hypothesis: plant and fungal biocides, copper and indian childhood liver disease.hepatic copper accumulation is characteristic of indian childhood cirrhosis (icc) but in experimental animals causes only modest liver damage. plant and fungal biocidal agents may be hepatotoxic, may increase hepatic copper concentration, and may be secreted in milk of lactating animals. crotalaria species, parthenium hysterophorus and aspergillus flavus are possible contaminants of animal feeds in rural india, and we hypothesise that their products may be synergistic with copper in causing icc.19872449852
formation of adducts of parthenin and related sesquiterpene lactones with cysteine and glutathione.parthenin, the major sesquiterpene lactone of parthenium hysterophorus, a weed responsible for dermatitis in man is primarily restricted to leaf and stem trichomes. parthenin forms a monoadduct with l-cysteine through the alpha-methylene group of the gamma-lactone and a biadduct with the endocyclic double bond on the cyclopentenone ring. studies with other sesquiterpene lactones support the view that the types of adducts formed are correlated with the biological activity of the sesquiterpene lac ...1979498366
assessment of mutagenicity in parthenium hysterophorus l.the mutagenic potential of a crude extract of parthenium hysterophorus l. was assessed in the salmonella/microsome (ames) assay and the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. results in the bacterial mutagenicity assay were negative for the five strains employed, e.g. ta 1535, ta1537, ta 98, ta 100 and ta 102, while cytotoxicity was evident in all cases at 5000 microg per plate, the highest concentration assayed. a decrease in toxicity was observed with exogenous mammalian metabolic activation (s9 ...200111483374
parthenin, a sesquiterpene lactone of parthenium hysterophorus l. is a high toxicity clastogen.the in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity of parthenin, a sesquiterpene lactone from parthenium hysterophorus l. with allergenic and irritant action, was assessed in three short-term tests: bacterial reversion in salmonella typhimurium and escherichia coli, in vitro chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes and micronuclei in mouse peripheral blood. parthenin was not mutagenic in s. typhimurium strains ta 1535, ta 1537, ta 98 and ta 100 but a weak response was observed in ta 102 (+s9) ...200211815241
depolarizing neuromuscular junctional blocking action of parthenium hysterophorus leaf extracts in rat.electromyographic (emg) and electrodiagnostic studies were made on sciatic nerve-anterior tibialis muscle in vivo in rats administered with a sublethal dose of parthenium hysterophorus dry leaf powder 100 mg/100 g body weight of rat. nerve-evoked and muscle-evoked compound muscle action potentials were recorded at different frequencies of stimulations and at different time intervals. the emg studies revealed depolarizing neuromuscular junctional (nmj) blocking effects of the leaf extract. the de ...199910441773
identification of a novel hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein as the major allergen in parthenium pollen.the airborne pollen of the compositae weed, parthenium hysterophorus, is a major cause of allergic rhinitis in the indian subcontinent and in certain parts of the southern united states and western australia. earlier studies have identified a 31 kd protein as the major allergen in parthenium pollen.19968939153
in vitro and in vivo therapeutic activity of parthenium hysterophorus against trypanosoma evansi.crude 50% ethanolic extract of p. hysterophorus flowers exhibited trypanocidal activity in vitro at all the four concentrations tested i.e. 5, 50, 500 and 1000 micrograms/ml. in vivo trial revealed that the extract exerted antitrypanosomal effect at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg body wt, i.p. as evidenced by significantly reduced (p < 0.01) mean parasitaemia on days 3, 4, 5 and 6 when compared with untreated control group. further at 100 and 300 mg/kg, body wt doses, the survival period was signifi ...19958786167
xanthomonas campestris pv. parthenii pathovar nov. incitant of leaf blight of parthenium.a new bacterial leaf blight disease of parthenium (parthenium hysterophorus l.) is described for the first time. the disease-causing bacterium was isolated and its morphological, physiological and biochemical characters were determined. the pathogenicity of bacterium is apparently limited only to parthenium. the pathogen was identified as xanthomonas campestris pv. parthenii pathovar nov. on the basis of morphological, physiological, biochemical and pathogenic characteristics.19958546453
allergenic cross-reactivity between parthenium and ragweed pollen allergens.cross-reactivity of allergens from the pollen of the compositae weeds, parthenium hysterophorus (american feverfew) and ambrosia (ragweed), in 2 groups of patients with different geographic distributions was studied. parthenium-sensitive indian patients, who were never exposed to ragweed, elicited positive skin reactions with ragweed pollen extracts. a significant correlation in the rast scores of parthenium and ragweed-specific ige was observed with the sera of parthenium and ragweed-sensitive ...19938428168
