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anopheles nili as the main vector of human malaria in villages of southern cameroon.in villages near sanaga river, in the forest zone of south cameroon, anopheles nili theobald is the main species of mosquito regularly found biting man inside houses. its densities are related to the flow level of the river. it is also the main malaria vector in terms of intensity and seasonal duration of transmission. the yearly malaria inoculation rate due to an. nili alone is 104 infective bites/man, varying between 3 infective bites/man in october and 20 in march. anopheles gambiae giles is ...19921421483
anopheles nili as a vector of malaria in a lowland region of ethiopia. 19705310212
[the gonotrophic cycle and the daily rhythm of bites of anopheles gambiae (giles) 1902 and anopheles nili (theobald), 1904].the authors have elaborated a formula to calculate the average number of times an anopheline parous female bites in one day ("l") according to its gonotrophic cycle and more specially to its behaviour before and after oviposition (parameters "alpha" and "a". the formula was applied to anopheles gambiae observed at djoumouna village (l = 0.40) and to anopheles nili observed at m'pola village (l = 0.30). the value obtained has then to be multiplied by the anthropophilic index to obtain the "a" par ...19806895549
comparison of three sampling methods of man-biting anophelines in order to estimate the malaria transmission in a village of south cameroon.in order to get an accurate measure of malaria transmission by mean of human bait attraction, three methods of catches for human-bail mosquitoes were compared in a cameroonian village of high anopheline density. these three methods were 1) the classical human landing catches where the man was in the same time bait and catcher, 2) the single-nets which acted as a trap and 3) the double-nets where the outer net acted as a trap and the inner avoided mosquito bites. the anopheline densities per man ...19979208033
malaria transmission in a region of savanna-forest mosaic, haut-ogooué, gabon.during the 2 years 1993 to 1995, an entomological survey was carried out in the savanna-forest area of franceville, gabon, investigating malaria transmission in one suburban district of franceville (akou) and in one rural village (benguia). the biting rates of the anopheles vectors were 10 times higher in the rural zone compared to the suburban zone. anopheles funestus giles was the predominant species in both zones followed by anopheles gambiae s.l. giles. the densities of anopheles nili theoba ...199910342264
afro-tropical anopheline mosquitoes. iii. description of three new species: anopheles carnevalei sp. nov., an. hervyi sp. nov., and an. dualaensis sp. nov., and resurrection of an. rageaui mattingly and adam.anopheles (cellia) carnevalei sp. nov. is described as a new species morphologically similar to anopheles nili. this aggressive human biter was collected in ivory coast. anopheles (cellia) hervyi sp. nov. was collected in southern niger and is described as a new species morphologically similar to anopheles salbaii. anopheles (cellia) dualaensis sp. nov. is a new species from duala in southern cameroon. the synonymy of anopheles cavernicolus and anopheles smithii is confirmed. based on extensive ...199910612618
high malaria transmission intensity in a village close to yaounde, the capital city of cameroon.a 2-yr longitudinal malaria study was undertaken in a suburb of yaounde, the capital city of cameroon, in the village of simbock, approximately 2 km from the city limits. this study allowed assessment of malaria transmission intensity and dynamics in this region before implementation of pyrethroid impregnated bed nets through the national vector control program. anophelines were captured on human volunteers by pyrethrum spray collections and in resting sites outdoors. malaria vectors were anophe ...200211931035
the behaviour of anopheles nili theo. in sprayed huts in northern nigeria. 196414113976
unravelling complexities in human malaria transmission dynamics in africa through a comprehensive knowledge of vector populations.malaria transmission dynamics is highly variable throughout africa: inoculation rates vary from almost null to more than a 1000 infective bites per year, transmission can occur throughout the year or only during a couple of months, and heterogeneities are also observed between years within the same locale. depending on the area, as much as five different anophelines species can transmit parasites to the human population. major vectors are anopheles gambiae, anopheles arabiensis, anopheles funest ...200415225985
description and bionomics of anopheles (cellia) ovengensis (diptera: culicidae), a new malaria vector species of the anopheles nili group from south cameroon.mosquito species of the anopheles nili group (diptera: culicidae) transmit malaria to humans along rivers in africa. to date, the an. nili group includes the species anopheles nili s.s. and its pale-winged variant known as the "congo form," anopheles somalicus and anopheles carnevalei. larval and adult mosquito collections in the forest region of campo, in southern cameroon, uncovered an additional morphological variant provisionally called "oveng form" that was subsequently found to be genetica ...200415311444
the unexpected importance of mosquito oviposition behaviour for malaria: non-productive larval habitats can be sources for malaria transmission.mosquitoes commute between blood-meal hosts and water. thus, heterogeneity in human biting reflects underlying spatial heterogeneity in the distribution and suitability of larval habitat as well as inherent differences in the attractiveness, suitability and distribution of blood-meal hosts. one of the possible strategies of malaria control is to identify local vector species and then attack water bodies that contain their larvae.200515892886
