cell and tissue biomarkers in mussel, and histopathology in hake and anchovy from bay of biscay after the prestige oil spill (monitoring campaign 2003).in order to assess the biological effects of the prestige oil spill (pos), mussels (mytilus galloprovincialis), european hake (merluccius merluccius) and european anchovy (engraulis encrasicolus) were sampled between april and september 2003 in various geographical areas of bay of biscay: galicia, central cantabrian and east cantabrian. in mussels, several cell and tissue biomarkers were measured: peroxisome proliferation as induction of acyl-coa oxidase (aox) activity, lysosomal responses as ch ...200616271373
the fishing area as a possible indicator of the infection by anisakids in anchovies (engraulis encrasicolus) from southwestern europe.a study was conducted on the parasitization by anisakids of european anchovies (engraulis encrasicolus) from the eastern atlantic (gulf of cádiz and strait of gibraltar) and western mediterranean (ligurian sea, gulf of lion, catalonia coast and nw alborán sea) throughout 1998 and 1999. the anisakids detected were identified as third larval stages of anisakis larva type i and hysterothylacium aduncum. global prevalence was 9.4% for anisakis and 24.5% for h. aduncum. analysis of the origin of the ...200919162359
food safety considerations in relation to anisakis pegreffii in anchovies (engraulis encrasicolus) and sardines (sardina pilchardus) fished off the ligurian coast (cinque terre national park, nw mediterranean).engraulis encrasicolus and sardina pilchardus are pelagic fishes of notable economic and gastronomic importance in the northwest mediterranean (ligurian sea, italy). the consumption of thermally unprocessed or lightly processed, marinated or salted anchovies and sardines presents a potential risk to acquire anisakiasis, a fish-borne parasitic disease in humans. prevalence and abundance of anisakis larvae in engraulis encrasicolus and sardina pilchardus from the monterosso fishing grounds (cinque ...201425203618
molecular and epidemiological data on anisakis spp. (nematoda: anisakidae) in commercial fish caught off northern sardinia (western mediterranean sea).anisakiasis is a fish-borne zoonosis caused by third stage larvae of the nematode anisakis sp. present in fish or cephalopods. this is the first contribution to the molecular identification and epidemiology of anisakis spp. in commercial fish from the gulf of asinara (sardinia, western mediterranean sea). between april 2006 to november 2011, 777 specimens of 10 fish species (engraulis encrasicolus, merluccius merluccius, micromesistius poutassou, phycis blennoides, sardina pilchardus, sardinella ...201424630706
molecular identification of anisakis spp. from fishes collected in the tyrrhenian sea (nw mediterranean).the accurate identification of anisakid nematodes at any life cycle stage is important both to deepen the knowledge on their taxonomy, ecology, epidemiology and for diagnosis and control, as larval stages cause a clinical disease in humans known as anisakidosis. with the aim to investigate the presence of anisakid larvae, specimens of horse mackerel, trachurus trachurus (linnaeus, 1758), silver scabbardfish, lepidopus caudatus (euphrasen, 1788), european anchovy, engraulis encrasicolus (linnaeus ...201222360842
survey of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus in wild fishes in the southeastern black sea.species diversity in the black sea ecosystem has been declining rapidly over the last 2 decades. to assess the occurrence and distribution of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (vhsv) in various wild fish species, a wild marine fish survey was carried out in 2009, 2010, and 2011. the pooled or individual samples of kidney, liver, and spleen of 5025 specimens, belonging to 17 fish species, were examined virologically using cell culture. the cells showing cytopathic effects (cpe) were subjected ...201424991737
levels of (210)po in some commercial fish species consumed in the aegean sea coast of turkey and the related dose assessment to the coastal population.concentrations of (210)po were determined in the edible muscle tissue of five species of marine fish: sardine (sardine plichardus) and anchovy (engraulis encrasicolus), red mullet (mullus barbatus), horse mackerel (trachurus trachurus) and gilt-head sea bream (sparus aurata) collected from five stations in the aegean sea region of turkey during the fishery season 2010. the (210)po concentrations in the fish samples were found to vary from not detected levels to 389 ± 45 bq kg(-1) dry wt. these v ...201323268115
toxic metals in tissues of fishes from the black sea and associated human health risk exposure.the anthropogenic activities in the black sea area are responsible for toxic metal contamination of sea food products. in this study, several toxic metals: cadmium, lead, nickel, chromium, and copper were quantified in different tissues (digestive tract, muscle, skeleton, skin) of nine fish species (neogobius melanostomus, belone belone, solea solea, trachurus mediterraneus ponticus, sardina pilchardus, engraulis encrasicolus, pomatomus saltatrix, sprattus sprattus, scorpaena porcus) by using at ...201728127691
assessment of trace metal concentrations in muscle tissue of certain commercially available fish species from kayseri, turkey.regular consumption of fish has been widely recommended by health authorities. however, it is known that some species accumulate high levels of contaminants including heavy metals (e.g., hg, cd, pb, and as). in this study, cu, pb, co, ni, cr, mn, cd, and fe were determined in the muscle tissue of 11 commercially available fish species (sparus auratus, dicentrarchus labrax, mullus barbatus, belone belone, psetta maxima, epinephelus aeneus, salmothymus, soleidae, pomatomus saltatrix, engraulis enc ...201424633787
proximate and fatty acid composition of some commercially important fish species from the sinop region of the black sea.the proximate and fatty acid compositions of the commercially important fish species (engraulis encrasicolus, alosa alosa, belone belone, scorpaena porcus, pomatomus saltatrix, mullus barbatus) from the sinop region of the black sea were examined. the fat contents ranged from 1.26% (for scorpion fish) to 18.12% (for shad). the protein contents were min 14.54% (for red mullet) and maximum 20.26% (for belone). the fatty acid compositions of the fish ranged from 27.83 to 35.91% for saturated fatty ...201222322400
characterization of the pelagic fish community of the north-western and northern spanish shelf waters.this study demonstrates the utility of trawl data, collected during acoustic surveys of pelagic fish stocks as a way of confirming fish identification, to characterize the pelagic community, as well as allowing description and prediction of fish distribution patterns, based on data from spanish atlantic ocean shelf surveys during spring 2005-2011. the composition of the pelagic community is described, as well as spatial and temporal patterns of variation in both the community composition and the ...201324090545
