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immunisation of cattle against theileriosis in nakuru district of kenya by infection and treatment and the introduction of unconventional tick control.one hundred and one cross european-boran cattle (50 cows and 51 calves), on a farm in nakuru district, kenya, were immunised against theileriosis using theileria parva lawrencei and theileria parva parva stocks from another district of kenya. the stabilates used were t.p.lawrencei (mara iii) used at 10(-1.7) dilution and t.p.parva (kilae) used at 10(-1.0) dilution. the stabilates were combined and inoculated simultaneously with a short-acting formulation of oxytetracycline hydrochloride given in ...19921496782
[ticks and hemoparasitic diseases in cattle in senegal. iv. the southern sudan area].the authors report on the results of an investigation on ticks and hemoparasitoses of cattle, sheep and goats in the south sudanian area of senegal. systematic routine dipping against ticks of cattle, 40 sheep and 40 goats was set during 15 months, with a view to determine the population dynamics together with an acurate localization of the different species concerned. the following parasites were collected from these ruminants: amblyomma variegatum, boophilus geigyi, hyalomma truncatum, h. m. r ...19902218038
[ticks and hemoparasitoses of livestock in senegal. iii. the northern sudan area].the authors describe the results of a study on ticks and hemoparasitoses of cattle and small ruminants in the senegalese north-sudanian area. for 15 months, 40 bovine, 40 sheep and 40 goats received a routine dipping treatment, aimed at the determination of the tick population dynamics together with an accurate localization of the preferential sites for the different species. the following parasites were collected from the animals: hyalomma marginatum rufipes, h. truncatum, rhipicephalus lunulat ...19892485548
heartwater serology: some problems with the interpretation of results.antibodies in the sera of domestic ruminants that have been infected with ehrlichia bovis and other ehrlichial agents cross-react with the kümm strain of cowdria ruminantium used in the indirect fluorescent antibody test as antigen. these cross-reactions are also shown by the elisa test in which the ball 3 strain of the heartwater agent is used as antigen.19873329323
[a new rickettsiale (ehrlichiae) in leukocytes of the blood of gambia rats (cricetomys gambianus) in senegal : cytoecetes kamtchoulii n. sp].among 20 hemograms (peripheric blood smears) carried out upon some adults male and female giant rats, (cricetomys gambianus) captured in the dakar region, two (10 p. 100) are infected by one rickettsiale of the ehrlichiae tribe and of the cytoecetes genus tyzzer, 1938. polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes and monocytes, more or less 1/25, and monocytes, more or less 1/40, of the systemic circulation are infected by "elementary bodies" (diameter : 0.1 to 0.3 mu) included in the cell protoplasm ...19817346908
usefulness of rabbits and mice as experimental laboratory models for ehrlichia bovis.attempts were made to infect mice and immunosuppressed rabbits with ehrlichia bovis. while evidence of infection could be noticed in rabbits, their identity as e. bovis needs confirmation. mice appeared to be infected and showed clear inclusions in both blood monocytes and peritoneal macrophages. while symptoms of disease were not observable in rabbits, alopecia, dullness and death were noticed among infected mice. it is concluded that mice are better laboratory models for e. bovis infection; al ...19957590950
[ticks and hemoparasitoses of livestock in senegal. vi. the soudano-sahelian zone].the authors report the results of a study on ticks and hemoparasitoses among cattle, sheep and goats in the sudano-sahelian zone. during a period of 15 months, ticks were systematically removed from 40 cattle, 40 sheep and 40 goats in order to assess the population dynamics and determine more accurately the preferential sites of settlement of the different species. the following species were collected in ruminants: hyalomma truncatum, h. marginatum rufipes, rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, rh. gui ...19947991897
[ticks and hemoparasitoses in livestock in senegal. v. the northern guinea area].the authors report the results of a study on ticks and hemoparasitoses among cattle, sheep and goats in the north-guinean zone. during a period of 15 months, ticks were systematically removed from 40 cattle, 40 sheep and 40 goats in order to assess the population dynamics and to determine more accurately the preferential sites of settlement of the following different species collected from these animals: amblyomma variegatum, boophilus geigyi, hyalomma truncatum, h. marginatum rufipes, rhipiceph ...19938073170
detection of antibodies to cowdria ruminantium in the serum of domestic ruminants by indirect elisa.a solid phase enzyme immunoassay for the detection of antibodies to cowdria ruminantium in the serum of domestic ruminants was developed by using microorganisms cultivated on bovine umbilical endothelial cells as antigen. when the culture showed 90% lysis, the supernatant was centrifuged, sonicated and coated on polystyrene microtiter plates. antibodies were detected as early as 9 days after experimental immunization of goats. the sensitivity of the elisa calculated with 73 ruminant sera ranged ...19938134621
the immunodominant 32-kilodalton protein of cowdria ruminantium is conserved within the genus ehrlichia.serological tests for cowdriosis are hampered by cross-reacting antibodies from animals suspected to be infected with ehrlichia species. we have monitored infections with ehrlichia bovis, e. ovina, e. canis and e. phagocytophila in experimental animals by competitive elisa, western blotting and immunofluorescence using cowdria-infected endothelial cell culture antigens. cross-reactions due to ehrlichia antibodies could be attributed to the recognition of epitopes on the immunodominant cr32 cowdr ...19938134624
morphology and staining characteristics of ehrlichia bovis.morphology and staining characteristics of ehrlichia bovis were observed after staining with romanowsky and gimenez stains and fluorochroming with acridine orange. ehrlichia bovis could be identified as elementary bodies, initial bodies and morulae in the host cell cytoplasm. the inclusions were solid and compact and resembled more closely those of e. canis (canine monocytic ehrlichia) than e. phagocytophilia or e. ondiri (bovine granulocytic ehrlichiae). the organisms usually took acidophilic s ...19968654048