rapid urban malaria appraisal (ruma) i: epidemiology of urban malaria in ouagadougou.rapid urbanization in sub-saharan africa has a major impact on malaria epidemiology. while much is known about malaria in rural areas in burkina faso, the urban situation is less well understood.200516168054
biting behavior and plasmodium infection rates of anopheles arabiensis from sille, ethiopia.the man-biting behavior and plasmodium infection rates of anopheline mosquitoes were investigated in sille, a hyperendemic malarious area in southern ethiopia. seven anopheles species were identified from all night landing collections, conducted from 18:00 to 06:00h between october 2001 and august 2002. the predominant species was anopheles arabiensis (55.8%), followed by anopheles coustani (31.5%), anopheles pharoensis (9.5%), anopheles funestus (2.2%), anopheles nili (0.5%), anopheles marshall ...200616171769
spatial variability in the density, distribution and vectorial capacity of anopheline species in a high transmission village (equatorial guinea).malaria transmission varies from one country to another and there are also local differences in time and space. an important variable when explaining the variability in transmission is the breeding behaviour of the different vector species and the availability of breeding sites. the aim of this study was to determine the geographical variability of certain entomological parameters: human biting rate (hbr), sporozoitic index (si) for plasmodium falciparum and entomological inoculation rate (eir).200616556321
a global assessment of closed forests, deforestation and malaria risk.global environmental change is expected to affect profoundly the transmission of the parasites that cause human malaria. amongst the anthropogenic drivers of change, deforestation is arguably the most conspicuous, and its rate is projected to increase in the coming decades. the canonical epidemiological understanding is that deforestation increases malaria risk in africa and the americas and diminishes it in south-east asia. partial support for this position is provided here, through a systemati ...200616630376
larvae stage description of anopheles (cellia) carnevalei from adult individuals collected in equatorial guinea.this is the first description of 3rd and 4th instars of anopheles (cellia) carnevalei. adults were caught in the mainland region (rio muni) of equatorial guinea. larvae present characteristic palmate setae different from anopheles nili.200616878416
multilocus enzyme electrophoresis supports speciation within the anopheles nili group of malaria vectors in cameroon.multilocus enzyme analysis of the genetic variability and population structure was conducted among three malaria vector species of the anopheles nili group in cameroon: an. nili, an. carnevalei, and the recently described an. ovengensis. we detected species-specific alleles and large differences in shared allele frequencies at six of nine loci (e.g., pgm, got1, idh1, idh2, pgi, and alpha-gpd). this non-random distribution of alleles leads to high and significant values of differentiation indexes ...200617038689
complexity of the malaria vectorial system in cameroon: contribution of secondary vectors to malaria transmission.malaria transmission in africa is a dynamic and complex system that is so far superficially understood. further knowledge is required to improve control of the disease. in the present report, we highlight the contribution of the so-called "secondary" malaria vectors to the overall parasite transmission intensity in several sites across cameroon, through a retrospective analysis of surveys from the organisation de coordination pour la lutte contre les endémies en afrique centrale database. in tot ...200617162956
malaria vectors and transmission dynamics in coastal south-western cameroon.malaria is a major public health problem in cameroon. unlike in the southern forested areas where the epidemiology of malaria has been better studied prior to the implementation of control activities, little is known about the distribution and role of anophelines in malaria transmission in the coastal areas.200717233883
malaria in africa: vector species' niche models and relative risk maps.a central theoretical goal of epidemiology is the construction of spatial models of disease prevalence and risk, including maps for the potential spread of infectious disease. we provide three continent-wide maps representing the relative risk of malaria in africa based on ecological niche models of vector species and risk analysis at a spatial resolution of 1 arc-minute (9 185 275 cells of approximately 4 sq km). using a maximum entropy method we construct niche models for 10 malaria vector spe ...200717786196
the molecular evolution of four anti-malarial immune genes in the anopheles gambiae species complex.if the insect innate immune system is to be used as a potential blocking step in transmission of malaria, then it will require targeting one or a few genes with highest relevance and ease of manipulation. the problem is to identify and manipulate those of most importance to malaria infection without the risk of decreasing the mosquito's ability to stave off infections by microbes in general. molecular evolution methodologies and concepts can help identify such genes. within the setting of a comp ...200818325105
population structure of the malaria vector anopheles moucheti in the equatorial forest region of africa.anopheles moucheti is a major malaria vector in forested areas of africa. however, despite its important epidemiological role, it remains poorly known and insufficiently studied. here, levels of genetic differentiation were estimated between different a. moucheti populations sampled throughout its distribution range in central africa.200818601716
