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babesia ovata: isolation from erythrocytes and development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies.a method of isolating babesia ovata merozoites from infected erythrocytes and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection of anti-b. ovata antibodies were developed. after b. ovata-infected erythrocytes had been lysed using the nitrogen cavitation method, the merozoites were separated from erythrocyte components by differential centrifugation and density-gradient centrifugation. the light microscopic examination showed that the purified merozoites were morphologically intact a ...19921480606
development of babesia ovata in the ovary and eggs of the tick, haemaphysalis longicornis.the ovary and eggs of adult tick haemaphysalis longicornis (h. longicornis) infected with babesia ovata (b. ovata), were examined at regular intervals of time. as a result kinetes could be detected in the ovary for the first time 6 days after engorgement. the kinetics could be classified into three types on the basis of their morphological characteristics. on the 2nd day after oviposition, round-formed protozoa were found in the ooplasm of the egg. in 5 days after oviposition, these round-formed ...19911811111
development of babesia ovata in the midgut of the tick, haemaphysalis longicornis.studies were made on the development of babesia ovata in the midgut of the nymphal tick vector, haemaphysalis longicornis. in 12 hr post-repletion, merozoites were observed outside of erythrocytes infected with b. ovata in the contents of the midgut of the tick. after that, these merozoites were transformed into ring-forms which were comparatively large ring 2-3 microns in diameter. within 48-72 hr post-repletion, ring-form protozoa developed into spherical form 4-5 microns in diameter. within 3 ...19892601226
development of babesia ovata in the haemolymph of the tick, haemaphysalis longicornis.the haemolymph of adult tick haemaphysalis longicornis (h. longicornis) infected with babesia ovata (b. ovata) was examined at regular intervals. as a result kinetes could be detected in the haemolymph 15 days after engorgement. the kinetes detected could be classified into three types on the basis of their morphological characteristics. they increased gradually in number, reaching a maximum 23 days later. then they tended to decrease in number, disappearing almost completely from the haemolymph ...19892622117
morphological observations of babesia ovata in bovine lymphocyte. 19892622119
a rise and fall of humoral antibody in calves experimentally infected with babesia ovata or theileria sergenti. 19863090337
observation on kinetes of babesia ovata in the hemolymph of the vector tick haemaphysalis longicornis. 19873430926
ultrastructure of intra-erythrocytic stages of babesia ovata. 19863784227
babesia ovata sp.n. isolated from cattle in japan. 19807019730
effect of splenectomy and dexamethasone administration on cattle experimentally infected with babesia ovata. 19827098242
bovine babesiosis in japan: clinical and clinico-pathological studies on cattle experimentally infected with babesia ovata. 19817343692
development of babesia ovata in the salivary glands of the nymphal tick, haemaphysalis longicornis.the development of babesia ovata in the salivary glands of nymphal haemaphysalis longicornis ticks was morphologically studied for 4 days of feeding of tick on rabbits. babesia ovata showed two forms (sporont and sporozoite) in the budding process. sporozoites were formed in the acinar cells of salivary glands and released from the hollow cytoplasmic area of these cells by day 4 of feeding.19948204758
detection of theileria sergenti infection in cattle by polymerase chain reaction amplification of parasite-specific dna.a pair of synthetic oligonucleotide primers, designed from the gene encoding a 32-kda intraerythrocytic piroplasm surface protein of theileria sergenti, were used to amplify parasite dna from the blood of t. sergenti-infected cattle by means of the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). pcr-amplified dna was examined by electrophoresis and by dot blot or microplate hybridization using a parasite-specific cdna probe. pcr was specific for t. sergenti, since no amplification was detected with dna from an ...19938253950