morphology of the filtration apparatus of three planktivorous fishes and relation with ingested anthropogenic particles.anthropogenic particles (aps), including microplastics, are ingested by a wide variety of marine organisms. exposure of clupeiformes (e.g. herrings, anchovies, sardines) is poorly studied despite their economic and ecological importance. this study aims to describe the morphology of the filtration apparatus of three wild-caught clupeiformes (sardina pilchardus, clupea harengus and engraulis encrasicolus) and to relate the results to ingested aps. consequently, the species with the more efficient ...201728065554
a day in the life of fish larvae: modeling foraging and growth using quirks.this article introduces "quirks," a generic, individual-based model synthesizing over 40 years of empirical and theoretical insights into the foraging behavior and growth physiology of marine fish larvae. in quirks, different types of larvae are defined by a short list of their biological traits, and all foraging and growth processes (including the effects of key environmental factors) are modeled following one unified set of mechanistic rules. this approach facilitates ecologically meaningful c ...201424901937
enzymatic-microwave assisted extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of selected veterinary antibiotics in fish and mussel samples.a new method based on enzymatic-microwave assisted extraction prior to high performance liquid chromatography (hplc) has been developed for the determination of 11 antibiotics (drugs) and the main metabolites of five of them in fish tissue and mussel samples. the analysed compounds were sulfadiazine (sdi), n(4)-acetylsulfadiazine (ndi), sulfamethazine (smz), n(4)-acetylsulfamethazine (nmz), sulfamerazine (smr), n(4)-acetylsulfamerazine (nmr), sulfamethoxazole (smx), trimetroprim (tmp), amoxicill ...201121190806
application of enzymatic probe sonication extraction for the determination of selected veterinary antibiotics and their main metabolites in fish and mussel samples.a new method based on enzymatic probe sonication extraction prior to high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) has been developed for the determination of 11 antibiotics (drugs) and the main metabolites of five of them in fish tissue and mussel samples. the analytes belong to four different classes of antibiotics (sulfonamides, tetracyclines, penicillins and amphenicols). the analysed compounds were sulfadiazine (sdi) and n(4)-acetylsulfadiazine (ndi) metabolite, sulfamethazine (smz) and n(4 ...201020800727
biogenic amine formation and microbiological quality of anchovy (engraulis encrasicolus) treated with lavender and lemon balm ethanol extracts.biogenic amine formation and bacterial growth of vacuum-packed european anchovy treated with 1% lemon balm (lb) or lavender (ld) ethanol extracts was investigated. the treated samples were stored at 2 ± 1 °c for 11 d and analyzed for biogenic amines, total viable count, fecal coliform count, and lactic acid bacterial count. the analyses were done on 0, 4, 7, 9, and 11 d of storage. both lb and ld extracts proved effective in reducing most biogenic amines, with histamine reduced by 3-fold compare ...201728369977
permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 october 2011-30 november 2011.this article documents the addition of 139 microsatellite marker loci and 90 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism sequencing primers to the molecular ecology resources database. loci were developed for the following species: aglaoctenus lagotis, costus pulverulentus, costus scaber, culex pipiens, dascyllus marginatus, lupinus nanus benth, phloeomyzus passerini, podarcis muralis, rhododendron rubropilosum hayata var. taiwanalpinum and zoarces viviparus. these loci were cross-tested on the foll ...201222296658
clupeiformes' egg envelope proteins characterization: the case of engraulis encrasicolus as a proxy for stock assessment through a novel molecular tool.zona radiata proteins are essential for ensuring bactericidal resistance, oocyte nutrients uptake and functional buoyancy, sperm binding and guidance to the micropyle, and protection to the growing oocyte or embryo from the physical environment. such glycoproteins have been characterized in terms of molecular structure, protein composition and phylogenetics in several chordate models. nevertheless, research on teleost has not been extensive. in clupeiformes, one of the most biologically relevant ...201627060425
detection of anthropogenic particles in fish stomachs: an isolation method adapted to identification by raman spectroscopy.microplastic particles (mp) contaminate oceans and affect marine organisms in several ways. ingestion combined with food intake is generally reported. however, data interpretation often is circumvented by the difficulty to separate mp from bulk samples. visual examination often is used as one or the only step to sort these particles. however, color, size, and shape are insufficient and often unreliable criteria. we present an extraction method based on hypochlorite digestion and isolation of mp ...201526289815
fish-based remedies in spanish ethnomedicine: a review from a historical therapeutics is fundamentally based on a dietary use, but these vertebrates have also been employed in the treatment of infectious and parasitic diseases, during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum and to deal with diseases of the different systems.201424885245
the effects of extraction methods on the contents of fatty acids, especially epa and dha in marine lipids.this study aims to evaluate the efficiency of trans-methylation methods in fish oil obtained using soxhlet extraction method and bligh and dyer method and also to observe the effects of extraction methods on the contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids [pufas, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (epa) and docosahexaenoic acid (dha)] in five marine species: sardine (sardinella aurita), anchovy (engraulis encrasicolus), sea bream (sparus aurata), brushtooth lizardfish (saurida undosquamis) and chub ma ...201222010951
molecular identification and population dynamic of anisakis pegreffii (nematoda: anisakidae dujardin, 1845) isolated from the european anchovy (engraulis encrasicolus l.) in the adriatic sea.anchovy engraulis encrasicolus (l.) is a coastal pelagic and euryhaline species that represents the only european species of the family engraulidae, with a widespread distribution. in croatia, it is marketed fresh, frozen, salted or marinated and mainly exported to italy and spain, however anisakis sp. larval infection is frequently the reason for border rejection. since it is known that the prevalence and intensity of anisakis infection varies with fish species, fishing area and season, the aim ...201222647674