a pre-intervention study of malaria vector abundance in rio muni, equatorial guinea: their role in malaria transmission and the incidence of insecticide resistance alleles.following the success of the malaria control intervention on the island of bioko, malaria control by the use of indoor residual spraying (irs) and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (llitn) was extended to rio muni, on the mainland part of equatorial guinea. this manuscript reports on the malaria vectors present and the incidence of insecticide resistant alleles prior to the onset of the programme.200818823554
t-cell epitope polymorphisms of the plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein among field isolates from sierra leone: age-dependent haplotype distribution?in the context of the development of a successful malaria vaccine, understanding the polymorphisms exhibited by malaria antigens in natural parasite populations is crucial for proper vaccine design. recent observations have indicated that sequence polymorphisms in the c-terminal t-cell epitopes of the plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (pfcsp) are rather low and apparently stable in low endemic areas. this study sought to assess the pattern in a malaria endemic setting in africa, usi ...200919500348
major variations in malaria exposure of travellers in rural areas: an entomological cohort study in western côte d'ivoire.malaria remains a major threat, to both travellers and military personnel deployed to endemic areas. the recommendations for travellers given by the world health organization is based on the incidence of malaria in an area and do not take the degree of exposure into account. the aim of this article is to evaluate the exposure of travellers by entomologic methods, which are the commonly used measures of the intensity of malaria transmission.200919638219
distribution and larval habitat characterization of anopheles moucheti, anopheles nili, and other malaria vectors in river networks of southern cameroon.despite their importance as malaria vectors, little is known of the bionomic of anopheles nili and anopheles moucheti. larval collections from 24 sites situated along the dense hydrographic network of south cameroon were examined to assess key ecological factors associated with these mosquitoes distribution in river networks. morphological identification of the iii and iv instar larvae by the use of microscopy revealed that 47.6% of the larvae belong to an. nili and 22.6% to an. moucheti. five v ...200919682965
habitat suitability and ecological niche profile of major malaria vectors in cameroon.suitability of environmental conditions determines a species distribution in space and time. understanding and modelling the ecological niche of mosquito disease vectors can, therefore, be a powerful predictor of the risk of exposure to the pathogens they transmit. in africa, five anophelines are responsible for over 95% of total malaria transmission. however, detailed knowledge of the geographic distribution and ecological requirements of these species is to date still inadequate.200920028559
local scale prediction of plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission in an endemic region using temperature and rainfall.to support malaria control strategies, prior knowledge of disease risk is necessary. developing a model to explain the transmission of malaria, in endemic and epidemic regions, is of high priority in developing health system interventions. we develop, fit and validate a non-spatial dynamic model driven by meteorological conditions that can capture seasonal malaria transmission dynamics at the village level in a malaria holoendemic area of north-western burkina faso.200920052379
distribution of the main malaria vectors in kenya.a detailed knowledge of the distribution of the main anopheles malaria vectors in kenya should guide national vector control strategies. however, contemporary spatial distributions of the locally dominant anopheles vectors including anopheles gambiae, anopheles arabiensis, anopheles merus, anopheles funestus, anopheles pharoensis and anopheles nili are lacking. the methods and approaches used to assemble contemporary available data on the present distribution of the dominant malaria vectors in k ...201020202199
population genetic structure of the malaria vector anopheles nili in sub-saharan africa.anopheles nili is a widespread efficient vector of human malaria parasites in the humid savannas and forested areas of sub-saharan africa. understanding an. nili population structure and gene flow patterns could be useful for the development of locally-adapted vector control measures.201020540796
cytogenetic map for anopheles nili: application for population genetics and comparative physical mapping.anopheles nili is one of the major malaria vectors in africa with a wide geographic distribution. however, the taxonomic and population genetic studies on this species are scarce. new research tools are urgently needed to genetically characterize this important malaria vector. in this study, a high-resolution cytogenetic map was developed for an. nili polytene chromosomes. chromosomes were straightened and subdivided into 46 numbered divisions according to the banding pattern. population analysi ...201020603229
culicidae diversity, malaria transmission and insecticide resistance alleles in malaria vectors in ouidah-kpomasse-tori district from benin (west africa): a pre-intervention study.abstract:201020819214
longitudinal studies of plasmodium falciparum malaria in pregnant women living in a rural cameroonian village with high perennial transmission.a prospective longitudinal study of plasmodium falciparum in pregnant women was conducted in the rural village of ngali ii, where malaria is hyperendemic and individuals receive ~0.7 infectious mosquito bites/person/day throughout the year. pregnant women (n = 60; 19 primigravidae, 41 multigravidae) were enrolled early in pregnancy (median 14 wk) and were followed monthly, with 38 women followed through term (5.7 ± 1.1 prenatal visits and delivery). the total number of times primigravidae were s ...201021036826
the dominant anopheles vectors of human malaria in africa, europe and the middle east: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis.abstract:201021129198