detection of haemoparasites in cattle by reverse line blot hybridisation with a note on the distribution of ticks in sicily.a reverse line blot hybridisation (rlb) of 21 oligonucleotides with polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplified regions of 16s rrna (ehrlichia/anaplasma group) or 18s rrna (babesia/theileria group) genes of haemoparasites detected theileria annulata, t. buffeli/orientalis, babesia bovis, b. bigemina, b. divergens, ehrlichia bovis, anaplasma marginale, a. centrale and unknown species within the rickettsia tribe.a very high prevalence of mixed infections was detected, which indicated that animals in ...200111511414
detection of ehrlichia spp., anaplasma spp., rickettsia spp., and other eubacteria in ticks from the thai-myanmar border and vietnam.a total of 650 ticks, including 13 species from five genera, were collected from animals, from people, or by flagging of the vegetation at sites on the thai-myanmar border and in vietnam. they were tested by pcr to detect dna of bacteria of the order rickettsiales: three anaplasma spp. were detected in ticks collected in thailand, including (i) anaplasma sp. strain anda465, which was considered a genotype of anaplasma platys (formerly ehrlichia platys) and which was obtained from dermacentor aur ...200312682151
identification of ehrlichia chaffeensis, anaplasma phagocytophilum, and a. bovis in haemaphysalis longicornis and ixodes persulcatus ticks from korea.a total of 1,467 tick (1,463 of haemaphysalis longicornis, three of ixodes persulcatus and one of i. turdus) collected from nine provinces of korea were examined by taqman real-time pcr for the presence of ehrlichia and anaplasma species. one set of primers and a probe were designed for detection of all of the ehrlichia and anaplasma species. template dnas (total 803) were prepared either from pools of larvae, nymphs, adult males and females, or from the salivary gland and midgut of adult ticks. ...200312804377
enzootic transmission of anaplasma bovis in nantucket cottontail rabbits.serological studies of cottontail rabbits sampled from nantucket island, mass., have suggested exposure to at least two ehrlichiae. the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (anaplasma phagocytophilum) is intensely enzootic in rabbits there, but the identity of the other ehrlichial infection remains undescribed. we sampled rabbits over five transmission seasons and tested their blood and tissues for evidence of infection using pcr targeting an ehrlichia genus-wide 16s rdna target. sequence an ...200312904385
antigens and alternatives for control of anaplasma marginale infection in cattle.anaplasmosis, a tick-borne cattle disease caused by the rickettsia anaplasma marginale, is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. the disease causes considerable economic loss to both the dairy and beef industries worldwide. analyses of 16s rrna, groesl, and surface proteins have resulted in the recent reclassification of the order rickettsiales. the genus anaplasma, of which a. marginale is the type species, now also includes a. bovis, a. platys, and a. phagocytophilum, which w ...200314557295
application of a reverse line blot assay to the study of haemoparasites in cattle in uganda.recent advances in genomic technology have focused many veterinary researchers on the possibility of producing one multivalent recombinant vaccine against all the haemoparasites that infect cattle in the tropics. before such a vaccine is developed it is essential to define target cattle populations as well as the range of anti-pathogen vaccines required in order to control disease. to further this objective, we have evaluated a reverse line blot (rlb) assay, which simultaneously detects the prin ...200415064125
novel genetic variants of anaplasma phagocytophilum, anaplasma bovis, anaplasma centrale, and a novel ehrlichia sp. in wild deer and ticks on two major islands in japan.wild deer are one of the important natural reservoir hosts of several species of ehrlichia and anaplasma that cause human ehrlichiosis or anaplasmosis in the united states and europe. the primary aim of the present study was to determine whether and what species of ehrlichia and anaplasma naturally infect deer in japan. blood samples obtained from wild deer on two major japanese islands, hokkaido and honshu, were tested for the presence of ehrlichia and anaplasma by pcr assays and sequencing of ...200616461655
detection and quantification of anaplasma marginale dna in blood samples of cattle by real-time pcr.a taqman-based real-time pcr assay was developed for the diagnosis of anaplasma marginale infection of cattle. the established assay was proven to be highly specific, since no cross-reactions were observed with other anaplasma species of ruminants, including the closely related anaplasma centrale, or other haemoparasites of ruminants (anaplasma bovis, anaplasma ovis, anaplasma phagocytophilum, babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, theileria annulata and theileria buffeli). the detection limit was equ ...200717466470
molecular survey for anaplasma bovis and anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in cattle in a pastureland where sika deer appear in hokkaido, japan.anaplasma bovis and anaplasma phagocytophilum infection were examined by species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction in cattle in a pastureland where sika deer appear in hokkaido, japan. of the 78 cattle examined, 12 (15%) and 1 (1%) tested positive for infection by a. bovis and a. phagocytophilum, respectively. one cattle tested positive for both. a. phagocytophilum infection rates were significantly lower in cattle than in sika deer (46%), but the infection rate by a. bovis was not signi ...200919168967
natural co-infection of ehrlichia chaffeensis and anaplasma bovis in a deer in south korea.both ehrlichioses and anaplasmoses are zoonotic, fatal infectious diseases that caused by ticks. white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) are important hosts for ehrlichia chaffeensis, anaplasma phagocytophilum and anaplasma-like organisms. in the present study, an evaluation of infection with tick-borne pathogens was conducted using a pcr assay on the blood of a deer that expressed anorexia and decreased activity. the results of the pcr assay revealed natural co-infection of e. chaffeensis an ...200919194084