presence of anisakid larvae in the european anchovy, engraulis encrasicolus, fished off the tyrrhenian coast of central italy.a survey was carried out to determine the prevalence of anisakid nematode larvae in european anchovy (engraulis encrasicolus) fished off the tyrrhenian coast of central italy. from february through july 2012, 1,490 specimens of e. encrasicolus caught in three different fishing areas (off civitavecchia, anzio, and gaeta in the northern, central, and southern lazio region of italy, respectively) were tested for the presence of anisakid larvae, both by visual microscopic inspection and enzymatic di ...201323992513
role of biogenic amines in the post-mortem migration of anisakis pegreffii (nematoda: anisakidae dujardin, 1845) larvae into fish fillets.infective third-stage larvae (l3) of nematode anisakis spp. have been recognized as one of the major food-borne threats in lightly processed fish products in europe, particularly in the mediterranean region. therefore, the effect of different storage temperatures of fish on larval post-mortem migration from visceral cavity into fillets is an important parameter to take into account when evaluating the risk for consumer safety. the european anchovy (engraulis encrasicolus) were caught during fish ...201526318909
occurrence of nematodes of the genus anisakis in mediterranean and atlantic fish marketed in sardinia.anisakiasis is a gastrointestinal fish-borne zoonosis caused by the ingestion of third stage larvae of the genus anisakis. between january and december 2013, 1112 specimens of four commercial fish species (engraulis encrasicolus, merluccius merluccius, scomber colias and trachurus mediterraneus) marketed in sardinia (italy) were examined for anisakis sp. the overall prevalence of anisakis spp larvae was 39.9%, all morphologically identified as type i. scomber colias showed the highest prevalence ...201728299289
Seasonal variation of organochlorine contaminants in bonito (Sarda sarda L. 1758) and anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L. 1758) in Black Sea region, Turkey.The concentrations of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine insecticides were determined in bonito (Sardasarda L. 1758) and anchovy (Engraulisencrasicolus L. 1758) from the Black Sea, Turkey. Concentrations of total indicator PCBs ranged between <1-17.0 in bonito, and <1-17.5 ng/g fresh weight in anchovy, and total of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-chlorophenyl-ethane and its metabolites' (DDTs) concentrations ranged between 13.4-26.3, and 2.96-19.0 ng/g fresh weight in bonito a ...201122004730
occurrence of heavy metals (hg, cd, and pb) and polychlorinated biphenyls in salted anchovies.the most popular brands of salted anchovies (engraulis encrasicolus) from the mediterranean sea and atlantic ocean were purchased from several italian supermarkets and grocery stores. heavy metal (hg, cd, and pb) and polychlorinated biphenyl (pcb) levels were determined and assessed by comparing the concentrations in these samples with the maximum permissible limits set by the european union (reg ec 629/2008 and reg ec 1881/2006 [off. j. eur. union l 173:3-9 and 364:5-24, respectively]). the hg ...201121549051
first molecular identification of the zoonotic parasite anisakis pegreffii (nematoda: anisakidae) in a paraffin-embedded granuloma taken from a case of human intestinal anisakiasis in italy.anisakiasis is an important fish-borne zoonosis provoked by larval stages of nematodes belonging to the genus anisakis. the detection and identification of human infections is difficult. this is due to: a) the low specificity of the clinical features and symptomatology related to human infections; b) the paucity of diagnostic features of larvae found in granulomatous lesions characteristic of "invasive anisakiasis"; and c) the lack morphological characters diagnostic at the specific level when l ...201121453522
determination of trace metals in canned anchovies and canned rainbow trouts.trace metal (fe, zn, cu, cd, sn, hg and pb) concentrations of canned anchovies (engraulis encrasicolus linnaeus, 1758) and canned rainbow trouts (oncorhynchus mykiss walbaum, 1792), commercialized in turkey, were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (icp-ms). the average contents of trace metals in canned anchovies and canned rainbow trouts were found as 50.708 and 6.980 mg/kg for iron, 22.467 and 11.605 mg/kg for zinc, 1.145 and 0.541 mg/kg for copper, 0.019 and 0.001 m ...201021074591
anisakis pegreffi etiological agent of gastric infections in two italian women.two cases of gastric anisakiasis have been documented in two italian women who had consumed raw anchovies (engraulis encrasicolus). the first patient was a 49-year-old woman presenting with epigastric pain and bloody vomiting after ingestion of marinated (vinegar) raw anchovies. during the esophagogastroduodenoscopy (egds) a white color worm was detected and extracted from cardia by means of biopsy forceps. the second patient was a 59-year-old woman with irritable bowel syndrome and gastritis, w ...200919642920
metal levels in tissues of the european anchovy, engraulis encrasicolus l., 1758, and picarel, spicara smaris l., 1758, from black, marmara and aegean seas.levels of metals in commercially important two species, engraulis encrasicolus l., 1758 and spicara smaris l, 1758 from black, marmara and aegean seas, turkey was evaluated. the concentration ranges of cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc in the samples were 0.01-0.07, 0.01-0.08, 0.09-0.51, 0.21-8.58, 11.9-169, 0.14-2.82, 0.06-1.51, 0.12-0.87, 7.12-45.6 mg kg(-1 )for muscles, and 0.06-0.69, 0.06-0.53, 0.28-2.97, 0.99-30.7, 55.2-316, 0.72-9.67, 0.47-11.6, 0.26 ...200818431521
study of the distribution of trace elements in six species of marine organisms of the ligurian sea (north-western mediterranean)--comparison with previous findings.this paper presents the results of the determination of several trace elements (total and organic mercury, selenium, cadmium, lead, copper, manganese and zinc) in six species of marine organisms (nephrops norvegicus, engraulis encrasicolus, mullus barbatus, mullus surmuletus, merluccius merluccius, and sarda sarda), sampled in the ligurian sea (north-west mediterranean) during a three-year period, from 1998 to 2000. the species analysed (388 samples) are the same studied in previous investigatio ...200415347201
redescriptions of aphanurus stossichii (monticelli, 1891) and a. virgula looss, 1907 (digenea: hemiuridae).aphanurus stossichii (monticelli, 1891) is redescribed from boops boops (l.) from various localities in the ne atlantic region (off spain), the mediterranean (off spain and turkey) and the black sea (off bulgaria). the material from the atlantic coast of spain showed differences in egg-size and shape and a characteristic ornamentation of the anterior third of the hermaphroditic duct. a comparison with samples from b. boops collected off antalya (turkey) and off the bulgarian black sea coast reve ...200415218364
