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survey for bat lyssaviruses, thailand.surveillance for lyssaviruses was conducted among bat populations in 8 provinces in thailand. in 2002 and 2003, a total of 932 bats of 11 species were captured and released after serum collection. lyssavirus infection was determined by conducting virus neutralization assays on bat serum samples. of collected samples, 538 were either hemolysed or insufficient in volume, which left 394 suitable for analysis. these samples included the following: pteropus lylei (n = 335), eonycteris spelaea (n = 45 ...200515752440
progressive pseudogenization: vitamin c synthesis and its loss in bats.for the past 50 years, it was believed that all bats, like humans and guinea pigs, did not synthesize vitamin c (vc) because they lacked activity of l-gulonolactone oxidase (gulo) in their livers. humans and guinea pigs lack the activity due to pseudogenization of gulo in their genomes, but there is no genetic evidence to show whether such loss in bats is caused by pseudogenization. unexpectedly, our successful molecular cloning in one frugivorous bat (rousettus leschenaultii) and one insectivor ...201021037206
bat head contains soft magnetic particles: evidence from magnetism.recent behavioral observations have indicated that bats can sense the earth's magnetic field. to unravel the magnetoreception mechanism, the present study has utilized magnetic measurements on three migratory species (miniopterus fuliginosus, chaerephon plicata, and nyctalus plancyi) and three non-migratory species (hipposideros armiger, myotis ricketti, and rhinolophus ferrumequinum). room temperature isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition and alternating-field demagnetization showed tha ...201020607738
phylogeography and population genetic structure of the great leaf-nosed bat (hipposideros armiger) in china.the geographical patterns of the genetic structure of hipposideros armiger in china were assessed by analyzing sequence variation in the mitochondrial dna control region. analysis of molecular variance revealed a very strong genetic structure among 5 regions in h. armiger. a neighbor-joining tree, haplotype network construction by tcs and multidimensional scaling plots all showed significant geographic differentiation among 5 regions. the high genetic structure detected in h. armiger could be a ...201020418357
a comparative study of prenatal development in miniopterus schreibersii fuliginosus, hipposideros armiger and h. pratti.bats comprise the second largest order of mammals. however, there are far fewer morphological studies of post-implantation embryonic development than early embryonic development in bats.201020092640
host range, prevalence, and genetic diversity of adenoviruses in bats.bats are the second largest group of mammals on earth and act as reservoirs of many emerging viruses. in this study, a novel bat adenovirus (adv) (btadv-tjm) was isolated from bat fecal samples by using a bat primary kidney cell line. infection studies indicated that most animal and human cell lines are susceptible to btadv-tjm, suggesting a possible wide host range. genome analysis revealed 30 putative genes encoding proteins homologous to their counterparts in most known advs. phylogenetic ana ...201020089640
[characterization and comparison of the doppler compensation acoustic wave in hipposideros armiger].we used the pendulum device to study doppler-shifted compensation of great leaf-nosed bat (hipposideros armiger). the bats' echolocation calls were recorded by the ultrasound detector both under the rest condition and doppler shift condition. then we analyzed the calls with avisoft software. our results suggested that when h. armiger was approaching the target, it showed positive doppler shift compensation: call frequency and the velocity (v) were positive correlated. call frequency fell to mini ...201021174358
recovery cycles of single-on and double-on neurons in the inferior colliculus of the leaf-nosed bat, hipposideros armiger.our previous study showed that when stimulated with constant frequency-frequency modulation (cf-fm) sounds, neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of the cf-fm bat, hipposideros armiger, either only discharged impulses to the onset of cf-fm sounds (76%, single-on neurons) or to the onset of both cf and fm components of cf-fm sounds (24%, double-on neuron) (fu et al., 2010). the present paper reports the recovery cycles of these two types of neurons using paired cf, fm and cf-f ...201121338589
complete mitochondrial genome sequences of two chiroptera species (rhinolophus luctus and hipposideros armiger). 201222515210
natural epigenetic variation in the female great roundleaf bat (hipposideros armiger) populations.epigenetic modifications are considered to have an important role in evolution. dna methylation is one of the best studied epigenetic mechanisms and methylation variability is crucial for promoting phenotypic diversification of organisms in response to environmental variation. a critical first step in the assessment of the potential role of epigenetic variation in evolution is the identification of dna methylation polymorphisms and their relationship with genetic variations in natural population ...201222773086
first knockdown gene expression in bat (hipposideros armiger) brain mediated by lentivirus.lentivirus-mediated rna interference (rnai) is a potent experimental tool for investigating gene functions in vitro and in vivo. it has advantages that transgenic technology lacks. however, in vivo applications are difficult to apply in the central nervous system of non-model organisms due to the lack of a standard brain atlas and genetic information. here, we report the development of an in vivo gene delivery system used in bat brain tissue for the first time, based on lentivirus (lv) vectors e ...201322965420