theileria sergenti and t. buffeli: polymerase chain reaction-based marker system for differentiating the parasite species from infected cattle blood and infected tick salivary gland.benign theileria species in cattle. theileria sergenti and t. buffeli, are morphologically indistinguishable. the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used to amplify the genes encoding the 33- and 34-kda major piroplasm antigens (p33/34) of t. sergenti and t. buffeli from cattle blood infected with these parasites and tick salivary gland infected with t. sergenti. following amplification, the p33 gene from t. sergenti and the p34 gene from t. buffeli were clearly differentiated using the restric ...19958542983
experimental transmission of babesia ovata oshimensis n. var. of cattle in japan by haemaphysalis longicornis.transovarial transmission of a newly isolated large intraerythrocytic parasite, babesia sp. 1 by haemaphysalis longicornis was experimentally demonstrated. larvae of h. longicornis were transovarially infected with the parasite by feeding as adults on the calf which had been experimentally infected with b. sp. 1. piroplasms of b. sp. 1 were observed in peripheral blood of the calf which was infested with the parasite-infected larvae. based on the transmissibility of the parasite with vector tick ...19968959670
antigenic and genetic diversities of babesia ovata in persistently infected cattle.exploring the antigenic and genetic diversities of babesia ovata, we obtained several field isolates from grazing cattle in the okushiri island, japan. parasite isolation was greatly facilitated by using bovine red blood cell-substituted scid mice (bo-rbc-scid mice), into which the blood samples of the cattle were inoculated. isolates from different individuals within a herd of cattle were compared in immunoblot analysis with an anti-b. ovata serum and also in southern blot analysis with a probe ...19989879533
preparation of antibodies directed to the babesia ovata- or theileria sergenti-parasitized erythrocytes.to investigate the surface antigens of the bovine red blood cells (rbcs) parasitized by babesia ovata or theileria sergenti, attempts were made to produce monoclonal antibodies (mabs) with balb/c mice. comparable numbers of hybridomas producing anti-piroplasm mabs, as well as anti-bovine rbc mabs, were obtained from the mice immunized with b. ovata- or t. sergenti-prbcs. however, mabs directed to the surface of parasitized rbcs (prbcs) were obtained only from the mice immunized with b. ovata-prb ...199910027170
identification of newly isolated babesia parasites from cattle in korea by using the bo-rbc-scid mice.attempts were made to isolate and identify korean bovine babesia parasite. blood samples were collected from holstein cows in korea, and babesia parasites were propagated in scid mice with circulating bovine red blood cells for isolation. the isolate was then antigenically and genotypically compared with several japanese isolates. the korean parasite was found to be nearly identical to the oshima strain isolated from japanese cattle, which was recently designated as babesia ovata oshimensis n. v ...200211949211
detecting and differentiating theileria sergenti and theileria sinensis in cattle and yaks by pcr based on major piroplasm surface protein (mpsp).theileria sergenti and theileria sinensis are closely related members of benign theileria species found in cattle and yaks in china. they are morphologically indistinguishable. a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) targeting major piroplasm surface protein of t. sergenti and t. sinensis was developed in this study. the newly developed oligonucleotide primer set was able to specifically amplify the dna of t. sinensis and in conjunction with primers for t. sergenti and these two species could be detec ...201020685208
genetic characterization and molecular survey of babesia bovis, babesia bigemina and babesia ovata in cattle, dairy cattle and yaks in china.babesiosis is an important haemoparasitic disease, caused by the infection and subsequent intra-erythrocytic multiplication of protozoa of the genus babesia that impacts the livestock industry and animal health. the distribution, epidemiology and genetic characterization of b. bigemina, b. bovis, and b. ovata in cattle in china as well as the prevalence of these protozoan agents were assessed.201526452623
establishment of transient and stable transfection systems for babesia ovata.bovine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by several species of babesia which produce acute and fatal disease in cattle and affect livestock industry worldwide. babesia ovata is a benign species widespread in east asian countries and causes anemia, particularly in cattle which are co-infected with theileria orientalis. the development of genetic manipulation methods is necessary to improve our understanding of the basic biology of protozoan pathogens toward a better control of disease. su ...201627008652