the use of murine polyclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies as surrogate allergens in the diagnosis of parthenium hypersensitivity.anti-idiotypic antibodies (ab-2), which are the mirror images of idiotypic antibodies (ab-1), may be useful as diagnostic reagents and for use as immunogen to induce antigen-specific immune responses.19938409117
nutritional evaluation of silage made from the toxic weed parthenium hysterophorus in animals.after ensilation, the toxic compositae weed parthenium hysterophorus was devoid of the toxic principle parthenin. laboratory-scale ensilation indicated that no parthenin was detectable after 5 wk of anaerobic fermentation. for animal feeding studies, silage was made on a large scale from parthenium mixed with maize or from parthenium alone. crossbred bull and buffalo bull calves were fed diets containing the silages, or control diet without silage, for 12 wk. the animals consumed both silages wi ...19938340030
pattern of cross-sensitivity between 4 compositae plants, parthenium hysterophorus, xanthium strumarium, helianthus annuus and chrysanthemum coronarium, in indian assess the pattern of cross-sensitivity between 4 members of the compositae family, namely parthenium hysterophorus l., xanthium strumarium l., helanthus annuus l. and chrysanthemum coronarium l., 63 patients clinically diagnosed to have airborne contact dermatitis, and 51 controls having well-defined patterns of contact dermatitis caused by agents other than plants, were patch tested with measured amounts of standardized aqueous extracts of these plants. positive reactions were obtained in 6 ...19948187516
atmospheric survey of pollen of parthenium aerobiological survey to study the incidence and concentration of the pollen of parthenium hysterophorus was conducted in bangalore, india for a period of one year. this study indicated that parthenium pollen was present in the atmosphere in significant amounts eigher as single pollen grains or in the form of clumps during the months of june to august.19817196716
development of an experimental model to study the cell mediated immune response in parthenium hysterophorus induced dermatitis. 19827160867
contact dermatitis from parthenium hysterophorus. 19744466007
compositae dermatitis in childhood.compositae dermatitis occurred in a 9-year-old boy with a strong personal and family history of atopy. positive patch test reactions were 2+ for dandelion (taraxacum officinale), false ragweed (ambrosia acanthicarpa), giant ragweed (ambrosia trifida), short ragweed (ambrosia artemisifolia), sagebrush (artemisia tridentata), wild feverfew (parthenium hysterophorus), yarrow (achillea millifolium), and tansy (tanacetum vulgare) and 1+ for dahlia species and english ivy (hedera helix). patch tests w ...19873827282
[photo-aggravated parthenium hysterophorus contact eczema]. 19883239926
effect of parthenin on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.the sesquiterpene lactone, 'parthenin' the toxic principle of the allergenic weed parthenium hysterophorus, inhibited 'state 3' respiration and stimulated 'state 4' respiration in rat liver and kidney mitochondria as well as atpase activity in the presence of mg2+ ions. these properties indicate that the toxic action of parthenin may be related to its interference with oxidative phosphorylation.19852932114
hypoglycemic effect of aqueous extract of parthenium hysterophorus l. in normal and alloxan induced diabetic study the effects of parthenium hysterophorus l. flower on serum glucose level in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats.200820040954
vermicomposting--an effective tool for the management of invasive weed parthenium hysterophorus.this study reports the results of vermicomposting with eisenia fetida of parthenium hysterophorus mixed with cow dung in different ratios (25%, 50% and 75%) in a 18 weeks experiment. in all the treatments, a decrease in ph, oc(total) and c:n ratio, but increase in ec, n(total), p(aval), ca(total), k(total) and heavy metals was recorded. the cocoons production and growth rate (biomass gain worm(-1) day(-1)) were maximum in 100% cow dung. the results indicated that parthenium can be a raw material ...201121392980
plant based antiamoebic drugs; part ii. amoebicidal activity of parthenin isolated from parthenium hysterophorus. 19882900531
airborne contact dermatitis from compositae plants in northern india.60 patients (45 male and 15 female) with suspected airborne contact dermatitis from compositae (asteraceae) plants and 20 age-matched controls (15 male and 5 female) were investigated. patch tests were performed with ethanolic plant extracts of 4 compositae plants, parthenium hysterophorus, chrysanthemum morifolium, dahlia pinnata and tagetes indica, all prevalent in northern india. 55 (92%) patients showed positive patch tests, with 35 (64%) demonstrating positive tests to extracts of only 1 of ...19892805654
