experimental transmission of malacosporean parasites from bryozoans to common carp ( cyprinus carpio) and minnow ( phoxinus phoxinus).to address whether a fish host is involved in the life cycles of malacosporeans of the genus buddenbrockia, cohabitation experiments with different bryozoan and fish species were conducted. samples were analysed by malacosporean-specific pcr, partial sequencing of the 18s rdna, and light and electron microscopy. co-habitation challenges with bryozoans resulted in malacosporean infections detected mainly in the kidney of common carp (cyprinus carpio) and minnow (phoxinus phoxinus). sequences of t ...201019849888
origin and evolution of a myxozoan worm.buddenbrockia plumatellae is an active, muscular, worm-shaped parasite of freshwater bryozoans. this rare and enigmatic animal has been assigned to the myxozoa on the basis of 18s ribosomal dna sequences and the presence of malacosporean spores. here we report cloning of four homologous protein-coding genes from buddenbrockia worms, the putatively conspecific sac-shaped parasite originally described as tetracapsula bryozoides and the related sac-shaped parasite tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, the ...200721669756
sequential development of buddenbrockia plumatellae (myxozoa: malacosporea) within plumatella repens (bryozoa: phylactolaemata).colonies of the freshwater bryozoan plumatella repens collected from a river in the uk were found to be infected with the myxozoan parasite buddenbrockia plumatellae following laboratory maintenance. optimisation of the bryozoan diet allowed maintenance of infected colonies for 90 d, permitting observation by light and electron microscopy of the sequential parasitic developmental cycle. parasite stages were associated with host peritoneum, identifying the primary developmental phase. the associa ...200617260835
evaluation of malacosporean life cycles through transmission studies.myxozoans, belonging to the recently described class malacosporea, parasitise freshwater bryozoans during at least part of their life cycle, but no complete malacosporean life cycle is known to date. one of the 2 described malacosporeans is tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, the causative agent of salmonid proliferative kidney disease. the other is buddenbrockia plumatellae, so far only found in freshwater bryozoans. our investigations evaluated malacosporean life cycles, focusing on transmission fr ...200415460855
ecology, development and pathogenicity of buddenbrockia plumatellae schröder, 1910 (myxozoa, malacosporea) (syn. tetracapsula bryozoides) and establishment of tetracapsuloides n. gen. for tetracapsula bryosalmonae.buddenbrockia plumatellae, an enigmatic worm-like myxozoan, was observed as continuously writhing free and attached 'worms' and as free mature spores in the coelom of the freshwater bryozoans plumatella fungosa, hyalinella punctata, and fredericella sp. 'worm' numbers could double every three days. 'worms' and spores could be expelled from colonies by external pressure. some mature 'worms' exited actively, entraining release of free spores, and gradually ceased movement outside the host. bryozoa ...200212188218
tetracapsula renicola n. sp. (myxozoa : saccosporidae); the pkx myxozoan--the cause of proliferative kidney disease of salmonid fishes.proliferative kidney disease (pkd) of salmonid fishes is caused by the extrasporogonic stage of an enigmatic myxozoan, referred to as pkx. sporogenesis occurs in the renal tubules, resulting in monosporous pseudoplasmodia. the spores are ovoid with indistinguishable valves and measure 12 microm in length and 7 microm in width. two spherical polar capsules (2 microm diameter) with 4 coils occur at the anterior end of the spore. prominent capsulogenic cell nuclei posterior to the polar capsules ar ...200010701572
the phylogenetic position of myxozoa: exploring conflicting signals in phylogenomic and ribosomal data sets.myxozoans are a diverse group of microscopic endoparasites that have been the focus of much controversy regarding their phylogenetic position. two dramatically different hypotheses have been put forward regarding the placement of myxozoa within metazoa. one hypothesis, supported by ribosomal dna (rdna) data, place myxozoa as a sister taxon to bilateria. the alternative hypothesis, supported by phylogenomic data and morphology, place myxozoa within cnidaria. here, we investigate these conflicting ...201020576761
early development of the myxozoan buddenbrockia plumatellae in the bryozoans hyalinella punctata and plumatella fungosa, with comments on taxonomy and systematics of the myxozoa.we undertook a detailed ultrastructural investigation to gain insight into the early stages of development of the vermiform myxozoan, buddenbrockia plumnatellae schröder, 1910 in two bryozoan hosts. early cell complexes arise in the peritoneum after division and migration of isolated cells in the host body wall. the development of cell junctions linking the outer (mural) cells of the complex then produces a sac enclosing a mass of inner cells. elongation to the vermiform stage (myxoworm) occurs ...200819175202
buddenbrockia is a cnidarian worm.a major evolutionary divide occurs in the animal kingdom between the so-called radially symmetric animals, which includes the cnidarians, and the bilaterally symmetric animals, which includes all worm phyla. buddenbrockia plumatellae is an active, muscular, parasitic worm that belongs to the phylum myxozoa, a group of morphologically simplified microscopic endoparasites that has proved difficult to place phylogenetically. phylogenetic analyses of multiple protein-coding genes demonstrate that bu ...200717615357
molecular data implicate bryozoans as hosts for pkx (phylum myxozoa) and identify a clade of bryozoan parasites within the myxozoa.proliferative kidney disease (pkd), a condition associated with high mortality in salmonid fish, represents an abnormal immune response to the presence of an enigmatic myxozoan, which has been designated simply as pkx organism because its generic and specific status are obscure. phylogenetic analyses of partial sequences of the 18s rdna of pkx and of myxozoan parasites infecting the bryozoans cristatella mucedo, pectinatella magnifica and plumatella rugosa, including the previously named tetraca ...199910633916
sacculogenesis of buddenbrockia plumatellae (myxozoa) within the invertebrate host plumatella repens (bryozoa) with comments on the evolutionary relationships of the myxozoa.members of the phylum myxozoa are obligate parasites, primarily of aquatic organisms. their phylogeny has remained problematic, with studies placing them within either the bilateria or cnidaria. the discovery that the enigmatic buddenbrockia plumatellae is a myxozoan that possesses distinct bilaterian features appeared to have finally resolved the debate. b. plumatellae is described as a triploblastic 'worm-like' organism, within which typical myxozoan malacospores form. using em we examined the ...200717434518
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