ticks and tick-borne pathogens from wildlife in the free state province, south africa.eight ixodid tick species, associated with 59 free-ranging mammals belonging to 10 species, were collected at five different localities in the free state province, south africa. four of the study areas were nature reserves (willem pretorius, sandveld, tussen-die-riviere, and soetdoring), and one site was a private farm located in senekal district. the collection was performed from march 2006 until june 2006. ticks (n=569) and tissues from animals (n=52) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction ...200919395753
molecular detection of ehrlichia canis, anaplasma bovis, anaplasma platys, candidatus midichloria mitochondrii and babesia canis vogeli in ticks from israel.: ticks are vectors of important pathogens of human and animals. therefore, their microbial carriage capacity is constantly being investigated. the aim of this study was to characterize the diversity of domestic animal pathogens in ticks collected from vegetation and the ground, from different parts of israel. non-engorged questing adult ticks were collected from 13 localities. a total of 1196 ticks in 131 pools-83 pools of rhipicephalus turanicus and 48 of rhipicephalus sanguineus (with two to ...201120636417
detection of anaplasma bovis dna in the peripheral blood of domestic dogs in japan.the prevalence of ehrlichia and anaplasma in 1,427 dogs from 32 japanese prefectures was evaluated by pcr and dna nucleotide sequencing. pcr screening demonstrated that 18 dogs (1.3%) were positive for anaplasmataceae. sequence analysis revealed that 14 of the amplicons were most closely related to wolbachia spp., symbionts of dirofilaria immitis, whereas three were identified as anaplasma bovis. the remaining amplicon could not be sequenced. almost the entire sequence of 16s rrna (1,452 bp) fro ...201020859003
haemoparasite prevalence and theileria parva strain diversity in cape buffalo (syncerus caffer) in uganda.cape buffalo (syncerus caffer) are considered to be an important reservoir for various tick-borne haemoparasites of veterinary importance. in this study we have compared the haemoparasite carrier prevalence in buffalo from four geographically isolated national parks in uganda [lake mburo national park (lmnp), queen elizabeth national park (qenp), murchison falls national park (mfnp) and kidepo valley national park (kvnp)]. differences were seen in haemoparasite prevalence in buffalo from the fou ...201021074945
novel genotypes of anaplasma bovis, "candidatus midichloria" sp. and ignatzschineria sp. in the rocky mountain wood tick, dermacentor andersoni.bovine anaplasmosis, caused by anaplasma marginale, is a vector-borne disease that is enzootic in many parts of the usa. although dermacentor andersoni, a major vector of a. marginale, occurs in canada, the canadian cattle herds are currently considered free of bovine anaplasmosis. there have been two outbreaks of the disease in the province of saskatchewan, but these have been linked to the importation of infected animals. however, the distribution of bovine anaplasmosis may alter with range ex ...201121334146
differences in prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi and anaplasma spp. infection among host-seeking dermacentor occidentalis, ixodes pacificus, and ornithodoros coriaceus ticks in northwestern california.previous studies revealed that the pacific coast tick (dermacentor occidentalis) is infected occasionally with the agents of lyme disease (borrelia burgdorferi) or human granulocytic anaplasmosis (anaplasma phagocytophilum) and that it is an inefficient experimental vector of b. burgdorferi. the relationship of the pajahuello tick (ornithodoros coriaceus) to each of these bacterial zoonotic agents has not been reported. the primary bridging vector of both bacterial zoonotic agents to humans is t ...201021359090
molecular survey of anaplasma and ehrlichia infections of feral raccoons (procyon lotor) in hokkaido, japan.infection by anaplasma and ehrlichia in feral raccoons (procyon lotor) in hokkaido, japan, was examined by molecular methods. a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) screen for anaplasmataceae, based on 16s rrna, showed that 38 (5.4%) of 699 raccoons examined were positive. these 38 positive samples were examined for anaplasma phagocytophilum, anaplasma bovis, ehrlichia chaffeensis, and ehrlichia canis infection by species-specific nested pcr. nested pcr results indicated that 36 of the 38 samples wer ...201121395415
detection of anaplasma bovis in an undescribed tick species collected from the eastern rock sengi elephantulus myurus.abstract ticks are important vectors of numerous pathogens causing illness, fatalities, and economic loss worldwide. infectious disease episodes are increasing and novel tick-borne pathogens are described frequently. identification of novel reservoir hosts and vectors of tick-borne pathogens are essential if control measures are to be successful. in south africa, the eastern rock sengi, elephantulus myurus, hosts a number of tick species of veterinary importance. despite this, there remains a pa ...201121711102
molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens of the family anaplasmataceae in brazilian brown brocket deer (mazama gouazoubira, fischer, 1814) and marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus, illiger, 1815).deer are important natural reservoir hosts of anaplasmataceae. the present study used nested pcr and nucleotide sequencing to evaluate the occurrence of anaplasmataceae species in 23 free-living and six captive specimens of the cervids mazama gouazoubira and blastocerus dichotomus in minas gerais state, brazil. blood samples were tested for the presence of ehrlichia and anaplasma spp. using npcr assays and sequencing of the msp4, msp1 and 16s rrna genes. the identity of each sequence was confirm ...201122136597