nonspecific patterns of vector, host and avian malaria parasite associations in a central african rainforest.malaria parasites use vertebrate hosts for asexual multiplication and culicidae mosquitoes for sexual and asexual development, yet the literature on avian malaria remains biased towards examining the asexual stages of the life cycle in birds. to fully understand parasite evolution and mechanism of malaria transmission, knowledge of all three components of the vector-host-parasite system is essential. little is known about avian parasite-vector associations in african rainforests where numerous s ...201021134011
unexpected anthropophily in the potential secondary malaria vectors anopheles coustani s.l. and anopheles squamosus in macha, zambia.abstract anopheles coustani s.l. and anopheles squamosus are sub-saharan mosquito species that have been implicated in malaria transmission. although generally believed to be of negligible importance due to their overwhelmingly zoophilic behavior, an. coustani s.l. and an. squamosus made up a large proportion of the anophelines collected by human landing catches during the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 rainy seasons in macha, zambia. further, polymerase chain reaction-based blood meal identification s ...201021142969
mass drug administration of ivermectin in south-eastern senegal reduces the survivorship of wild-caught, blood fed malaria vectors.in south-eastern senegal, malaria and onchocerciasis are co-endemic. onchocerciasis in this region has been controlled by once or twice yearly mass drug administration (mda) with ivermectin (ivm) for over fifteen years. since laboratory-raised anopheles gambiae s.s. are susceptible to ivermectin at concentrations found in human blood post-ingestion of ivm, it is plausible that a similar effect could be quantified in the field, and that ivm might have benefits as a malaria control tool.201021171970
improving the population genetics toolbox for the study of the african malaria vector anopheles nili: microsatellite mapping to chromosomes.anopheles nili is a major vector of malaria in the humid savannas and forested areas of sub-saharan africa. understanding the population genetic structure and evolutionary dynamics of this species is important for the development of an adequate and targeted malaria control strategy in africa. chromosomal inversions and microsatellite markers are commonly used for studying the population structure of malaria mosquitoes. physical mapping of these markers onto the chromosomes further improves the t ...201122011455
methods to collect anopheles mosquitoes and evaluate malaria transmission: a comparative study in two villages in senegal.various methods have been studied as replacement of human landing catches (hlc) for mosquito sampling in entomological studies on malaria transmission. conflicting results have been obtained in comparing relative efficiency of alternative methods, according to the area, the species present and their density. the aim of this study was to compare the number and characteristics of mosquitoes sampled in two areas of senegal by three different methods: hlc, light traps adjacent to an occupied bed net ...201121929747
scoping review of the zika virus literature.the global primary literature on zika virus (zikv) (n = 233 studies and reports, up to march 1, 2016) has been compiled using a scoping review methodology to systematically identify and characterise the literature underpinning this broad topic using methods that are documented, updateable and reproducible. our results indicate that more than half the primary literature on zikv has been published since 2011. the articles mainly covered three topic categories: epidemiology of zikv (surveillance an ...201627244249
larvicidal efficacy of ethiopian ethnomedicinal plant juniperus procera essential oil against afrotropical malaria vector anopheles arabiensis (diptera: culicidae).to screen the essential oil of juniperus procera (j. procera) (cupressaceae) for larvicidal activity against late third instar larvae of anopheles arabiensis (an. arabiensis) patton, the principle malaria vector in ethiopia.025183156
insect phylogenomics.phylogenomics, the integration of phylogenetics with genome data, has emerged as a powerful approach to study the evolution and systematics of species. recently, several studies employing phylogenomic tools have provided better insights into insect evolution. next-generation sequencing methods are now increasingly used by entomologists to generate genomic and transcript sequences of various insect species and strains. these data provide opportunities for comparative genomics and large-scale mult ...201525963452
diversification of the genus anopheles and a neotropical clade from the late cretaceous.the anopheles genus is a member of the culicidae family and consists of approximately 460 recognized species. the genus is composed of 7 subgenera with diverse geographical distributions. despite its huge medical importance, a consensus has not been reached on the phylogenetic relationships among anopheles subgenera. we assembled a comprehensive dataset comprising the coi, coii and 5.8s rrna genes and used maximum likelihood and bayesian inference to estimate the phylogeny and divergence times o ...201526244561
mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene of anophelines and their association with resistance to pyrethroids - a review.constant and extensive use of chemical insecticides has created a selection pressure and favored resistance development in many insect species worldwide. one of the most important pyrethroid resistance mechanisms is classified as target site insensitivity, due to conformational changes in the target site that impair a proper binding of the insecticide molecule. the voltage-gated sodium channel (nav) is the target of pyrethroids and ddt insecticides, used to control insects of medical, agricultur ...201425292318
