we report on the seasonal abundance of velvet mite larvae of allothrombium pulvinum ewing and allothrombium monochaetum goldarazena and zhang in a meadow located in the mediterranean navarra-nafarroa region (northern spain). larvae of a. monochaetum peaked in numbers on aphis fabae in mid-june while larvae of a. pulvinum peaked in the third week of july. both species preferred the aphid thorax as attachment site. we also provide a list of aphid hosts of both mites and observed dens ...199910737733
a strain of the bacterial symbiont regiella insecticola protects aphids against parasitoids.aphids commonly harbour facultative bacterial endosymbionts and may benefit from their presence through increased resistance to parasitoids. this has been demonstrated for hamiltonella defensa and serratia symbiotica, while a third common endosymbiont, regiella insecticola, did not provide such protection. however, this symbiont was recently detected in a highly resistant clone of the peach-potato aphid, myzus persicae, from australia. to test if resistance was indeed conferred by the endosymbio ...201019776066
aphid parasitoid mothers don't always know best through the whole host selection process.parasitoid host selection behaviour has been extensively studied in experimentally simplified tritrophic systems formed by one single food chain (one plant, one herbivore and one parasitoid species). the "mother knows best" hypothesis predicts that the preference for a plant-host complex should be positively correlated with plant quality for offspring performance. we studied the host selection behaviour of the generalist endoparasitoid aphidius matricariae towards the black bean aphid aphis faba ...201526270046
impact of plant nutrients on the relationship between a herbivorous insect and its symbiotic bacteria.the interactions between herbivorous insects and their symbiotic micro-organisms can be influenced by the plant species on which the insects are reared, but the underlying mechanisms are not understood. here, we identify plant nutrients, specifically amino acids, as a candidate factor affecting the impact of symbiotic bacteria on the performance of the phloem-feeding aphid aphis fabae. aphis fabae grew more slowly on the labiate plant lamium purpureum than on an alternative host plant vicia faba ...200818089538
regulation of wing formation and adult development in an aphid host, aphis fabae, by the parasitoid aphidius colemani.nymphs of presumptive winged gynoparae of aphis fabae (hemiptera: aphididae), were exposed to female parasitoids, aphidius colemani (hymenoptera: aphidiidae) and stung once with the ovipositor. wing development was inhibited and, when aphids were parasitised during the early stages, they did not reach the adult stage but mummies with rudimentary or no wingbuds are observed in the host's fourth-stadium. these and previous studies have suggested that wing development may be inhibited by factor(s) ...201019712678
presence of the aphid, chaetosiphon fragaefolii, on strawberry in argentina.seasonal abundance of the strawberry aphid complex under different agronomic practices in the outskirts of la plata, argentina was studied on strawberry, fragaria x ananassa duchesne (rosales: rosaceae). aphid densities were low in strawberry fields in which insecticides and fungicides were used. in addition to aphis gossypii, aphis fabae, mysus persicae and macrosiphum euphorbiae, the aphid, chaetosiphon fragaefolii (cockerell) (homoptera: aphididae), was recorded for the first time in this hor ...201020569141
thermal requirements and effect of temperature and prey on the development of the predator harmonia axyridis.thermal requirements (lower temperature threshold and thermal constant) for the development of each developmental stage of the predator harmonia axyridis (pallas) were studied on aphis fabae scopoli and dysaphis crataegi (kaltenbach) under controlled laboratory conditions. the effect of temperature (15, 20, 25, and 30°c) and prey species was examined on pre-imaginal developmental duration and life cycle (pre-oviposition period included) of the predator. our results suggest comparable thermal req ...201122217771
above- and below ground trophic interactions on creeping thistle (cirsium arvense) in high- and low-diversity plant communities: potential for biotic resistance?the capacity of local communities to control introduced plants is called biotic resistance. biotic resistance has been almost exclusively tested for plant competition and above ground herbivores and pathogens, while neglecting root herbivores and soil pathogens. here, we present biotic resistance by above- and below ground herbivores in concert, and relate the abundance of the plant enemies to the species diversity of the local plant communities. the study was carried out in a 7-year-old biodive ...200815045676