haemoparasite infection kinetics and the population structure of theileria parva on a single farm in uganda.the development of sensitive pcr-based species-specific diagnostics and parasite genotyping methods offer the opportunity to provide important and detailed information on the infection dynamics of tick-borne disease. in this study we have exploited such tools to investigate the infection kinetics and parasite diversity within theileria parva in a single farm in uganda. initial analysis of a sample of cattle showed high levels of infection with three theileria species and ehrlichia bovis, with mo ...201223332122
a review of hyalomma scupense (acari, ixodidae) in the maghreb region: from biology to control.hyalomma scupense (syn. hyalomma detritum) is a two-host domestic endophilic tick of cattle and secondarily other ungulates in the maghreb region (africa). this species transmits several pathogens, among which two are major livestock diseases: theileria annulata and theileria equi. various other pathogens are also transmitted by this tick species, such as anaplasma phagocytophilum and ehrlichia bovis. hyalomma scupense is common in sub-humid and semi-arid areas of several regions in the world, m ...201424507485
retrospective study of hemoparasites in cattle in southern italy by reverse line blot hybridization.tick-borne diseases are widespread in tropical and temperate regions and are responsible for important economic losses in those areas. in order to assess the presence and prevalence of various pathogens in southern italy, we retrospectively analyzed cattle blood samples collected for a previous study in 2000 using reverse line blot (rlb) hybridization. the study had been carried out in three regions of southern italy on 1,500 randomly selected and apparently healthy adult cattle. rlb showed that ...201424614604
prevalence of anaplasma, bartonella and borrelia species in haemaphysalis longicornis collected from goats in north korea.north korea is located on the northern part of the korean peninsula in east asia. while tick-borne pathogens of medical and veterinary importance have been reported from china and south korea, they have not been reported from north korea. to screen for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in north korea, ticks were collected from domestic goats. a total of 292 (27 nymph, 26 male, 239 female) haemaphysalis (h.) longicornis were collected and assayed individually for selected tick-borne pathogens. a tota ...026645342
anaplasma sp. and hemoplasma infection in leopard cats (prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus) from korea.this study examined the occurrence of anaplasma spp. and hemoplasma infection in leopard cats, prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus, in korea. twenty-nine biological samples were tested by molecular analysis. two (6.9%) and eight (27.6%) tested specimens were positive for anaplasma bovis and hemoplasma infection, respectively. based on our results, anaplasma/ehrlichia spp. and hemoplasma are regularly infecting leopard cat populations of korea. considering their endangered status, regular monitor ...201526040618
a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay targeting 16s rrna gene for rapid detection of anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in sheep and goats.anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic pathogen and the causative agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (hga) in humans and tick-borne fever in various kinds of animals. in the present study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay for rapid detection of a. phagocytophilum was developed using primers specific to 16s rrna gene of this organism. the lamp assay was performed at 65 c for 60 min and terminated at 80 c for 10 min. the optimal reaction conditions, under which no cross ...201728118097
guidelines for the direct detection of anaplasma spp. in diagnosis and epidemiological studies.the genus anaplasma (rickettsiales: anaplasmataceae) comprises obligate intracellular gram-negative bacteria that are mainly transmitted by ticks, and currently includes six species: anaplasma bovis, anaplasma centrale, anaplasma marginale, anaplasma phagocytophilum, anaplasma platys, and anaplasma ovis. these have long been known as etiological agents of veterinary diseases that affect domestic and wild animals worldwide. a zoonotic role has been recognized for a. phagocytophilum, but other spe ...201728055579
molecular survey of anaplasma and ehrlichia of red deer and sika deer in gansu, china in 2013.anaplasma and ehrlichia are important emerging tick-borne pathogens in both humans and animals. here, we conducted a molecular surveillance study in gansu, china to assess the prevalence of anaplasma and ehrlichia spp. in red deer and sika deer based on polymerase chain reaction (pcr) analysis and sequencing of 16s rrna or msp genes. pcr revealed that the prevalence of anaplasma ovis, anaplasma bovis and anaplasma platys of the qilian mountain samples was 32%, 9% and 9%, respectively; the preval ...201625660960
molecular detection of anaplasma spp. in pangolins (manis javanica) and wild boars (sus scrofa) in peninsular malaysia.anaplasma spp. infects a wide variety of wildlife and domestic animals. this study describes the identification of a novel species of anaplasma (candidatus anaplasma pangolinii) from pangolins (manis javanica) and anaplasma bovis from wild boars (sus scrofa) in malaysia. based on 16s rrna gene sequences, candidatus anaplasma pangolinii is identified in a distinct branch within the family anaplasmataceae, exhibiting the closest sequence similarity with the type strains of anaplasma bovis (97.7%) ...201627523941
the first report of anaplasma phagocytophilum and a novel theileria spp. co-infection in a south african giraffe.organisms of the genera anaplasma and theileria are important intracellular bacteria and parasites that cause various tick-borne diseases, threatening the health of numerous animals as well as human beings. in the present study, a 12-month-old male wild south african giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis giraffa) originating from south africa, and living in zhengzhou zoo (located in the urban district of zhengzhou in the provincial capital of henan), suddenly developed an unknown fatal disease and die ...201627109775