[anisakiasis in fresh fish sold in the north of córdoba].anisakiasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by live larvae of the anisakidae family found located in the body cavities and in the muscular systems of osseous fish and cephalopod mollusks. humons inadvertently ingest these larvae when eating raw or undercooked infested fish. symptoms are characterized by gastrointestinal disorders. the purpose of this study is that of ascertaining the frequency of anisakid larvae parasite infestation in fresh fish marketed in northern section of the province of co ...200011217241
a rapid method for differentiating four species of the engraulidae (anchovy) family.the four species of the engraulidae family: european anchovy (engraulis encrasicolus), californian anchovy (engraulis mordax), peruvian anchoveta (engraulis ringens), and japanese anchovy (engraulis japonicus) studied in this work are very similar morphologically, and it is very difficult to distinguish between them, especially when frozen or processed. we have used the 5s rdna as a molecular marker to discriminate these four species and used specific primers designed for each species in the non ...201424628361
shelf life of anchovy products (engraulis encrasicolus): evaluation of sensory, microbiological and chemical properties.fishery products have always been an important food in italy. in the past, increased consumption was mainly due to the good quality of the products, easiness of use and their beneficial effects on health. recently, owing to the national financial crisis, there has been a decline in the consumption of fish. in fact, in 2013, according to data from ismea, the consumption of fresh fish suffered a sharp contraction (-5%). this decline also concerns anchovy (engraulis encrasicolus). this species, par ...201427800315
effect of freezing/thawing process in different sizes of blue fish in the mediterranean through lysosomal enzymatic tests.the assessment of freshness of different sizes of blue fish (engraulis encrasicolus 12 cm, sardina pilchardus 15 cm, trachurus trachurus 40 cm, scomber japonicus colias 60 cm) was carried out using non-conventional enzymatic methods. the activities of the three lysosomal enzymes (α-glucosidase (ag), β-galactosidase (b-gal) and β-n-acetylglucosamidase (b-na)) in extracts of blue fish muscle were measured over a period of 21 days of storage. a significant increase (p<0.05) of ag activity was obser ...201424262525
fatty acid composition of 19 species of fish from the black sea and the marmara sea.evidence suggests that differences in fatty acid composition among various fish species may be due to differences in diet or to environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, and depth at which the fish are caught. the beneficial effects of a diet containing fish on cardiovascular or other diseases have been associated with their high content of eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) acids. in this study we analyzed the fatty acid composition of the flesh of 18 different ...199910230724
patterns of distribution and spatial indicators of ecosystem change based on key species in the southern benguela.several commercially and ecologically important species in the southern benguela have undergone southward and eastward shifts in their distributions over previous decades, most notably the small pelagic fish sardine sardinops sagax and anchovy engraulis encrasicolus. understanding these changes and their implications is essential in implementing an ecosystem approach to fisheries in the southern benguela and attempting to appreciate the potential impacts of future environmental change. to invest ...201627441550
histology as a valid tool to differentiate fresh from frozen-thawed marinated fish.european commission regulation (eu) 1276/2011 requires that fishery products intended for raw consumption be frozen at -20°c for not less than 24 h or at -35°c for at least 15 h in order to kill viable parasites other than trematodes. but because marinating processes are not always effective in destroying nematode larvae, raw marinated fish preparations should be frozen before consumption. this study evaluated the performance of a standardized histological method to distinguish between fresh and ...201627497137
monitoring programme on toxic metal in bluefish (pomatomus saltatrix), anchovy (engraulis encrasicolus) and sardine (sardina pilchardus) from istanbul, turkey: levels and estimated weekly intake.toxic metal (hg, cd, pb, cu and zn) concentrations of small-medium bluefish, anchovy and sardine in istanbul, turkey, were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (icp-ms) throughout 1 year. the concentrations of pollutants were found to vary according to season and species. estimates of weekly intake levels of the metals were calculated and compared to recommended safe limits for fish consumption by humans. the levels of cd, pb, cu and zn in the fillets of all species resu ...201323328894
characterization and transcriptional profiles of engraulis encrasicolus' gnrh forms.the european anchovy engraulis encrasicolus, a member of the clupeiformes order, holds a great biological and economical importance. in the past, this species was mostly investigated with the aim of assessing its reproductive biology, trophic ecology, population dynamics and the relations existing with the physical environment. at present days, though, an almost complete lack of information afflicts its neuroendocrinology and reproductive physiology. the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (hpg) axis ...201627651520
body reserves mediate trade-offs between life-history traits: new insights from small pelagic fish resources in the environment prevent individuals from simultaneously maximizing all life-history traits, resulting in trade-offs. in particular, the cost of reproduction is well known to negatively affect energy investment in growth and maintenance. here, we investigated these trade-offs during contrasting periods of high versus low fish size and body condition (before/after 2008) in the gulf of lions. female reproductive allocation and performance in anchovy (engraulis encrasicolus) and ...201627853538
determination of radioactivity levels and heavy metal concentrations in seawater, sediment and anchovy (engraulis encrasicolus) from the black sea in rize, turkey.seawater, sediment and fish (anchovy) samples consumed in the rize province of the eastern black sea region of turkey were collected from five different stations. the radioactivity levels ((226)ra, (232)th, (40)k and (137)cs) were determined in all the samples using a high-purity germanium detector. while (226)ra, (232)th and (40)k radionuclides were detected in all samples, the radionuclide concentration of (137)cs, except for the sediment samples (mean activity is 9±1.4bqkg(-1)), was not detec ...201728081960