the effects of urbanization on global plasmodium vivax malaria transmission.many recent studies have examined the impact of urbanization on plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity and found a general trend of reduced transmission in urban areas. however, none has examined the effect of urbanization on plasmodium vivax malaria, which is the most widely distributed malaria species and can also cause severe clinical syndromes in humans. in this study, a set of 10,003 community-based p. vivax parasite rate (pvpr) surveys are used to explore the relationships between pvpr i ...201223217010
consolidating tactical planning and implementation frameworks for integrated vector management in uganda.integrated vector management (ivm) is the recommended approach for controlling some vector-borne diseases (vbd). in the face of current challenges to disease vector control, ivm is vital to achieve national targets set for vbd control. though global efforts, especially for combating malaria, now focus on elimination and eradication, ivm remains useful for uganda which is principally still in the control phase of the malaria continuum. this paper outlines the processes undertaken to consolidate t ...201627074809
multigene phylogenetics reveals temporal diversification of major african malaria vectors.the major vectors of malaria in sub-saharan africa belong to subgenus cellia. yet, phylogenetic relationships and temporal diversification among african mosquito species have not been unambiguously determined. knowledge about vector evolutionary history is crucial for correct interpretation of genetic changes identified through comparative genomics analyses. in this study, we estimated a molecular phylogeny using 49 gene sequences for the african malaria vectors an. gambiae, an. funestus, an. ni ...201424705448
cytogenetic analysis of anopheles ovengensis revealed high structural divergence of chromosomes in the anopheles nili group.cytogenetic analysis is an informative classical approach to understanding the relationships among members in a group of closely related species of mosquitoes. anopheles ovengensis is a recently discovered species of the anopheles nili group and is one of the important malaria vectors in the african equatorial forest. this study characterized polytene chromosomes of an. ovengensis and compared them with polytene chromosomes of an. nili. using fluorescent in situ hybridization and chromosome band ...201323523820
ape malaria transmission and potential for ape-to-human transfers in africa.recent studies have highlighted the large diversity of malaria parasites infecting african great apes (subgenus laverania) and their strong host specificity. although the existence of genetic incompatibilities preventing the cross-species transfer may explain host specificity, the existence of vectors with a high preference for a determined host represents another possibility. to test this hypothesis, we undertook a 15-mo-long longitudinal entomological survey in two forest regions of gabon, whe ...201627071123
anopheles moucheti and anopheles vinckei are candidate vectors of ape plasmodium parasites, including plasmodium praefalciparum in gabon.during the last four years, knowledge about the diversity of plasmodium species in african great apes has considerably increased. several new species were described in chimpanzees and gorillas, and some species that were previously considered as strictly of human interest were found to be infecting african apes. the description in gorillas of p. praefalciparum, the closest relative of p. falciparum which is the main malignant agent of human malaria, definitively changed the way we understand the ...201323437363
malaria epidemiological research in the republic of congo.reliable and comprehensive information on the burden of malaria is critical for guiding national and international efforts in malaria control. the purpose of this review is to provide an overview of published data and available information on malaria resulting from field studies/investigations conducted in the republic of congo (roc) from 1992 to 2015, as baseline for assisting public health authorities and researchers to define future research priorities as well as interventions.201628010728
monitoring changes in malaria epidemiology and effectiveness of interventions in ethiopia and uganda: beyond garki project baseline survey.scale-up of malaria interventions seems to have contributed to a decline in the disease but other factors may also have had some role. understanding changes in transmission and determinant factors will help to adapt control strategies accordingly.201526337671
transmission patterns of plasmodium falciparum by anopheles gambiae in benin.to better control malaria, the clear and urgent need is for improved data to inform decision makers, but in several african countries, there is a lack of baseline data on vectors and variation in the intensity of malaria transmission. this has resulted in the implementation of vector control efforts that ignore variation in vector behaviour and intensity of transmission, an approach that is most often not cost-effective. this study presents a detailed entomological description of mosquito distri ...201425412948
anopheles ziemanni a locally important malaria vector in ndop health district, north west region of cameroon.malaria transmission in cameroon is mediated by a plethora of vectors that are heterogeneously distributed across the country depending on the biotope. to effectively guide malaria control operations, regular update on the role of local anopheles species is essential. therefore, an entomological survey was conducted between august 2010 and may 2011 to evaluate the role of the local anopheline population in malaria transmission in three villages of the ndop health district in the northwest region ...201424903710