immediate hypersensitivity to parthenium hysterophorus. i. association of hla antigens and parthenium rhinitis.lymphocytes collected from rhinitis subjects with strong positive skin reactions to the pollen allergens of parthenium hysterophorus (american feverfew) having moderate to high titres of parthenium-specific serum ige were analysed for association of hla-antigens covering 13 specificities of hla-a, 17 specificities of hla-b and eight specificities of hla-dr loci by the nih two-stage microlymphocytotoxicity assay. comparison of the phenotypic frequencies of hla-a and b antigens between parthenium ...19902253087
immediate hypersensitivity to parthenium hysterophorus. ii. clinical studies on the prevalence of parthenium rhinitis.the airborne pollen of the south american weed, parthenium hysterophorus (american feverfew), accidentally introduced into india was found to be responsible for severe allergic rhinitis. a random clinical survey conducted on 2035 residents of bangalore city with the aid of questionnaires and skin tests revealed that 7.1% of the study population was suffering from allergic rhinitis due to exposure to parthenium pollen. skin-prick tests performed on 1294 clinic patients suffering from nasobronchia ...19912021879
an antigen from parthenium hysterophorus linn.the increasing incidence of contact dermatitis due to the wild growth of the weed partheium hysterophorus linn. in many parts of india has prompted chemical analysis coupled with clinical testing to isolate the offending agent. results are present to show that parthenin, a sesquiterpene lactone, is the major antigen which produces contact dermatitis in sensitive human beings.19761021342
treatment of dermatitis from parthenin.composites and some other plants containing sesquiterpene lactones, frequently cause allergic contact dermatitis in man. no treatment is available to control this disease successfully. we have used an amino acid, cysteine, to treat allergic contact dermatitis in guinea pigs sensitized to parthenin, a major sesquiterpene lactone of an allergenic weed, parthenium hysterophorus l. cysteine treatment of the allergic reaction induced by parthenin resulted in (a) reduced time of recovery and (b) reduc ...19854042647
botanical briefs: the scourge of india--parthenium hysterophorus l. 200111204599
the potential of pathogens as biological control of parthenium weed (parthenium hysterophorus l.) in ethiopia.p. hsyterophorus is an exotic invasive annual weed now causing severe infestation in ethiopia. studies on diagnosis, incidence and distribution of pathogens associated with parthenium weed in ethiopia were carried out from 1998-2002. several fungal isolates were obtained from seed and other parts of parthenium plants. among them were putative pathogenic fungal species of the genus helminthosporium, phoma, curvularia, chaetomium, alternaria, and fusarium. however, pathogenecity test of the isolat ...200212696408
interference of three weed extracts on uptake of nutrient in three different varieties of paddy through radio tracer techniques.interference of three dominant weed extracts viz., ageratum conyzoides l., melilotus indica all. and parthenium hysterophorus l. were examined on seed germination, seedling growth, and nutrient uptake (32p and 65zn) in three different varieties (pd-10, pd-12 and pb) of paddy (oryza sativa l.). among the three different varieties irrespective of weed extracts, pd-10 and pd-12 were resistant and pb was susceptible in terms of seed germination, radicle length and plumule dry weight; and pd-12 and p ...200415907065
phosphorus availability to rice (oriza sativa l.)-wheat (triticum estivum l.) in a vertisol after eight years of inorganic and organic fertilizer additions.integrated use of inorganic fertilizer n and well decomposed cattle manure (cm) or 30-35 days old parthenium (parthenium hysterophorus l.), a weed grown off site as green manure (gm) under repeated applications of fertilizer p and urea n for eight years in a rice (oriza sativa l.)-wheat (triticum estivum l.) sequence was studied on transformation of fertilizer p applied to soil at the national research center for weed science, jabalpur, india. based on the results, it appeared that, repeated app ...200717067794
parthenium hysterophorus induced changes in neurotransmitter levels in mouse brain.parthenium hysterophorus (10 mg/0.1 ml/kg body weight) was administered daily to 20 adult male mice and levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine, noradrenaline and dopamine in total brain were quantified on days 31 and 61 after administration. all neurotransmitter levels were decreased significantly, with the effects more prominent in the later part of the experiment. the results suggest that parthenium hysterophorus interferes in the functioning of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis by impairing the biogeni ...200717106867