visceral larvae as a predictive index of the overall level of fish batch infection in european anchovies (engraulis encrasicolus): a rapid procedure for food business operators to assess marketability.the european anchovy (engraulis encrasicolus), one of the most important pelagic fish resources in the mediterranean sea, is frequently infected by anisakid larvae. food business operators (fbos) should use appropriate sampling plans and analytical methods to avoid commercialization of massively infected batches and reduce the risk of transmission of viable zoonotic larvae. in this study, performed at fishlab (department of veterinary sciences of the university of pisa) during 2016, an official ...201728359911
levels of chemicals in two fish species from four italian fishing areas.this paper reports the results of an assessment of contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in two demersal species of commercial importance. the organisms considered were mullus barbatus and engraulis encrasicolus from three marine areas off the italian coasts: north and south adriatic sea and north tyrrhenian sea. the instrumental analyzes have revealed, in many samples examined, the presence of most of pcb congeners and 5 of the 16 pahs considered. organ ...201627423440
determining the causes behind the collapse of a small pelagic fishery using bayesian population modeling.small pelagic fish species present complex dynamics that challenge population biologists and prevent effective management. huge fluctuations in abundance have traditionally been associated with external environmental forcing on recruitment, exempting other processes from contributing to fisheries collapse. on the other hand, theory predicts that density dependence and overexploitation can increase the likelihood of population oscillations. here, we combined nonlinear population modeling with bay ...201627411258
binding kinetics and sequencing of hepatic alpha1-adrenergic receptors in two marine teleosts, mackerel (scomber scombrus) and anchovy (engraulis encrasicolus).liver alpha(1)-adrenoceptors (ars) are demonstrated, or at least hypothesized, in freshwater and brackish-water teleosts, whereas no data are available for marine teleosts. this study evaluates the presence of alpha(1)-ars in the liver of two marine teleosts, the anchovy engraulis encrasicolus and the mackerel scomber scombrus, and examines on a broad scale the possibility that habitats posing different challenges also influence phenotypic trait selection. binding assays were performed also on l ...200818273865
links between parasitism, energy reserves and fecundity of european anchovy, engraulis encrasicolus, in the northwestern mediterranean sea.the european anchovy, engraulis encrasicolus l. 1758, is one of the most sought-after target species in the northwestern mediterranean sea. however, this stock currently consists of small individuals, and landings are reported to have decreased considerably. the main purpose of this study was to assess, for the first time, the interrelationships between size, fecundity, energy reserves and parasitism in female anchovies, in order to analyse the potential implications for the health of northweste ...201627293748
parallel genetic divergence among coastal-marine ecotype pairs of european anchovy explained by differential introgression after secondary contact.ecophenotypic differentiation among replicate ecotype pairs within a species complex is often attributed to independent outcomes of parallel divergence driven by adaptation to similar environmental contrasts. however, the extent to which parallel phenotypic and genetic divergence patterns have emerged independently is increasingly questioned by population genomic studies. here, we document the extent of genetic differentiation within and among two geographic replicates of the coastal and marine ...201627027737
coupling demographic and genetic variability from archived collections of european anchovy (engraulis encrasicolus).it is well known that temporal fluctuations in small populations deeply influence evolutionary potential. less well known is whether fluctuations can influence the evolutionary potentials of species with large census sizes. here, we estimated genetic population parameters from as survey of polymorphic microsatellite dna loci in archived otoliths from adriatic european anchovy (engraulis encrasicolus), a fish with large census sizes that supports numerous local fisheries. stocks have fluctuated g ...201626982808
effect of spawning on furan fatty acid profile of edible muscle and organ tissues from sardine (sardina pilchardus) and anchovy (engraulis encrasicolus).the total fatty acid compositions, especially the furan fatty acid (f-acids) profile, from edible muscle (fillet) and organ tissues (brain, eye, ovaries, and testes) of spawning and nonspawning sardine and anchovy were examined. the spawning season had no effect on f-acid profiles of the fillet and all organ tissues, for both fishes. however, differences among the f-acid fraction of the organ tissues were revealed. the f-acid portion was less than 1% of total fatty acid in all samples. five f-ac ...201323531042
seasonal variation of bioaccumulation in engraulis encrasicolus (linneaus, 1758) and related biomarkers of the last years, the development of new techniques and the increase of sophisticated assays has improved the environmental monitoring programs by using fish as bioindicators of marine ecosystems, applying a multibiomarkers approach. the aim of this study was to assess the contamination level of the catania gulf through bioaccumulation and contaminant exposure response in engraulis encrasicolus (linnaeus, 1758). heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) and polychlorinated biphenyls ...201223020986
spatial variations in feeding habits and trophic levels of two small pelagic fish species in the central mediterranean sea.trophic ecology of adults of european sardine (sardina pilchardus) and anchovy (engraulis encrasicolus) was examined and compared among various regions of central mediterranean sea. carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses (δ(13)c and δ(15)n) were adopted as a tool to determine changes in feeding behaviour of adults of sardines and anchovies. in the study period (summer) a clear geographical pattern was recognized in the isotopic composition of both species, with an increasing trend northward ...201626895386
a coi nonsynonymous mutation as diagnostic tool for intraspecific discrimination in the european anchovy engraulis encrasicolus (linnaeus).the european anchovy, engraulis encrasicolus, is currently one of the principal target species for commercial fisheries in europe. in this study, the mitochondrial control region (cr) and the cytochrome oxidase i (coi) mitochondrial gene were analyzed in 74 specimens of e. encrasicolus from four localities in the central mediterranean. in both populations, the two markers revealed the presence of two main haplogroups, a and b, already detected in previous investigations of different classes of m ...201526599908