first molecular evidence for the presence of anaplasma dna in milk from sheep and goats in china.anaplasmosis, a disease caused by bacteria in the genus of anaplasma, imposes economic constraints on animal breeders and also threatens human health. in the present study, we investigated the presence of anaplasma spp. dna in milk collected from sheep and goats in china. a total of 120 milk samples and 414 field-sampled blood specimens from sheep and goats were analyzed by pcr and dna sequencing. anaplasma ovis was detected in 12 milk samples (three from sheep and nine from goats). the blood sp ...201627038248
first molecular survey and identification of anaplasma spp. in white yaks (bos grunniens) in china.anaplasmosis is caused by a group of obligate intracellular bacteria in the genus anaplasma, which are transmitted by ticks and infect humans, domestic animals and wildlife. this study was conducted to determine the prevalence and molecular characterization of anaplasma spp. in semi-wild white yaks sampled in tianzhu tibetan autonomous county, northwest china. out of 332 samples tested, 35 (10·9%) were positive for anaplasma spp. the positive rates were 6·2% (20/322) and 5·3% (17/322) for anapla ...201627003378
molecular detection of rickettsia, anaplasma, coxiella and francisella bacteria in ticks collected from artiodactyla in thailand.a total of 79 ticks collected from sambar deer (cervus unicolor), barking deer (muntiacus muntjak) and wild boar (sus scrofa) were examined by pcr for the presence of rickettsia, anaplasma, coxiella, and francisella bacteria. of the 79 ticks, 13% tested positive for rickettsia, 15% tested positive for anaplasma, 4% tested positive for coxiella, and 3% tested positive for francisella. interestingly, triple infection with anaplasma, rickettsia and francisella was determined in a dermacentor auratu ...201626934997
molecular detection of tick-borne rickettsiales in goats and sheep from southeastern china.members from rickettsiales such as anaplasma phagocytophilum, ehrlichia chaffeensis, and some spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae are important tick-borne pathogens. one hundred goats and sheep from southeastern china were examined for the presence of anaplasma, e. chaffeensis, and sfg rickettsiae by pcr. a. phagocytophilum, anaplasma bovis, and anaplasma centrale were detected in 15, 49, and 16 samples, respectively. the a. phagocytophilum and a. centrale were highly homologous to strains fro ...201626872274
detection of rickettsia and anaplasma from hard ticks in thailand.we collected a total of 169 adult hard ticks and 120 nymphs from under the leaves of plants located along tourist nature trails in ten localities. the results present data examining the vector competence of ticks of different genera and the presence of rickettsia and anaplasma species. the ticks belonged to three genera, amblyomma, dermacentor, and haemaphysalis, comprising 11 species. rickettsia bacteria were detected at three collection sites, while anaplasma bacteria were detected at only one ...201526611960
molecular evidence of spotted fever group rickettsiae and anaplasmataceae from ticks and stray dogs in bangladesh.emerging tick-borne diseases (tbds) are important foci for human and animal health worldwide. however, these diseases are sometimes over looked, especially in countries with limited resources to perform molecular-based surveys. the aim of this study was to detect and characterize spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae and anaplasmataceae in bangladesh, which are important tick-borne pathogens for humans and animals worldwide. a total of 50 canine blood samples, 15 ticks collected from dogs, and 1 ...201626573516
type-specific pcr assays for babesia bovis msa-1 genotypes in asia: revisiting the genetic diversity in sri lanka, mongolia, and vietnam.babesia bovis is the most virulent babesia organism, resulting in a high mortality rate in cattle. the genetic diversity of b. bovis merozoite surface antigens (msas), such as msa-1, msa-2b, and msa-2c, might be linked to altered immune profiles in the host animals. the present study aimed to develop type-specific pcr assays for asian msa-1 genotypes, thereby re-analyzing the genetic diversity of msa-1 in sri lanka, mongolia, and vietnam. specific primers were designed for nine asian msa-1 genot ...201626520797
first molecular survey and novel genetic variants' identification of anaplasma marginale, a. centrale and a. bovis in cattle from tunisia.few data are available about the presence and distribution of anaplasma species in cattle in north african countries. in this study prevalence, co-infections, risk factors and genetic diversity of anaplasma species were evaluated in bovines from northern tunisia. a total of 232 cattle from 36 randomly selected farms in three tunisian localities were investigated for the presence of anaplasma species in blood by real-time pcr and/or nested pcr. overall infection rates of anaplasma spp., anaplasma ...201526117444
detection of tick-borne anaplasma bovis, anaplasma phagocytophilum and anaplasma centrale in spain.the genus anaplasma (rickettsiales: anaplasmataceae) includes species of medical and veterinary importance. the presence of anaplasma spp. in ticks from birds, as well as in haemaphysalis punctata (ixodida: ixodidae) specimens collected from cattle and vegetation in northern spain was investigated. a total of 336 ticks from birds [174 ixodes frontalis (ixodida: ixodidae), 108 h. punctata, 34 hyalomma marginatum (ixodida: ixodidae), 17 ixodes ricinus (ixodida: ixodidae) and three ixodes spp.], an ...201526111122
first molecular survey of anaplasma bovis in small ruminants from tunisia.to date, no information is available regarding the presence of anaplasma bovis in the south mediterranean area. in this study, prevalence, risk factors, and genetic diversity of a. bovis were assessed in small ruminants. a total of 563 healthy small ruminants (260 sheep and 303 goats), from 25 randomly selected flocks located in 5 localities from two bioclimatic areas in tunisia, were investigated for the detection of a. bovis in blood by nested polymerase chain reaction (npcr) assay. the overal ...201526088935