agro-ecosystems impact malaria prevalence: large-scale irrigation drives vector population in western ethiopia.development strategies in ethiopia have largely focused on the expansion of irrigated agriculture in the last decade to reduce poverty and promote economic growth. however, such irrigation schemes can worsen the socio-economic state by aggravating the problem of mosquito-borne diseases. in this study, the effect of agro-ecosystem practices on malaria prevalence and the risk of malaria transmission by the primary vector mosquito, anopheles arabiensis, in ethiopia were investigated.201324083353
blood meal sources and entomological inoculation rates of anophelines along a highland altitudinal transect in south-central ethiopia.the role of anophelines in transmitting malaria depends on their distribution, preference to feed on humans and also their susceptibility to plasmodium gametocytes, all of which are affected by local environmental conditions. blood meal source and entomological inoculation rate of anophelines was assessed along a highland altitudinal transect in south- central ethiopia.201323433348
specific antibodies to anopheles gsg6-p1 salivary peptide to assess early childhood exposure to malaria vector bites.the estimates of risk of malaria in early childhood are imprecise given the current entomologic and parasitological tools. thus, the utility of anti-anopheles salivary gsg6-p1 peptide antibody responses in measuring exposure to anopheles bites during early infancy has been assessed.201526198354
genetic diversity and signatures of selection of drug resistance in plasmodium populations from both human and mosquito hosts in continental equatorial guinea.in plasmodium, the high level of genetic diversity and the interactions established by co-infecting parasite populations within the same host may be a source of selection on pathogen virulence and drug resistance. as different patterns have already been described in humans and mosquitoes, parasite diversity and population structure should be studied in both hosts to properly assess their effects on infection and transmission dynamics. this study aimed to characterize the circulating populations ...201323537170
cryptic genetic diversity within the anopheles nili group of malaria vectors in the equatorial forest area of cameroon (central africa).the anopheles nili group of mosquitoes includes important vectors of human malaria in equatorial forest and humid savannah regions of sub-saharan africa. however, it remains largely understudied, and data on its populations' bionomics and genetic structure are crucially lacking. here, we used a combination of nuclear (i.e. microsatellite and ribosomal dna) and mitochondrial dna markers to explore and compare the level of genetic polymorphism and divergence among populations and species of the gr ...201323516565
sampling host-seeking anthropophilic mosquito vectors in west africa: comparisons of an active human-baited tent-trap against gold standard methods.in this study, we characterize the ability of the previously described infoscitex tent (ist) to capture mosquitoes in comparison to either the centers for disease control light trap hung next to individuals under a bed net (ltc) or to human landing catches (hlc). in senegal, the ist caught 6.14 times the number of anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.), and 8.78 times the culex group v mosquitoes as ltc. in one of two locations in burkina faso, the ist caught an. gambiae at a rate not significantly ...201425422393
impact of permanet 3.0 on entomological indices in an area of pyrethroid resistant anopheles gambiae in south-western nigeria.permanet® 3.0 is an insecticide synergist-combination long-lasting insecticidal net designed to have increased efficacy against malaria vectors with metabolic resistance, even when combined with kdr. the current study reports on the impact of this improved tool on entomological indices in an area with pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors in nigeria.201424886399
a description of malaria sentinel surveillance: a case study in oromia regional state, ethiopia.in the context of the massive scale up of malaria interventions, there is increasing recognition that the current capacity of routine malaria surveillance conducted in most african countries through integrated health management information systems is inadequate. the timeliness of reporting to higher levels of the health system through health management information systems is often too slow for rapid action on focal infectious diseases such as malaria. the purpose of this paper is to: 1) describe ...201424618105
re-evaluation of microscopy confirmed plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax malaria by nested pcr detection in southern ethiopia.with 75% of the ethiopian population at risk of malaria, accurate diagnosis is crucial for malaria treatment in endemic areas where plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax co-exist. the present study evaluated the performance of regular microscopy in accurate identification of plasmodium spp. in febrile patients visiting health facilities in southern ethiopia.201424502664
spatial distribution of the sibling species of anopheles gambiae sensu lato (diptera: culicidae) and malaria prevalence in bayelsa state, nigeria.much of the confusing ecophenotypic plasticity of anopheles gambiae sensu lato is attributable to the differential biological traits of the sibling species, with their heterogeneous geographical distribution, behavioral dissimilarities and divergent population dynamics. these differences are critical to their roles in malaria transmission. studies were, therefore, undertaken on the spatial distribution of these species and malaria prevalence rates in bayelsa state, september, 2008-august 2010.201424438675