ob-rl silencing inhibits the thermoregulatory ability of great roundleaf bats (hipposideros armiger).previous studies have shown that the hormone leptin has an important role in mammalian heterothermy by regulating metabolism and food intake via lipolysis, as well as adaptive evolution of leptin in heterothermic bats driven by selected pressure. however, the mechanism of leptin in heterothermic regulation in mammals is unknown. by combining previous results, we speculated that the leptin signaling pathway mediated by ob-rl (leptin receptor long form) in the hypothalamus is important. ob-rl is o ...201424815886
the role of the fm component in shaping the number of impulses and response latency of inferior collicular neurons of hipposideros armiger elicited by cf-fm sounds.previous studies show that when stimulated with constant frequency-frequency modulated (cf-fm) sounds, the inferior collicular neurons of the leaf-nosed bat, hipposideros armiger, either discharge impulses only to the cf component (single-on, so neurons) or to both cf and fm components (double-on, do neurons). in this study, we specifically determine the role of the fm component in shaping the number of impulses and response latency of these two types of neurons in response to cf-fm sounds. addi ...201424915297
the great roundleaf bat (hipposideros armiger) as a good model for cold-induced browning of intra-abdominal white adipose tissue.inducing beige fat from white adipose tissue (wat) is considered to be a shortcut to weight loss and increasingly becoming a key area in research into treatments for obesity and related diseases. however, currently, animal models of beige fat are restricted to rodents, where subcutaneous adipose tissue (swat, benign wat) is more liable to develop into the beige fat under specific activators than the intra-abdominal adipose tissue (awat, malignant wat) that is the major source of obesity related ...201425393240
natural epigenetic variation in bats and its role in evolution.when facing the challenges of environmental change, such as habitat fragmentation, organisms have to adjust their phenotype to adapt to various environmental stresses. recent studies show that epigenetic modifications could mediate environmentally induced phenotypic variation, and this epigenetic variance could be inherited by future generations, indicating that epigenetic processes have potential evolutionary effects. bats living in diverse environments show geographic variations in phenotype, ...201525568456
adaptation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha to hibernation in bats.hibernation is a survival mechanism in the winter for some animals. fat preserved instead of glucose produced is the primary fuel during winter hibernation of mammals. many genes involved in lipid metabolism are regulated by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (pparα). the role of pparα in hibernation of mammals remains largely unknown. using a multidisciplinary approach, we investigated whether pparα is adapted to hibernation in bats.201525980933
effect of echolocation behavior-related constant frequency-frequency modulation sound on the frequency tuning of inferior collicular neurons in hipposideros armiger.in constant frequency-frequency modulation (cf-fm) bats, the cf-fm echolocation signals include both cf and fm components, yet the role of such complex acoustic signals in frequency resolution by bats remains unknown. using cf and cf-fm echolocation signals as acoustic stimuli, the responses of inferior collicular (ic) neurons of hipposideros armiger were obtained by extracellular recordings. we tested the effect of preceding cf or cf-fm sounds on the shape of the frequency tuning curves (ftcs) ...201526026915
the genomes of two bat species with long constant frequency echolocation calls.bats can perceive the world by using a wide range of sensory systems, and some of the systems have become highly specialized, such as auditory sensory perception. among bat species, the old world leaf-nosed bats and horseshoe bats (rhinolophoid bats) possess the most sophisticated echolocation systems. here, we reported the whole-genome sequencing and de novo assembles of two rhinolophoid bats-the great leaf-nosed bat (hipposideros armiger) and the chinese rufous horseshoe bat (rhinolophus sinic ...201727803123
acoustically diverse vocalization repertoire in the himalayan leaf-nosed bat, a widely distributed hipposideros species.insectivorous bats vocalize to both communicate with conspecifics and to echolocate. the communicative vocalizations or "calls" of bats either consist of or are constructed from discrete acoustic units, termed "syllables." this study examined syllable diversity in the himalayan leaf-nosed bat, hipposideros armiger, a species that is widely distributed across southeast asia. this social species' vocalizations were hypothesized to consist of a wide variety of syllables facilitating its social inte ...201627908088
highly divergent cyclo-like virus in a great roundleaf bat (hipposideros armiger) in vietnam.members of the viral family circoviridae are increasingly recognized worldwide. bats seem to be natural reservoirs or dietary-related dispensers of these viruses. here, we report a distantly related member of the genus cyclovirus detected in the faeces of a great roundleaf bat (hipposideros armiger). interestingly, the novel virus lacks a circoviridae-specific stem-loop structure, although a geminiviridae-like nonamer sequence was detected in the large intergenic region. based on these differenc ...201728447216
horseshoe bats and old world leaf-nosed bats have two discrete types of pinna motions.horseshoe bats (rhinolophidae) and the related old world leaf-nosed bats (hipposideridae) both show conspicuous pinna motions as part of their biosonar behaviors. in the current work, the kinematics of these motions in one species from each family (rhinolophus ferrumequinum and hipposideros armiger) has been analyzed quantitatively using three-dimensional tracking of landmarks placed on the pinna. the pinna motions that were observed in both species fell into two categories: in "rigid rotations" ...201728599557