reliable screening technique for evaluation of wild crucifers against mustard aphid lipaphis erysimi (kalt.).wild crucifers namely arabidopsis thaliana, brassica fruticulosa, b. rugosa, b. spinescens, b. tournefortii, camelina sativa, capsella bursa-pastoris, crambe abysinnica, cronopus didymus, diplotaxis assurgens, d. gomez-campoi, d. muralis, d. siettiana, d. tenuisiliqua, enatharocarpus lyratus, lepidium sativum and sinapis alba along with five cultivated brassica species including b. rapa (bsh-1), b. juncea (rohini), b. napus (gsc-6), b. carinata (dlsc-2) and eruca sativa (t-27) were screened agai ...201425651614
decision making by generalist and specialist aphids with the same idea to explain the high incidence of specialisation in phytophagous insects is that their nervous systems are simple and unable to efficiently recognise multiple host plants. here this 'neural limitations' hypothesis is tested using a generalist (the summer winged virginopara) and specialist (the autumn gynopara) morph of a single clone of the black bean aphid, aphis fabae, that are almost identical morphologically and have the same genotype. electrical monitoring of stylet behaviour and no ...200312837318
cheaper is not always worse: strongly protective isolates of a defensive symbiont are less costly to the aphid host.defences against parasites are typically associated with costs to the host that contribute to the maintenance of variation in resistance. this also applies to the defence provided by the facultative bacterial endosymbiont hamiltonella defensa, which protects its aphid hosts against parasitoid wasps while imposing life-history costs. to investigate the cost-benefit relationship within protected hosts, we introduced multiple isolates of h. defensa to the same genetic backgrounds of black bean aphi ...201525473015
lipid composition in long-day and short-day forms of the black bean aphid, aphis fabae.long-day reared winged (alate) virginoparae from laboratory stock cultures which had been reared throughout larval development on bean stipules were significantly smaller (0.46+/-0.02 mg; mean+/-sem) than short-day-reared gynoparae (0.69+/-0.04 mg; the winged autumn migrant) which completed development on intact beans. when winged virginoparae were raised from the third stadium on bean seedlings they grew larger (0.86+/-0.02 mg) but the gynoparae contained proportionally more total lipid (12.1+/ ...200012770243
effects of aposymbiotic and symbiotic aphids on parasitoid progeny development and adult oviposition behavior within aphid instars.this study aims at exploring the potential relationship between aphidiine parasitoid development and the primary endosymbiont in aphids by focusing on specific aphid instars and the relative effects on parasitoid oviposition behavior and progeny development. lysiphlebus ambiguus (aphidiidae, hymenoptera) is a solitary parasitoid of several species of aphids, including aphis fabae. in this study, a. fabae was treated with antibiotic rifampicin to obtain aposymbiotic hosts and exposed to parasitis ...201020388267
the effects of aphis fabae infestation on the antioxidant response and heavy metal content in field grown philadelphus coronarius plants.the purpose of this study was to explore a possible relationship between the soil availability of metals and their concentrations in various parts of philadelphuscoronarius plants. moreover, the possible impact of an aphid infestation on the contamination and antioxidant response of plants from the urban environment of kraków and the reference rural area of zagaje stradowskie (southern poland) was analyzed. the contents of the glutathione, proline, non-protein -sh groups, antioxidants, and phosp ...201019945149
between plant and diurnal variation in quantities and ratios of volatile compounds emitted by vicia faba plants.ratios of volatile phytochemicals potentially offer a means for insects to recognise their host-plant species. however, for this to occur ratios of volatiles would need to be sufficiently consistent between plants and over time to constitute a host-characteristic cue. in this context we collected headspace samples from vicia faba plants to determine how consistent ratios of key volatile phytochemicals used in host location by one of its insect pests, the black bean aphid, aphis fabae, were. thes ...201019863976