pcr detection of babesia ovata from cattle reared in japan and clinical significance of coinfection with theileria orientalis.we describe here the clinical significance of coinfection with theileria orientalis and babesia ovata in cattle. anemia status in a herd of dairy cattle in japan was investigated in relation to infection with these parasites. our findings indicate that while b. ovata infection might not be the primary cause of anemia in the cattle, it may contribute to the clinical development of anemia in animals coinfected with both b. ovata and t. orientalis.201222442312
type-specific pcr assays for babesia bovis msa-1 genotypes in asia: revisiting the genetic diversity in sri lanka, mongolia, and vietnam.babesia bovis is the most virulent babesia organism, resulting in a high mortality rate in cattle. the genetic diversity of b. bovis merozoite surface antigens (msas), such as msa-1, msa-2b, and msa-2c, might be linked to altered immune profiles in the host animals. the present study aimed to develop type-specific pcr assays for asian msa-1 genotypes, thereby re-analyzing the genetic diversity of msa-1 in sri lanka, mongolia, and vietnam. specific primers were designed for nine asian msa-1 genot ...201626520797
discrimination of babesia major and babesia ovata based on its1-5.8s-its2 region sequences of rrna gene.babesia ovata and babesia major are two newly identified large babesia species infective to cattle in china. there is a demand for specific tools for discrimination between the two species due to the confusion of their classification based on traditionally classification methods, such as tick vector, morphology, and pathogenicity. in this study, the internal transcribed spacers (its including its1, 5.8s coding region and its2) were originated from four isolates of b. ovata and one of b. major fr ...200818066598
seroepidemiological studies of bovine babesiosis caused by babesia ovata, b. bigemina and b. bovis in peninsular malaysia.cattle in peninsular malaysia were examined for evidence of infection with babesia ovata, b. bigemina and b. bovis by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibody to the three babesia species. all of the test samples when assayed with b. ovata antigen, resulted in low value indicating low probability of cattle infected with b. bigemina, 74.4% were positive for b. bovis and 72.6% were positive for both babesia species. in addition, a serological survey with regard to age differe ...19947865596
the use of imidocarb diproprionate for the treatment of theileria sergenti infections of cattle.imidocarb diproprionate (imdp) was used therapeutically at a dose of 1.2 mg imdp/kg of body weight against theileria sergenti infections in hereford heifers on the island of jeju-do, republic of korea. in the first experiment imdp was seen to be at least as effective in reducing t. sergenti parasitaemias as primaquine phosphate (primaquine), the drug normally used on the island. in the second and third experiments imdp was shown to reduce t. sergenti parasitaemias by about 80%. no drug is known ...19817295239
studies on the degree of parasitemia and the morphological forms of babesia ovata in peripheral blood. 19873454826
a pcr based survey of babesia ovata in cattle from various asian, african and south american countries.babesia ovata is a tick-transmitted hemoprotozoan parasite that infects cattle. in our study, bovine blood samples (n=2,034) were collected from 10 different countries (brazil, china, ghana, japan, mongolia, the philippines, south africa, sri lanka, thailand and vietnam) and dna extracted. the dna samples were screened using an established and specific polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay targeting the apical membrane antigen 1 (ama-1) gene. parasite dna was detected among samples collected fro ...201323037864
pcr detection of babesia ovata from questing ticks in japan.babesia ovata is a tick-transmitted hemoprotozoan parasite of cattle. in the present study, we analyzed tick dna samples (n=1459) prepared from questing ticks collected from various cattle pastures in hokkaido (shibecha, taiki, otofuke, memuro, and shin-hidaka districts) and okinawa (yonaguni island) prefectures of japan for b. ovata. when all the tick dna samples were screened by a previously described b. ovata-specific apical membrane antigen-1 (ama-1) gene-based polymerase chain reaction (pcr ...201424572609
babesia ovata: taxonomy, phylogeny and epidemiology.babesia ovata, which is transmitted by haemaphysalis longicornis, is an intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite of cattle. based on its morphology, b. ovata is classified as a large-type babesia. the developmental stages of b. ovata have been described both in cattle and the tick vector. in infected adult female ticks, the parasite is transovarially transmitted to the tick eggs. the sexual reproduction of b. ovata has been demonstrated in the tick midgut. the diagnostic tools that are currently ava ...201627809988