recent loss of vitamin c biosynthesis ability in bats.the traditional assumption that bats cannot synthesize vitamin c (vc) has been challenged recently. we have previously shown that two old world bat species (rousettus leschenaultii and hipposideros armiger) have functional l-gulonolactone oxidase (gulo), an enzyme that catalyzes the last step of vc biosynthesis de novo. given the uncertainties surrounding when and how bats lost gulo function, exploration of gene evolutionary patterns is needed. we therefore sequenced gulo genes from 16 bat speci ...201122069493
Telomerase activity in the bats Hipposideros armiger and Rousettus leschenaultia.Telomerase activity was examined in two species of bat, Hipposideros armiger and Rousettus leschenaultia, which have similar body mass and lifespan but differ in use of hibernation. We found that telomerase activity was present in all tissues sampled, but it was greater in metabolically active tissues such as liver, spleen, and kidney. Of special interest is the raised activity found in the heterothermic bat H. armiger, and the hibernating bats having raised values for spleen, heart, and kidney. ...201122082270
digital gene expression tag profiling of bat digits provides robust candidates contributing to wing formation.as the only truly flying mammals, bats use their unique wing - consisting of four elongated digits (digits ii-v) connected by membranes - to power their flight. in addition to the elongated digits ii-v, the forelimb contains one shorter digit (digit i) that is morphologically similar to the hindlimb digits. here, we capitalized on the morphological variation among the bat forelimb digits to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying digit elongation and wing formation. using next generation ...201021054883
[sound duration and sound pattern affect the recovery cycles of inferior collicular neurons in leaf-nosed bat, hipposideros armiger].the effects of sound duration and sound pattern on the recovery cycles of inferior collicular (ic) neurons in constant frequency-frequency modulation (cf-fm) bats were explored in this study. five leaf-nosed bats, hipposideros armiger (4 males, 1 female, 43-50 g body weight), were used as subjects. the extracellular responses of ic neurons to paired sound stimuli with different duration and patterns were recorded, and the recovery was counted as the ratio of the second response to the first resp ...201020945051
the auditory response properties of single-on and double-on responders in the inferior colliculus of the leaf-nosed bat, hipposideros armiger.the present study examines the response properties of neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ic) of the cf-fm (constant frequency-frequency-modulated) bat, hipposideros armiger using cf, fm and cf-fm sounds as stimuli. all 169 ic neurons recorded are tonotopically organized along the dorsoventral axis of the ic. collicular neurons have v-shaped or upper-threshold frequency tuning curves. those neurons tuned at the predominant second harmonic have extremely sharp frequency tun ...201019835849
roost selection by formosan leaf-nosed bats (hipposideros armiger terasensis).patterns of roost use by formosan leaf-nosed bats (hipposideros armiger terasensis) were studied from november 1998 to april 2000. structural characteristics, microclimates, and disturbance levels of 17 roosts used by h. a. terasensis and 15 roosts either used by other bat species (2) or not occupied by any bat species were compared. roosts used by these bats were significantly larger in size and had greater areas covered by water compared to unused roosts. entrances of active roosts were more l ...200312951409
immunohistochemical evidence of cone-based ultraviolet vision in divergent bat species and implications for its evolution.we characterized fos-like expression patterns in the primary visual cortex (v1) by binocular flicking stimulation with uv light to investigate cone-based uv vision in four bat species representing four lineages: hipposideros armiger and scotophilus kuhlii, insectivores using constant frequency (cf) or frequency modulation (fm) echolocation, respectively, and rousettus leschenaultii and cynopterus sphinx, cave-roosting and tree-roosting fruit bats, respectively. the optic centre processing the vi ...201222269122
high duty cycle to low duty cycle: echolocation behaviour of the hipposiderid bat coelops frithii.laryngeally echolocating bats avoid self-deafening (forward masking) by separating pulse and echo either in time using low duty cycle (ldc) echolocation, or in frequency using high duty cycle (hdc) echolocation. hdc echolocators are specialized to detect fluttering targets in cluttered environments. hdc echolocation is found only in the families rhinolophidae and hipposideridae in the old world and in the new world mormoopid, pteronotus parnellii. here we report that the hipposiderid coelops fri ...201323717396
prevalence and genetic characterization of toxoplasma gondii infection in bats in southern china.toxoplasma gondii can infect a wide variety of warm-blooded animals, including bats. limited information on t. gondii infection in bats is available in china. the objective of the present study was to determine prevalence and genetic diversity of t. gondii infection in bats in southern china. a total of 608 bats representing 12 species, including 120 aselliscus stoliczkanus, 59 myotis chinensis, 11 miniopterus schreibersii, 53 rhinolophus affinis, 32 rhinolophus pusillus, 81 hipposideros armiger ...201424813744
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