bovine anaplasmosis in turkey: first laboratory confirmed clinical cases caused by anaplasma phagocytophilum.anaplasma species are obligate intracellular rickettsial pathogens that affect the health of humans and other animals. clinical cases of anaplasmosis caused by anaplasma phagocytophilum were evaluated, and the frequency of bovine anaplasma species was determined in cattle. blood samples and thin blood smears were collected from 10 cattle exhibiting clinical signs of tick-borne fever. in addition, blood samples were collected from 123 apparently healthy cattle from the same area. dna was screened ...201526051478
development of a new pcr-based assay to detect anaplasmataceae and the first report of anaplasma phagocytophilum and anaplasma platys in cattle from algeria.bovine anaplasmosis is a hemoparasitic disease considered as a major constraint to cattle production in many countries. this pathology is at least partially caused by anaplasma phagocytophilum, anaplasma marginale, anaplasma centrale, and anaplasma bovis. the global threat and emergence of these species in animals require the reliable identification of these bacteria in animal samples. in this study, we developed a new qpcr tool targeting the 23s rrna gene for the detection of anaplasmataceae ba ...201525748051
molecular survey of arthropod-borne pathogens in ticks obtained from japanese wildcats.the iriomote cat (ic), prionailurus bengalensis iriomotensis, and the tsushima leopard cat (tlc), prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus, are endangered subspecies of leopard cats in japan. in addition to habitat destruction and road kills, infectious diseases may threaten their populations, and infection with arthropod-borne pathogens has been reported in both subspecies. infestations with ectoparasites, especially ticks, have frequently been observed in ics and tlcs. in the present study, ticks c ...201525682495
a novel ehrlichia genotype strain distinguished by the trp36 gene naturally infects cattle in brazil and causes clinical manifestations associated with ehrlichiosis.a novel ehrlichia genotype most closely related to e. canis was reported in north american cattle in 2010, and a similar agent was subsequently identified in the hemolymph of brazilian rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus ticks and isolated in 2012. the purpose of this study was to determine whether this or other novel ehrlichial agents naturally infect brazilian cattle. using pcr targeting the genus-conserved dsb gene, dna from this novel ehrlichial agent in brazilian cattle was detected. attemp ...201424915874
detection of anaplasma phagocytophilum and anaplasma bovis in small wild mammals from taichung and kinmen island, taiwan.a total of 138 animals from 7 species (apodemus agrarius, bandicota indica, crocidura suaveolens, mus caroli, mus formosanus, rattus losea, and suncus murinus) captured in taichung, located in central taiwan, and kinmen island, an island off the shore of china, were examined for the presence of anaplasma phagocytophilum. the presence of the bacteria, which causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis, was examined by nested pcr targeting the16s rdna. twelve animals (8.7%) from m. caroli and r. losea, ...201424647253
development of a real-time pcr assay for detection and quantification of anaplasma ovis infection.anaplasma ovis is a tick-borne intra-erythrocytic rickettsial pathogen of small ruminants. real-time pcr possesses merits of rapidity, accuracy, reliability, automation and ease of standardization, but has not been used for detection of a. ovis, to the best of our knowledge. in this study, a real-time pcr assay was developed for detection and quantification of a. ovis. species-specific primers and taqman probe were designed based on the glta gene. no cross-reactions were observed with anaplasma ...201324589111
the phylogenetic position of anaplasma bovis and inferences on the phylogeny of the genus anaplasma.the present study aimed to determine the complete citrate synthase (glta) and heat-shock protein (groel) gene sequences of anaplasma bovis and to infer phylogenetic relationships within the genus anaplasma. multiple alignments from single and concatenated sequences of the 16s rrna, glta and groel genes of the genus anaplasma were subjected to phylogenetic analyses. percent identities of a. bovis nucleotide sequences were found highest with a. phagocytophilum in glta (65.4%) and groel (79.8%). si ...201424189581
eastern rock sengis as reservoir hosts of anaplasma bovis in south africa.recent work has identified the presence of anaplasma bovis, a tick-borne pathogen of cattle, in a previously undescribed species of tick collected from eastern rock sengis, elephantulus myurus, in limpopo province, south africa. these small insectivores are endemic to africa and are important hosts of immature ticks, however, their role as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens has not been investigated. in order to elucidate the role of sengis in the epidemiology of a. bovis, we screened the blood ...201324050934
[genetic variability of anaplasmataceae bacteria determined in haemaphysalis spp. and dermacentor sp. ticks in the territory of the russian far east].totally 484 haemaphysalis japonica, 359 haemaphysalis concinna and 221 dermacentor silvarumn collected in amur region and khabarovsk territory of the russian far east were examined on the presence of anaplasmataceae bacteria using nested pcr. all positive samples were characterized by analysis of the 16s rrna gene and/or groesl operone nucleotide sequences. forty nine h. japonica and three h. concinna were shown to contain dna of two new ehrlichia genetic variants. these genetic variants on the ...201324003508
molecular epidemiologic survey of bartonella, ehrlichia, and anaplasma infections in japanese iriomote and tsushima leopard cats.the iriomote cat (ic; prionailurus iriomotensis) and the tsushima leopard cat (tlc; prionailurus bengalensis euptilura) are endangered wild felids in japan. as a part of ongoing conservation activities, we conducted a molecular, epidemiologic survey of bartonella, ehrlichia, and anaplasma infections in wild ic and tlc populations. blood samples (47 from 33 individual ic; 22 from 13 tlc) were collected between august 2002 and january 2011. using pcr analysis, we confirmed the presence of bartonel ...201323778615