seasonal changes on microbial metabolism and biomass in the euphotic layer of sicilian a part of a wider project on fisheries ecology, several biological and environmental parameters were monitored during two oceanographic cruises (bansic 2012 and novesar 2013) in the sicily channel, which connects the western and eastern mediterranean basins. the prokaryotic abundances and biomass as well as hydrolysis rates on organic matter were investigated in the euphotic layer of a retention area for fish larval stages including anchovy (engraulis encrasicolus, linnaeus, 1758) with the ai ...201526231593
the role of hydrodynamic processes on anchovy eggs and larvae distribution in the sicily channel (mediterranean sea): a case study for the 2004 data set.knowledge of the link between ocean hydrodynamics and distribution of small pelagic fish species is fundamental for the sustainable management of fishery resources. both commercial and scientific communities are indeed seeking to provide services that could "connect the dots" among in situ and remote observations, numerical ocean modelling, and fisheries. in the mediterranean sea and, in particular, in the sicily channel the reproductive strategy of the european anchovy (engraulis encrasicolus) ...201525915489
structure and organization of the engraulidae family u2 snrna: an evolutionary model gene?the u2 snrna multigene family has been analyzed in four species of the engraulidae family--engraulis encrasicolus, engraulis mordax, engraulis ringens, and engraulis japonicas--with the object of understanding more about the structure of this multigene family in these pelagic species and studying their phylogenetic relationships. the results showed that the cluster of this gene family in the engraulis genus is formed by the u2-u5 snrna with highly conserved sequences of mini- and micro-satellite ...201525838107
210po and 210pb trophic transfer within the phytoplankton-zooplankton-anchovy/sardine food web: a case study from the gulf of lion (nw mediterranean sea).the transfer of (210)po and (210)pb in the food web of small pelagic fishes (from phytoplankton and zooplankton to anchovy engraulis encrasicolus and sardine sardina pilchardus) is investigated in the gulf of lion (gol). we present original data of (210)po and (210)pb activity concentrations, c and n stable isotope ratios, measured (i) from different size classes of phytoplankton and zooplankton during spring and winter in different environments of the gol, and (ii) in two fish species. signific ...201525771222
de novo assembly and comprehensive characterization of the skeletal muscle transcriptomes of the european anchovy (engraulis encrasicolus).european anchovy has considerable economic and ecological importance due to its high reproduction capacity and growth rate. as one of the largest source of wild marine protein, an increasing muscle mass strength has a major contribution to this growth rate during transition from subadult to adult stage. in the present study, using illumina sequencing technology (hiseq2000) accompanied with appropriate bioinformatics softwares; we have sequenced, assembled and annotated the transcriptome of wild ...201525600091
differentiation of fresh and frozen-thawed fish samples using raman spectroscopy coupled with chemometric analysis.the potential of raman spectroscopy was investigated in terms of its capability to discriminate the species of the fish samples and determine their freshness according to the number of freezing/thawing cycles they exposed. species discrimination analysis was carried out on sixty-four fish samples from six different species, namely horse mackerel (trachurus trachurus), european anchovy (engraulis encrasicolus), red mullet (mullus surmuletus), bluefish (pomatamus saltatrix), atlantic salmon (salmo ...201525442555
thermal adaptation and clinal mitochondrial dna variation of european anchovy.natural populations of widely distributed organisms often exhibit genetic clinal variation over their geographical ranges. the european anchovy, engraulis encrasicolus, illustrates this by displaying a two-clade mitochondrial structure clinally arranged along the eastern atlantic. one clade has low frequencies at higher latitudes, whereas the other has an anti-tropical distribution, with frequencies decreasing towards the tropics. the distribution pattern of these clades has been explained as a ...201425143035
larval fish variability in response to oceanographic features in a nearshore nursery area.the influence of oceanographic features on ichthyoplankton assemblages in the warm temperate nearshore region of algoa bay, south africa, was assessed. the nearshore ichthyoplankton comprised 88 taxa from 34 families. samples were collected at six stations between august 2010 and july 2012 using a plankton ring net of 750 mm diameter and 500 µm mesh aperture. the majority of larvae collected were in a preflexion stage, indicating the potential importance of the nearshore for newly hatched larvae ...201425082168
evolution of volatile compounds and biogenic amines throughout the shelf life of marinated and salted anchovies (engraulis encrasicolus).producers of processed anchovies have developed hazard analysis and critical control points (haccp) to guarantee the quality of their products. nonetheless there is a lack of objective data to determine products' shelf life. the quality of a product is usually established on the basis of its safety and organoleptic properties. these parameters were assessed by monitoring the profiles of volatile compounds and quantitating six biogenic amines in samples of two types of processed anchovies during ...201425065605
habitat selection response of small pelagic fish in different environments. two examples from the oligotrophic mediterranean sea.a number of scientific papers in the last few years singled out the influence of environmental conditions on the spatial distribution of fish species, highlighting the need for the fisheries scientific community to investigate, besides biomass estimates, also the habitat selection of commercially important fish species. the mediterranean sea, although generally oligotrophic, is characterized by high habitat variability and represents an ideal study area to investigate the adaptive behavior of sm ...201424992576
assessment of metal concentrations in commercially important fish species in black the present study, concentrations of arsenic (as), cadmium (cd), cobalt (co), chromium (cr), copper (cu), manganese (mn), nickel (ni), lead (pb), and zinc (zn) were measured in the muscle, gill, and gonads of the pelagic fish species trachurus mediterraneus, engraulis encrasicolus ponticus, and sprattus sprattus that are important both commercially and for the ecosystems in the black sea. the samples were collected during 2011. the metals were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass ...201624193046