initial development of babesia ovata in the tick midgut.the initial development of babesia ovata in the midgut of the vector tick haemaphysalis longicornis has been demonstrated through in vitro and in vivo studies. although the research on the partial developmental cycles of b. ovata in the tick midgut was performed in our previous study by using ticks fed on experimentally b. ovata-infected cattle, detailed information on the developmental stages of b. ovata in h. longicornis was limited. this report describes the sequential development of stages o ...201728043386
genetic detection of babesia bigemina from mongolian cattle using apical membrane antigen-1 gene-based pcr assay.we developed a new nested pcr (npcr) assay based on the babesia bigemina apical membrane antigen-1 (ama-1) gene sequence for parasite-specific detection. the primers were designed to amplify 738-bp and 211-bp fragments of the ama-1 gene by primary and nested pcrs, respectively. the assay was proven to be specific for the b. bigemina, whereas the previously established spei-avai npcr assay amplified not only the target fragment of b. bigemina but also a homologous one from babesia ovata. the ama- ...201222284301
inhibitory effect of cyclophilin a from the hard tick haemaphysalis longicornis on the growth of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina.haemaphysalis longicornis is known as one of the most important ticks transmitting babesia parasites in east asian countries, including babesia ovata and babesia gibsoni, as well as theileria parasites. h. longicornis is not the natural vector of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina. vector ticks and transmitted parasites are thought to have established unique host-parasite interaction for their survival, meaning that vector ticks may have defensive molecules for the growth control of parasites in ...201323532543
identification of piroplasm infection in questing ticks by rlb: a broad range extension of tick-borne piroplasm in china?sensitive and specific diagnostic method for rapid and simultaneous detection and discrimination of the different species is needed for an effective control of piroplasmosis. here, a reverse line blot (rlb) assay was developed for piroplasm detection. a general pair of primer based on 18s ribosomal rna (rrna) gene was used to amplify v4 region of 18s rrna gene. general and specific probes for 13 piroplasm species were cited from previous publications or designed according to the alignment of 18s ...201626896077
epidemiology of bovine hemoprotozoa parasites in cattle and water buffalo in vietnam.a pcr-based survey of hemoprotozoa parasites detected babesia bigemina, theileria orientalis and trypanosoma theileri among cattle and water buffalo in vietnam, and a new babesia sp. closely related to babesia ovata was detected in cattle only. in addition, theileria annulata and trypanosoma evansi were not detected in both cattle and water buffalo. phylogenetic analysis detected t. orientalis mpsp genotypes 3, 5, 7 and n3 in cattle and 5, 7, n1 and n2 in water buffalo. additionally, water buffa ...201627149894
evaluation of the in vitro growth-inhibitory effect of epoxomicin on babesia parasites.epoxomicin potently and irreversibly inhibits the catalytic activity of proteasomal subunits. treatment of proliferating cells with epoxomicin results in cell death through accumulation of ubiquinated proteins. thus, epoxomicin has been proposed as a potential anti-cancer drug. in the present study, the inhibitory effects of epoxomicin on the in vitro growth of bovine and equine babesia parasites were evaluated. the inhibitory effect of epoxomicin on the in vivo growth of babesia microti was als ...201019896277
monoclonal antibody against babesia equi: characterization and potential application of antigen for serodiagnosis.monoclonal antibody (mab) beg3 was produced against babesia equi parasites to define a species-specific antigen for diagnostic use. the mab reacted with single, paired, and maltese cross forms of b. equi, and no reaction was observed with this mab on acetone-fixed babesia caballi, babesia ovata, or babesia microti parasites in the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. confocal laser and immunoelectron microscopic studies showed that the antigen which was recognized by this mab was located on ...19989650921
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