malaria control in south sudan, 2006-2013: strategies, progress and challenges.south sudan has borne the brunt of years of chronic warfare and probably has the highest malaria burden in sub-saharan africa. however, effective malaria control in post-conflict settings is hampered by a multiplicity of challenges. this manuscript reports on the strategies, progress and challenges of malaria control in south sudan and serves as an example epitome for programmes operating in similar environments and provides a window for leveraging resources.201324160336
geographic population structure of the african malaria vector anopheles gambiae suggests a role for the forest-savannah biome transition as a barrier to gene flow.the primary afrotropical malaria mosquito vector anopheles gambiae sensu stricto has a complex population structure. in west africa, this species is split into two molecular forms and displays local and regional variation in chromosomal arrangements and behaviors. to investigate patterns of macrogeographic population substructure, 25 an. gambiae samples from 12 african countries were genotyped at 13 microsatellite loci. this analysis detected the presence of additional population structuring, wi ...201324062800
malaria risk mapping for control in the republic of sudan.evidence shows that malaria risk maps are rarely tailored to address national control program ambitions. here, we generate a malaria risk map adapted for malaria control in sudan. community plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (pfpr) data from 2000 to 2010 were assembled and were standardized to 2-10 years of age (pfpr(2-10)). space-time bayesian geostatistical methods were used to generate a map of malaria risk for 2010. surfaces of aridity, urbanization, irrigation schemes, and refugee camps we ...201223033400
severe and uncomplicated falciparum malaria in children from three regions and three ethnic groups in cameroon: prospective study.to identify the factors that account for differences in clinical outcomes of malaria as well as its relationship with ethnicity, transmission intensity and parasite density.201222727184
population dynamics of anopheles gambiae s.l. in bobo-dioulasso city: bionomics, infection rate and susceptibility to insecticides.historical studies have indicated that an. gambiae s.s. is the predominant malaria vector species in bobo-dioulasso the second biggest city of burkina faso (west africa). however, over the last decade, an. arabiensis appears to be replacing an. gambiae s.s. as the most prevalent malaria vector in this urban setting. to investigate this species transition in more detail the present study aims to provide an update on the malaria vector composition in bobo-dioulasso, and also the plasmodium infecti ...201222721002
genomic insights into adaptive divergence and speciation among malaria vectors of the anopheles nili group.ongoing speciation in the most important african malaria vectors gives rise to cryptic populations, which differ remarkably in their behavior, ecology, and capacity to vector malaria parasites. understanding the population structure and the drivers of genetic differentiation among mosquitoes is crucial for effective disease control because heterogeneity within vector species contributes to variability in malaria cases and allow fractions of populations to escape control efforts. to examine popul ...201729151881
chicken volatiles repel host-seeking malaria mosquitoes.anopheles arabiensis is a dominant vector of malaria in sub-saharan africa, which feeds indoors and outdoors on human and other vertebrate hosts, making it a difficult species to control with existing control methods. novel methods that reduce human-vector interactions are, therefore, required to improve the impact of vector control programmes. investigating the mechanisms underlying the host discrimination process in an. arabiensis could provide valuable knowledge leading to the development of ...201627439360
review of the malaria epidemiology and trends in zambia.a comprehensive desk review of malaria trends was conducted between 2000-2010 in zambia to study malaria epidemiology and trends to guide strategies and approaches for effective malaria control. this review considered data from the national health information management system, malaria surveys and programme review reports and analyzed malaria in-patient cases and deaths in relation to intervention coverage for all ages. data showed three distinct epidemiological strata after a notable malaria re ...023593585
a genotypically distinct, melanic variant of anopheles arabiensis in sudan is associated with arid environments.anopheles arabiensis, an important malaria vector in sudan and other countries in sub-saharan africa, exhibits considerable ecological and behavioural plasticity allowing it to survive in the harsh conditions of arid regions. it has been shown that adult populations of an. arabiensis in the semi-desert habitat of western khartoum state survive through the long dry season in a state of partial aestivation, characterized by limited feeding activity and a degree of arrested ovarian development. ano ...201425496059
efficacy of permanet-« 2.0 and permanet-« 3.0 against insecticide-resistant anopheles gambiae in experimental huts in c+¦te d'ivoire.pyrethroid resistance in vectors could limit the efficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets (llins) because all llins are currently treated with pyrethroids. the goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and wash resistance of permanet-« 3.0 compared to permanet-« 2.0 in an area of high pyrethroid in c+¦te d'ivoire. permanet-« 3.0 is impregnated with deltamethrin at 85 mg/m2 on the sides of the net and with deltamethrin and piperonyl butoxide on the roof. permanet-« 2.0 is impregnated with ...201121699703
[development of a pcr (polymerase chain reaction) specific for complex anopheles nili (theobald) 1904 species in cameroon ].the objective of this study was to develop new molecular tools for the identification of members of an. nili group, a malaria vector in africa. our strategy was based on the sequence analysis of portions of the rdna. the its2 fragment of an. nili collected in cameroon was sequenced and compared. the analysis of these sequences has revealed a great variability of its2 sequence. three molecular forms: an. nili typical form, an. nili oveng form and an. carnevalei were observed within the six morpho ...200314582289