olfactory recognition of host plants in the absence of host-specific volatile compounds: host location in the black bean aphid, aphis fabae.the black bean aphid, aphis fabae, responds behaviorally to the odor of its host plant faba bean (vicia faba) in olfactometer bioassays by spending more time in the treated than control regions. we have shown previously that a blend of fifteen volatile compounds emitted by v. faba elicits the same response as a headspace sample of an intact v. faba plant. here we report that no single compound within this blend fully accounts for the behavioral response and that the responses to individual compo ...200819704882
[toxicity of vitex negundo extract to aphids and its co-toxicity with imidacloprid].in this paper, the toxicity of vitex negundo seed dichloromethane extract, imidacloprid, and omethoate to aphis citricola, aphis gossypii, and myzus persicae was determined by impregnation method, and the co-toxicity of the seed extract and imidacloprid to a. gossypii as well as the repellent effect of the extract and test insecticides to m. persicae were tested by topical application of capillary tube and by selection in culture dish, respectively. the results showed that the lc50 of v. negundo ...200919637611
[quantitative analysis of insect pest and natural enemy communities in red fuji apple orchard].the insect pest and natural enemy communities in red fuji apple orchard in mouping district of yantai city were quantitatively analyzed by multivariate analysis. the temporal structure of the communities was grouped into five continuous stages by using optimal sorting method, and the community characteristics at each stage were described. the dominant pests and natural enemies were determined at different growth stages of apple trees through analyzing the sub-communities of the insect pests and ...200919565766
characteristics of beet yellows closterovirus transmission to sugar beets by aphis fabae.abstract laboratory studies were conducted on the characteristics of beet yellows closterovirus (byv) transmission to sugar beets by the bean aphid, aphis fabae. the relative transmission efficiency and the retention, acquisition, and inoculation thresholds were evaluated using clonal aphid colonies. transmission efficiency was studied between different apterous aphid species (a. fabae and myzus persicae ), between alate and apterous morphs of a. fabae and m. persicae, and among five clonal aphi ...199718945100
dual action of phosphonate herbicides in plants affected by herbivore--model study on black bean aphid aphis fabae rearing on broad bean vicia faba plants.the interactions between plants, herbicides and herbivore insects were studied as an aspect of possible side effect of the using of phosphonate herbicides. the experimental system was composed of phosphonate herbicides, broad bean vicia faba (l.) plants and black bean aphid aphis fabae (scopoli). two means of herbicide application, namely standard spraying and direct introduction of the herbicide into stem via glass capillary, were examined. the results obtained for n-2-piridylaminomethylene bis ...200919375799
identification of volatile compounds used in host location by the black bean aphid, aphis fabae.behavioral and electrophysiological responses of winged aphis fabae to volatiles of faba bean, vicia faba (var. sutton dwarf), plants were studied and semiochemicals used in host location were identified. in olfactometer bioassays, aphids spent significantly more time in the region of the olfactometer where v. faba volatiles from an intact plant were present than in control regions with clean air. this response also occurred when an air entrainment sample of a v. faba plant was used as the odor ...200818584254
methyl salicylate and (-)-(1r,5s)-myrtenal are plant-derived repellents for black bean aphid,aphis fabae scop. (homoptera: aphididae).methyl salicylate and (-)-(1r,5s)-myrtenal stimulate specific olfactory cells in the primary rhinaria on the sixth and fifth antennal segments, respectively, of the black bean aphid.aphis fabae. in behavioral studies employing a linear track olfactometer, both compounds were repellent toa. fabae and also inhibited attraction to volatiles from its host, broad bean (vicia faba). methyl salicylate is associated with secondary metabolite-based defense in plants, and the monoterpenoid (-)-(1r,5s)-myr ...199424241919