snp discovery in european anchovy (engraulis encrasicolus, l) by high-throughput transcriptome and genome sequencing.increased throughput in sequencing technologies has facilitated the acquisition of detailed genomic information in non-model species. the focus of this research was to discover and validate snps derived from the european anchovy (engraulis encrasicolus) transcriptome, a species with no available reference genome, using next generation sequencing technologies. a cdna library was constructed from four tissues of ten fish individuals corresponding to three populations of e. encrasicolus, and roche ...201323936375
new polymorphic microsatellite loci for population studies in the european anchovy, engraulis encrasicolus (l.).eleven microsatellite loci were developed in the european anchovy, engraulis encrasicolus, and tested in samples from two geographically distant populations (atlantic and mediterranean sea). number of alleles ranged from eight to 28 and observed heterozygosity from 0.440 to 0.920. there was no evidence of linkage disequilibrium, although two loci are indeed linked. all loci were in hardy-weinberg equilibrium, except for one locus in the atlantic and two loci in the mediterranean sample. these th ...200921564921
triple cones in the retinae of three anchovy species: engraulis encrasicolus, cetengraulis mysticetus and anchovia macrolepidota (engraulididae, teleostei).histology and fine structure of three anchovy outer retinae is investigated by light- and electron microscopy and computer aided topographic mapping. they all possess novel linear triple cones with two large lateral components and one small central component. engraulis encrasicolus has a polycone-dominated retina with two triple-cone sectors, the retinae of cetengraulis mysticetus and anchovia macrolepidota are triple-cone dominated. interspecific differences in the configuration of the complex ...200919328822
multiple snp markers reveal fine-scale population and deep phylogeographic structure in european anchovy (engraulis encrasicolus l.).geographic surveys of allozymes, microsatellites, nuclear dna (ndna) and mitochondrial dna (mtdna) have detected several genetic subdivisions among european anchovy populations. however, these studies have been limited in their power to detect some aspects of population structure by the use of a single or a few molecular markers, or by limited geographic sampling. we use a multi-marker approach, 47 ndna and 15 mtdna single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps), to analyze 626 european anchovies from t ...201222860082
structure and spectral sensitivity of photoreceptors of two anchovy species: engraulis japonicus and engraulis encrasicolus.the morphology, fine structure and spectral sensitivity of retinal photoreceptors of two anchovy species were investigated using light and electron microscopy and microspectrophotometry. distinct regional specialisation of cones was observed. long and short (bilobed) cones were observed in the horizontal retinal belt, including the nasal and temporal retinal zones. only triple cones with two long lateral components, one small central component were observed in the dorsal and ventro-nasal retinal ...201222819727
genetic structuring of european anchovy (engraulis encrasicolus) populations through mitochondrial dna sequences.mitochondrial dna sequence variation in 655 bpfragments of the cytochrome oxidase c subunit i gene, known as the dna barcode, of european anchovy (engraulis encrasicolus) was evaluated by analyzing 1529 individuals representing 16 populations from the black sea, through the marmara sea and the aegean sea to the mediterranean sea. a total of 19 (2.9%) variable sites were found among individuals, and these defined 10 genetically diverged populations with an overall mean distance of 1.2%. the highe ...201222397375
[oxygen binding by marine fish blood under hypothermic experimental conditions].influence of temperature in the range of 1-15 degrees c on oxygen binding properties of blood of thermophilic--golden mullet (liza aurata), anchovy (engraulis encrasicolus), and cold-tolerant--sardelle (clupeonella cultriventris) fishes has been investigated under experimental conditions. heat dependence of oxygenation reaction in thermophilic fish blood at temperature below 10 degrees c considerably increases, which is evidenced by high deltah values. that is accompanied by a substantial increa ...201521800652
could halophilic archaea improve the traditional salted anchovies (engraulis encrasicholus l.) safety and quality?the positive influence of two selected extremely halophilic archaea strains in the production of salted anchovies (engraulis encrasicolus, l., 1758) was highlighted.201021054448
dealing with the identification of protein species in ancient amphorae.this manuscript deals with the identification of protein residues in amphorae, including particularly identification of protein species. the work described was performed on fishes, the anchovy (engraulis encrasicolus) and bonito (sarda sarda) species frequently found in the mediterranean area. based on proteomic techniques, the analytical strategy was adapted to analysis of protein residues from tiny ceramic fragments. the major difficulty was to extract proteins and limit their hydrolysis durin ...201120890751
fluctuating asymmetry and fitness correlations in two engraulis encrasicolus populations.correlations among several measures of fluctuating asymmetry (fa) and fitness-related variables were assessed in two populations of the european anchovy engraulis encrasicolus with fast growth (aegean sea) and slow growth (ionian sea), respectively. fa levels were borderline significantly higher in the ionian than in the aegean for some variables. variation in otolith shape (deviation from population norm) was lower in the ionian than the aegean, contrary to expectation. within the aegean, there ...200920738519
diet composition and feeding of european anchovy engraulis encrasicolus in kiel bight, western baltic composition of the expanding southern species european anchovy engraulis encrasicolus in the western baltic sea was investigated. results revealed an interesting case of bentho-pelagic coupling with potential implications for local fish species through competition for food resources.201020557637
3d-topography of cell nuclei in a vertebrate retina--a confocal and two-photon microscopic study.we demonstrate methods to simultaneously acquire and evaluate the pattern of cell nuclei in the three cell layers of the vertebrate retina as an aspect of its functional morphology. 3d-position, shape and quantity of fluorescence-labelled cell nuclei are measured using laser scanning microscopy at several retinal locations, the pros and cons of single and two-photon excitation are compared. subsequently topographies of all discriminable morphotypes are calculated via linear interpolation of loca ...201020122964