ethnomedicines used in trinidad and tobago for reproductive problems.throughout history women have tried to control or enhance their fertility using herbal remedies, with various levels of societal support. caribbean folk medicine has been influenced by european folk medicine, either through the early spanish and french settlers or through the continuous immigration of spanish-speaking peoples from venezuela. some folk uses are ancient and were documented by galen and pliny the elder.200717362507
discriminative feeding behaviour of anopheles gambiae s.s. on endemic plants in western kenya.anopheles gambiae giles s.s. (diptera: culicidae) is known to feed on plant sugars, but this is the first experimental study to consider whether it discriminates between plant species. thirteen perennial plant species were selected on the basis of their local availability within the vicinity of human dwellings and larval habitats of an. gambiae s.s. in western kenya. groups of 100 or 200 mosquitoes were released into cages either with a cutting of one plant type at a time (single-plant assay) or ...200717373953
acetylated pseudoguaianolides from parthenium hysterophorus and their cytotoxic activity.chemical examination of the flowers of parthenium hysterophorus has resulted in the isolation of four acetylated pseudoguaianolides along with several known constituents. the structures of the compounds were derived from detailed studies of their spectral (1d and 2d nmr and fabms) data and by comparison of the values with those of parthenin, a major known constituent of the plant. the cytotoxic activity of parthenin and the constituents was evaluated using jurkat (human: t lymphocyte; acute t ce ...200717570445
effect of discriminative plant-sugar feeding on the survival and fecundity of anopheles gambiae.a previous study showed for anopheles gambiae s.s. a gradation of feeding preference on common plant species growing in a malaria holoendemic area in western kenya. the present follow-up study determines whether there is a relationship between the mosquito's preferences and its survival and fecundity.200717711580
parthenium dermatitis.parthenium hysterophorus and tanacetum parthenium, members of the compositae family, are important causes of allergic contact dermatitis due to plants. parthenium dermatitis is a major problem in india and australia. parthenium hysterophorus causes a spectrum of clinical patterns. parthenium dermatitis, in its classical form known as airborne contact dermatitis, primarily affects the exposed areas and the flexures. other clinical patterns are a seborrheic pattern, widespread dermatitis, and exfo ...200718021597
contact dermatitis due to parthenium hysterophorus. 1978744635
[parthenium hysterophorus allergy. a weed problem in india (author's transl)].parthenium allergy is caused by direct and indirect contact with parthenium hysterophorus l. of the compositae family, accidentally introduced into india from the usa 20 years ago. its distribution was supported by the optimal environmental conditions of this country. it causes severe contact dermatitis in a lot of people, which becomes chronic after longer exposition. the source of the epidemic are the strong sensitizing sesquiterpene lactones parthenin, ambrosin and others, which are highly co ...1978755653
life history of paracoccus marginatus (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) on four host plant species under laboratory history of the mealybug, paracoccus marginatus williams and granara de willink, on three ornamental plants [hibiscus rosa-sinensis l., acalypha wilkesiana (muell.-arg.), and plumeria rubra l.] and one weed species (parthenium hysterophorus l.) was studied under laboratory conditions. mealybugs were able to develop, survive, and reproduce on all four hosts; however, there were differences in the life history parameters. adult females that developed on acalypha and parthenium emerged approxim ...200818559168
allergies in india: an analysis of 3389 patients attending an allergy clinic in mumbai, india.a total of 3389 consecutive patients attending the allergy clinic over a period of 5 years (2003-2007) were analysed by the same physician. males outnumbered females ie, 53.05% versus 46.95%.; 89.17% of the patients were adults and 10.83% were children. more than 80% of the patients were young, below 40 years of age. nasobronchial allergies viz, asthma, rhinitis or asthma with rhinitis formed the largest group of patients (76.9%). total serum ige levels were elevated in every patient (except in ...200818828339
seasonal variations of airborne pollen in allahabad, india.using a burkard 7-day volumetric sampler a survey of airborne pollen grains in allahabad was carried out from december 2004--november 2005 to assess the qualitative and quantitative occurrence of pollen grains during different months of the year, and to characterize the pollen seasons of dominant pollen types in the atmosphere of allahabad. 80 pollen types were identified out of the total pollen catch of 3,416.34 pollen grains/m(3). bulk of the pollen originated from anemophilous trees and grass ...200819061265