bovine carriers of anaplasma marginale and anaplasma bovis in south india.carriers of bovine anaplasmosis in northern kerala, south india were detected using conventional microscopical and molecular techniques. pcr-rflp and nested pcr techniques were used for detection of anaplasma marginale and anaplasma bovis respectively and the pcr products were confirmed by sequencing. out of 150 samples tested, 25 were detected positive for a. marginale and five for a. bovis based on molecular tests. the inclusion bodies of a. marginale could be detected by microscopy in two blo ...201323665715
molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of anaplasma bovis from haemaphysalis longicornis feeding on grazing cattle in korea.ticks are vectors of various pathogens that affect humans and animals throughout the world. anaplasma bovis is one of the most important tick-borne pathogens that cause cattle diseases but there is still very little information available about this agent in korea. in the present study, 535 haemaphysalis longicornis tick pools were analyzed from grazing cattle in five korean provinces. a. bovis was detected in 50 (9.3%) of 535 tick pools using 16s rrna-based pcr. a. bovis infections were detected ...201323602362
molecular survey of rickettsia, ehrlichia, and anaplasma infection of domestic cats in japan.the prevalence of rickettsia, ehrlichia, and anaplasma in 1764 dna samples extracted from feline peripheral blood from all 47 prefectures in japan was evaluated by screening real-time pcr, genus-specific pcr, and dna nucleotide sequencing. the survey revealed that all cats were negative for rickettsia infection. two cats were positive for ehrlichia or anaplasma based on the screening pcr assay. nucleotide sequence analysis of the partial 16s rrna including the divergent region near the 3'-end re ...201223168051
detection and phylogenetic characterisation of novel anaplasma and ehrlichia species in amblyomma triguttatum subsp. from four allopatric populations in australia.anaplasma and ehrlichia spp. are tick-borne pathogens that can cause severe disease in domestic animals, and several species are responsible for emerging zoonoses in the northern hemisphere. until recently, the only members of these genera reported in australia (a. marginale, a. centrale, and a. platys) were introduced from other continents, through the importation of domestic animals and their associated ticks. however, unique anaplasma and ehrlichia 16s rrna gene sequences were recently detect ...201728601472
molecular detection of tick-borne pathogen diversities in ticks from livestock and reptiles along the shores and adjacent islands of lake victoria and lake baringo, kenya.although diverse tick-borne pathogens (tbps) are endemic to east africa, with recognized impact on human and livestock health, their diversity and specific interactions with tick and vertebrate host species remain poorly understood in the region. in particular, the role of reptiles in tbp epidemiology remains unknown, despite having been implicated with tbps of livestock among exported tortoises and lizards. understanding tbp ecologies, and the potential role of common reptiles, is critical for ...201728620610
molecular epidemiological survey and genetic characterization of anaplasma species in mongolian livestock.anaplasma species are obligate intracellular rickettsial pathogens that cause great economic loss to the animal industry. few studies on anaplasma infections in mongolian livestock have been conducted. this study examined the prevalence of anaplasma marginale, anaplasma ovis, anaplasma phagocytophilum, and anaplasma bovis by polymerase chain reaction assay in 928 blood samples collected from native cattle and dairy cattle (bos taurus), yaks (bos grunniens), sheep (ovis aries), and goats (capra a ...201728678004
molecular detection and characterization of anaplasma species in wild deer and boars in gifu prefecture, japan. 201728250258
molecular evidence for anaplasma bovis infection in wild reeves' muntjac (muntiacus reevesi), southwest china.anaplasma bovis is one of the most important tick-borne pathogens in china. in the first report of a. bovis in china, we describe infection in eight of 17 wild reeves' muntjac (muntiacus reevesi) from guangxi, southwest china.201425098301
co-circulation of multiple species of rickettsiales bacteria in one single species of hard ticks in shenyang, china.bacteria in the order rickettsiales include some of the most important zoonotic (re)emerging pathogens for animals and humans. in 2012, a total of 1267 adult haemaphysalis longicornis ticks were collected from domestic animals (cattle and sheep) in shenyang of liaoning province, china. these ticks were grouped into 181 pools (each pool with 6-7 ticks). rickettsiales agents were identified in 93 (51.38%) tick pools using pcr targeting rrs (16s rrna). in addition to 16s rrna gene sequences, glta a ...201425131152
a rapid, simple and sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification method to detect anaplasma bovis in sheep and goats samples.a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) technique has been widely used in detecting the nucleic acid of various pathogenic bacteria. in this study, a set of four lamp primers was designed to specifically test anaplasma bovis. the lamp assay was performed at 62°c for 60min in a water bath. the specificity was confirmed by amplifying a. bovis isolate, while no cross reaction was observed with other five pathogens (anaplasma bovis, anaplasma phagocytophilum, theileria luwenshuni, babesia mo ...201728351721
molecular detection and characterization of zoonotic and veterinary pathogens in ticks from northeastern china.tick-borne diseases are considered as emerging infectious diseases in humans and animals in china. in this study, ixodes persulcatus (n = 1699), haemaphysalis concinna (n = 412), haemaphysalis longicornis (n = 390), dermacentor nuttalli (n = 253), and dermacentor silvarum (n = 204) ticks were collected by flagging from northeastern china, and detected for infection with anaplasma, ehrlichia, babesia, and hepatozoon spp. by using nested polymerase chain reaction assays and sequencing analysis. an ...201627965644
molecular and phylogenetic analysis of anaplasma spp. in sheep and goats from six provinces of china.members of the genus anaplasma are important emerging tick-borne pathogens in both humans and animals in tropical and subtropical areas. here, we investigated the presence of anaplasma spp. in 621 sheep and 710 goats from six provinces of china. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and dna sequencing were conducted to determine the prevalence of anaplasma (a.) phagocytophilum, a. ovis and a. bovis targeting the 16s ribosomal rna or the major surface protein 4 gene. pcr revealed anaplasma in 39.0% (24 ...201627456776