energy density of anchovy engraulis encrasicolus in the bay of biscay.the energy density (e(d)) of anchovy engraulis encrasicolus in the bay of biscay was determined by direct calorimetry and its evolution with size, age and season was investigated. the water content and energy density varied seasonally following opposite trends. the e(d) g(-1) of wet mass (m(w)) was highest at the end of the feeding season (autumn: c. 8 kj g(-1)m(w)) and lowest in late winter (c. 6 kj g(-1)m(w)). in winter, the fish lost mass, which was partially replaced by water, and the energy ...200920735576
sardine sardinops sagax and anchovy engraulis encrasicolus larvae avoid regions with low dissolved oxygen concentration in the northern benguela current system.larvae of sardine sardinops sagax and anchovy engraulis encrasicolus in the northern benguela upwelling system were distributed predominantly in waters with dissolved oxygen concentrations >2.0 ml l(-1) and oxygen saturations >75%.200920735538
the structure of anchovy outer retinae (engraulididae, clupeiformes) - a comparative light- and electron-microscopic study using museum-stored material.the outer retinal architecture of engraulididae is uncommon among vertebrates. in some anchovies, e.g., anchoa, two cone types are arranged alternating in long photoreceptor chains, i.e., polycones. the cones have radially oriented outer segment lamellae in close contact with a complex guanine tapetum, most probably subserving polarization contrast vision. to clarify the distribution of the aberrant polycone architecture within the engraulididae and to provide indications about polycone evolutio ...200617051549
structural stability of a stage structured model of fish: the case of the anchovy (engraulis encrasicolus l.) in the bay of biscay.a study of stage structured model of fish population is presented. this model focuse on the anchovy population in the bay of biscay (engraulis encrasicolus l.) is presented. the method of study is based on an intermediate complexity mathematical model, taking into account the spatialisation, the environmental conditions and the stage-structure of the fishes. first, to test the model, we show mathematical properties, such as unicity of the solution of structural stability. then we provide numeric ...200516583274
mitochondrial dna reveals a mosaic pattern of phylogeographical structure in atlantic and mediterranean populations of anchovy (engraulis encrasicolus).this study extends the geographic coverage of a previous study of mitochondrial dna restriction fragment length polymorphism in european anchovy. both studies together include 24 samples representing 17 localities extending from the black sea, through the mediterranean sea to the eastern atlantic as far south as dakar, senegal. eighty-eight haplotypes define two clades (a and b) separated by 3.2% sequence divergence. clade a has a star-like genealogy indicative of a recent population expansion. ...200616515866
a second look at mitochondrial dna variability in european anchovy (engraulis encrasicolus): assessing models of population structure and the black sea isolation hypothesis.genetic architectures of marine fishes are generally shallow because of the large potential for gene flow in the sea. european anchovy, however, are unusual among small pelagic fishes in showing large differences among sub-basins and in harbouring two mtdna phylogroups ('a' & 'b'), representing 1.1-1.85 million years of separation. here the mtdna rflp dataset of magoulas et al. [1996, mol. biol. evol. 13: 178-190] is re-examined to assess population models accounting for this subdivided populati ...200516247701
nuclear-dna markers confirm the presence of two anchovy species in the mediterranean.morphometric, allozymic, and mitochondrial dna variability previously indicated that the mediterranean anchovy engraulis encrasicolus includes two distinct forms, one of the inshore habitat, and the other one of the open-sea habitat. here, we showed that the two forms significantly differ by several morphological characters. to test the hypothesis, proposed previously, that the two forms are distinct biological species, we used length-polymorphic, exon-primed intronic pcr markers from the creati ...200415656354
the pattern of cone pedicles and horizontal cells in the retina of the european anchovy, engraulis encrasicolus l. (engraulididae, clupeiformes).we have studied the architecture of polycone pedicles and their postsynaptic horizontal cells in the european anchovy using serial reconstruction by means of thin-sections from the cone outer segments to the outer plexiform layer. within this layer there is a tesselated arrangement of pedicles in two strata, one made by the long-cone pedicles and one by those of the short-cones. the two pedicle types differ in the architecture of their synaptic sites. the long-cones possess two ribbon clusters c ...200212575834
mitochondrial dna phylogeny and the reconstruction of the population history of a species: the case of the european anchovy (engraulis encrasicolus).analysis of mitochondrial dna restriction fragment length polymorphism in european anchovy (engraulis encrasicolus) revealed a large number of mitotypes that form two distinct clusters (phylads). phylad a consists of one common mitotype and many rare secondary mitotypes that are one mutational step removed from the main type. nucleotide diversity and number of homoplasious changes are low. phylad b has a complex pattern of mitotype connectedness, high nucleotide diversity, and a large number of ...19968583890
quantitative analyses of ultrastructure and vascularization of the slow muscle fibres of the anchovy.a quantitative study has been made of the ultrastructure and vascularization of slow fibres in the lateral muscles of the european anchovy (engraulis encrasicolus). mitochondria and myofibrils occupy 45.5 and 44.3% of total fibre volume respectively. more than 95% of all myofibrils are adjacent to mitochondria. a total of 51% of the sarcolemma is in direct contact with capillaries with a mean of 12.9 capillaries per fibre. in transverse sections anchovy slow fibres are considerably flattened (lo ...19827112537
heavy metals in organisms from the northern tyrrhenian sea.the concentrations of zinc, manganese, copper, cadmium, lead and mercury have been determined in soft tissues of four marine organisms (mytilus galloprovincialis lmk., nephrops norvegicus l., mullus barbatus l., engraulis encrasicolus l.) collected seasonally from the winter of 1976 to the spring of 1980 in various areas of the tyrrhenian sea (western mediterranean). in all four species levels of all metals, except mercury in all areas are alike while mercury levels vary and, furthermore, are hi ...19817302562
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