molecular identification of the anopheles nili group of african malaria vectors.distinction between members of the anopheles nili group of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae), including major malaria vectors in riverside villages of tropical africa, has been based mainly on doubtful morphological characters. sequence variations of the ribosomal dna second internal transcribed spacer (its2) and d3 28s region between morphological forms revealed four genetic patterns corresponding to typical an. nili (theobald), an. carnevalei brunhes et al., an. somalicus rivola & holstein and t ...200312680928
contribution of anopheles funestus, an. gambiae and an. nili (diptera: culicidae) to the perennial malaria transmission in the southern and western forest areas of côte d'ivoire.the involvement of members of the anopheles gambiae complex giles and an. funestus giles and an. nili theobald groups in the transmission of plasmodium falciparum was recently investigated in the villages of gbatta and kpéhiri, which lie, respectively, in forest areas in the west and south of côte d'ivoire. adult female mosquitoes were collected, using human landing catches, inside and outside dwellings. after identification and dissection, the heads and thoraces of all the anopheline mosquitoes ...201121294945
abundance and diversity of anopheles species (diptera: culicidae) associated with malaria transmission in human dwellings in rural and urban communities in oyo state, southwestern nigeria.mosquito samples were collected from rural and urban communities in three selected major towns in southwestern nigeria to determine the impact of urbanization on the diversity and abundance of anopheles species associated with malaria transmission in human habitations. a total of ten anopheles species were identified in the rural communities, while eight anopheles species were identified in the urban communities. out of the ten anopheles species identified, only four species, anopheles gambiae ( ...201323842885
decreased motivation in the use of insecticide-treated nets in a malaria endemic area in burkina faso.the use of insecticide-treated nets (itn) is an important tool in the roll back malaria (rbm) strategy. for itns to be effective they need to be used correctly. previous studies have shown that many factors, such as wealth, access to health care, education, ethnicity and gender, determine the ownership and use of itns. some studies showed that free distribution and public awareness campaigns increased the rate of use. however, there have been no evaluations of the short- and long-term impact of ...200919640290
wind direction and proximity to larval sites determines malaria risk in kilifi district in kenya.studies of the fine-scale spatial epidemiology of malaria consistently identify malaria hotspots, comprising clusters of homesteads at high transmission intensity. these hotspots sustain transmission, and may be targeted by malaria-control programmes. here we describe the spatial relationship between the location of anopheles larval sites and human malaria infection in a cohort study of 642 children, aged 1-10-years-old. our data suggest that proximity to larval sites predict human malaria infec ...201222334077
prevalence of malaria infection in butajira area, south-central ethiopia.in 2005, the ethiopian government launched a massive expansion of the malaria prevention and control programme. the programme was aimed mainly at the reduction of malaria in populations living below 2,000 m above sea level. global warming has been implicated in the increase in the prevalence of malaria in the highlands. however, there is still a paucity of information on the occurrence of malaria at higher altitudes. the objective of this study was to estimate malaria prevalence in highland area ...201222443307
assessment of control measures and trends of malaria in burie-zuria district, west gojjam zone, amhara region, north west ethiopia.introduction. malaria is caused by the protozoan parasite plasmodium and transmitted by the bite of anopheles mosquitoes. the aim of this study was to assess control measures and trends of malaria and guide intervention measures at burie-zuria district, amhara region. methods. descriptive cross-sectional assessment of control measures was undertaken. we used health facility records of malaria data. we surveyed households for clinical malaria cases and utilization of long lasting impregnated nets ...201526171274
spatial and temporal variation of malaria entomological parameters at the onset of a hydro-agricultural development in central côte d'ivoire.a deeper understanding of the ecology and small-scale heterogeneity of malaria transmission is essential for the design of effective prevention, control and elimination interventions. the spatial and temporal distribution of malaria vectors was investigated in five villages in close proximity to a hydro-agricultural system in côte d'ivoire over the course of construction and the early phase of irrigated rice farming.201526341670
unexpected diversity of anopheles species in eastern zambia: implications for evaluating vector behavior and interventions using molecular tools.the understanding of malaria vector species in association with their bionomic traits is vital for targeting malaria interventions and measuring effectiveness. many entomological studies rely on morphological identification of mosquitoes, limiting recognition to visually distinct species/species groups. anopheles species assignments based on ribosomal dna its2 and mitochondrial dna coi were compared to morphological identifications from luangwa and nyimba districts in zambia. the comparison of m ...201526648001
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