influence of host size variation on the development of a koinobiont aphid parasitoid, lysiphlebus ambiguus haliday (braconidae, hymenoptera).to determine whether host body size is the currency used by the aphidiine parasitoid, lysiphlebus ambiguus haliday (hymenoptera: braconidae), in assessing host quality, the aphid, aphis fabae scopoli (homoptera: aphididae), was reared at either high or low temperature to yield hosts of the same instar with different body sizes. cohorts of a. fabae raised at 15 degrees c and 30 degrees c and exposed to individual female l. ambiguus in no-choice tests were successfully parasitized in all host stag ...200818294414
effects of root herbivory by an insect on a foliar-feeding species, mediated through changes in the host plant.the effects of root herbivory by larvae of the scarabaeid, phyllopertha horticola, on the growth of capsella bursa-pastoris were examined. individuals of aphis fabae were reared on the leaves to determine what effect, if any, root feeding has on the performance of this insect. the experiment was conducted under two watering regimes ('low' and 'high'). low watering and root feeding caused water stress in the plants and this was reflected in a reduction in vegetative biomass and an increase in the ...198928312154
ambient air pollution induced changes in amino acid pattern of phloem sap in host plants-relevance to aphid pollution exclusion experiments on the verge of a widely-used motorway, it has been shown that roadway emissions increase the abundance of the aphid aphis fabae scop. on two different host plants, viburnum opulus l. and phaseolus vulgaris l. analysis of phloem sap of excised leaves revealed on increase in almost all of the detected amino acids due to ambient air pollution. to investigate the significance of these changes to aphid development, the patterns analyzed were translated into artific ...198915092477
integration among the different aspects of the phenotypic plasticity in aphis fabae, black bean aphid.recent studies showed the crucial role of different aspects of phenotypic plasticity when organisms exposed to various environments. presented study tested integrations among the phenotypic plasticities in fitness, morphological features and host choice behavior of the aphis fabae genotypes exposed to two different host plants. results indicated that different aspects of phenotypic plasticities in black bean aphid were not systemically affected by host plant conditions as these features have ind ...200719070089
indirect effects of air pollutants: changes in plant/parasite interactions.the impact of air pollutants on plant/parasite-interactions has been investigated. it could be demonstrated that fumigation of vicia faba l. with 0.15 ppm so2 (400 microg m(-3)) or 0.2 ppm no2 (400 microg m(-3)) during 7 days caused changes in plant metabolism which resulted in higher growth rates of the aphid aphis fabae scop. feeding on these plants. fumigation of v. faba with 0.085 ppm o3 during 2 or 3 days, however, caused decreased aphid growth on fumigated plants. that result could be reve ...198815092550
[action of beta radiation on the black bean aphid aphis fabae scop. (aphididae, homoptera)].a study was made of the effect of direct single exposure to beta-radiation of 0.5, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50 gy on development and reproduction of aphis fabae scop. (aphididae, homoptera). the numbers of bean aphid are prognosticated with regard to the radiation dose applied.20093615829
the effect of nutrient stress on life history parameters of the black bean aphid, aphis fabae scop.experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of brief spells of starvation on the longevity and age-specific reproduction of a. fabae. increasing the duration of the starvation period reduced the aphids' ability to resettle when returned to a host, but no longer-term effects on mortality were found. secondly, as predicted, starvation reduced life-time fecundity, but increased the reproductive rate immediately after nutrition improved.198328310169
the effects of phorate and some of its metabolites incorporated in an artificial diet on liquid uptake by aphis fabae scop.[14c]phorate and some of its metabolites were incorporated in an artificial diet and their effects on liquid uptake by aphis fabae were studied. at sublethal and very low toxicity levels of phorate there was a tendency for a reduction in feeding with increasing concentrations. [14c]phorate sulphone, [14c]phorate sulphoxide and [14c]phoratoxon sulphoxide at high concentrations gave very low mortality figures, but a significant drop in liquid uptake occurred with increasing concentrations. the res ...19836836592
sulphur-amino acid metabolism in aphis fabae. 19744434739
Displaying items 1 - 100 of 141