new genetic variants of anaplasma phagocytophilum and anaplasma bovis from korean water deer (hydropotes inermis argyropus).wild deer are one of the important natural reservoir hosts of anaplasma species, which cause granulocytic anaplasmosis in equines, canines, and humans. the objective of the present study was to determine whether and what species of anaplasma naturally infect korean water deer (kwd) in the republic of korea. a total of 66 spleens from kwd carcasses were collected by the conservation genome resource bank for korean wildlife in korea between march 2008 and may 2009. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) ...201121417930
detection of anaplasma bovis and anaplasma phagocytophilum dna from haemaphysalis megaspinosa in hokkaido, japan.dna from 101 ticks, including haemaphysalis megaspinosa, haemaphysalis douglasi, haemaphysalis flava, ixodes ovatus and ixodes persulcatus, collected by flagging in a pasture in hidaka district (hokkaido, japan) was examined for infection with anaplasma bovis and a. phagocytophilum by species-specific nested pcr. of the 48 h. megaspinosa nymphs, examined, 1 (2.1%) and 6 (12.5%) were positive for a. bovis and a. phagocytophilum, respectively. one of the 6 positive nymphs was dual positive for bot ...201019897306
molecular detection of ehrlichia chaffeensis and anaplasma bovis in the salivary glands from haemaphysalis longicornis ticks.the salivary gland (sg) of tick plays an important role as a route in the dissemination of tick-borne pathogens to their hosts. we evaluated the presence of these pathogens in the sgs of haemaphysalis longicornis ticks, and these ticks were collected from grazing cattle in jeju island, korea. of total 463 one-side sgs, 56 (12.1%) sgs were positive for ehrlichia chaffeensis and 11 (2.4%) were positive for anaplasma bovis. in addition, two (0.4%) sgs were co-infected with both e. chaffeensis and a ...201019874189
detection of anaplasma bovis and anaplasma phagocytophilum from cattle on yonaguni island, okinawa, japan.dna fragments of anaplasma bovis and anaplasma phagocytophilum were detected in cattle on yonaguni island, okinawa, japan. although the pathogenesis and epidemiology of these pathogens have not yet been clarified, this is the first detection of their presence in cattle from japan.200818468796
[first report of anaplasma bovis (donatien and lestoquard, 1936) dumler et al. (2001) at micro region of campos dos goytacazes, state of rio de janeiro, brazil].the first report of anaplasma bovis was pointed out at the micro region of campos dos goytacazes, state of rio de janeiro, brazil. blood smears were done from peripherical blood vessels from 151 calves. five calves (3.31%) were positive for a. bovis. symptoms were characterized by debility, fever, pale mucous membranes, and enlargement of prescapular lymph nodes.200616978478
reorganization of genera in the families rickettsiaceae and anaplasmataceae in the order rickettsiales: unification of some species of ehrlichia with anaplasma, cowdria with ehrlichia and ehrlichia with neorickettsia, descriptions of six new species combinations and designation of ehrlichia equi and 'hge agent' as subjective synonyms of ehrlichia phagocytophila.the genera anaplasma, ehrlichia, cowdria, neorickettsia and wolbachia encompass a group of obligate intracellular bacteria that reside in vacuoles of eukaryotic cells and were previously placed in taxa based upon morphological, ecological, epidemiological and clinical characteristics. recent genetic analyses of 16s rrna genes, groesl and surface protein genes have indicated that the existing taxa designations are flawed. all 16s rrna gene and groesl sequences deposited in genbank prior to 2000 a ...200111760958
detection of an ehrlichia bovis-like organism in cultured buffalo monocytes.monocytes from a buffalo were cultured in rpmi 1640 medium following separation of plasma by the erythrocyte sedimentation technique and subsequent separation of mononuclear cells by density gradient centrifugation. growth of an organism considered to be ehrlichia bovis was noticed in the cultured monocytes after 10 days. the inclusions were considered to be those of e. bovis from their morphology, staining characteristics and growth characteristics in culture, and by indirect immunofluorescence ...200010726296
novel anaplasma and ehrlichia organisms infecting the wildlife of two regions of the brazilian amazon.during 2009-2012, wild animals were sampled in the amazon biome of brazil. animal tissues and blood were tested by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays targeting dna of the bacterial family anaplasmataceae (genera anaplasma, ehrlichia, wolbachia) and the genus borrelia. overall, 181 wild animals comprising 36 different species (2 reptiles, 5 birds, and 29 mammals) were sampled. all birds and reptiles were negative by all pcr assays, as well as all mammals for the borrelia pcr assay. anaplasmat ...201728690147
monocytic anaplasmosis in a cow: a case report.a five year old holstein-friesian cross breed cow was brought to teaching veterinary clinical complex with the history of anorexia, shivering and respiratory distress since a week. on close physical examination, enlarged prescapular lymph nodes and conjunctival mucous membranes with petechiae were noticed. physiological parameters like rectal temperature, heart rate and respiratory rates were found to be 105.3 °f, 86 beats per minute and 48 per minute respectively. on hematological examination, ...201728848260
detection of anaplasma phagocytophilum from wild boars and deer in japan.this study was conducted to determine the prevalence and geographic distribution of anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, in wild deer and boars in japan. we analyzed the blood samples of the study animals using pcr-targeting the 16s rdna followed by dna sequencing. wild deer infected with anaplasma spp., including anaplasma bovis and anaplasma centrale were detected in the region from hokkaido to kyushu. the infection rates of a. phagocytophilum, a. ...201121788712
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