parthenium management by cultural filtrates of phytopathogenic the present study, herbicidal activity of culture filtrates of nine phytopathogenic fungi, namely, alternaria alternata (fr.) keissl., drechslera australiensis (bugnicourt) subramanian & jain, drechslera hawaiiensis (curtis and cooke) shoemaker, drechslera biseptata (saccardo & roumeguere) richardson & fraser., drechslera rostrata (drechsler) ricardson & fraser, fusarium oxysporum (massey) synd. & hans., fusarium solani (martius) saccardo., monilia stophila (montagne) and cladosporium sp. (gr ...200919844827
in vitro antimalarial activity and cytotoxicity of some selected cuban medicinal plants.terrestrial plants have been demonstrated to be sources of antimalarial compounds. in cuba, little is known about antimalarial potentials of plant species used as medicinals. for that reason, we evaluated the antimalarial activity of 14 plant species used in cuba as antimalarial, antipyretic and/or antiparasitic. hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared and tested in vitro for the antimalarial activity against plasmodium falciparum ghana strain and over human cell line mrc-5 to determine cytotoxici ...201021748227
Documentation and determination of consensus about phytotherapeutic veterinary practices among the Tharu tribal community of Uttar Pradesh, India.PURPOSE: The aim of the present investigation was to document the phytotherapeutic knowledge and veterinary healthcare management practices among the Tharu tribal community of Uttar Pradesh, India and to determine the consensus of such practices, in order to evaluate the potential for new veterinary drugs of herbal origin. METHODS: This study was conducted in 2000-2004 using semistructured, open-ended questionnaires, informal interviews and group discussions with farmers engaged in animal husban ...201121927989
toxicity of parthenium hysterophorus l. to cattle and buffaloes.parthenium hysterophorus l., when fed to buffalo bull calves and cross bred bull calves resulted in acute toxicity leading to death. the former animals developed severe dermatitis. autopsy revealed ulceration of alimentary tract. extensive pathological changes were noticed in liver, kidney and skin.1977908415
immunological characteristics of pep carboxylase from leaves of c3-, c4- and c3-c4 intermediate species of alternanthera--comparison with selected c3- and c4- plants.immunological cross-reactivity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (pepc) in leaf extracts of c3-, c4- and c3-c4 intermediate species of alternanthera (along with a few other c3- and c4- plants) was studied using anti-pepc antibodies raised against pepc of amaranthus hypochondriacus (belonging to the same family as that of alternanthera, namely amaranthaceae). antibodies were also raised in rabbits against the purified pepc from zea mays (c4- monocot-poaceae) as well as alternanthera pungens (c4- ...200112019756
effects of fungal infection on feeding and survival of anopheles gambiae (diptera: culicidae) on plant sugars.the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae shows great promise for the control of adult malaria vectors. a promising strategy for infection of mosquitoes is supplying the fungus at plant feeding sites.201525600411
the invasive american weed parthenium hysterophorus can negatively impact malaria control in africa.the direct negative effects of invasive plant species on agriculture and biodiversity are well known, but their indirect effects on human health, and particularly their interactions with disease-transmitting vectors, remains poorly explored. this study sought to investigate the impact of the invasive neotropical weed parthenium hysterophorus and its toxins on the survival and energy reserves of the malaria vector anopheles gambiae. in this study, we compared the fitness of an. gambiae fed on thr ...201526367123
rapid nectar-meal effects on a predator's capacity to kill mosquitoes.using evarcha culicivora, an east african jumping spider (salticidae), we investigate how nectar meals function in concert with predation specifically at the juvenile stage between emerging from the egg sac and the first encounter with prey. using plants and using artificial nectar consisting of sugar alone or sugar plus amino acids, we show that the plant species (lantana camara, ricinus communis, parthenium hysterophorus), the particular sugars in the artificial nectar (sucrose, fructose, gluc ...201526064651
differential gene expression profile in pseudomonas putida nbric19-treated wheat (triticum aestivum) plants subjected to biotic stress of parthenium hysterophorus.the inoculation of pseudomonas putida nbric19 protected wheat plant from phytotoxic effect of parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium) and enhanced root length, shoot length, dry weight, spike length and chlorophyll content. with the aim to screen for genes differentially expressed in p. putida nbric19-inoculated wheat grown along with parthenium (wpt), the suppression subtractive hybridization (ssh) methodology was employed. the ssh analysis was performed with wpc (uninoculated wheat grown along w ...201424407601
glyphosate-resistant weeds of south american cropping systems: an overview.herbicide resistance is an evolutionary event resulting from intense herbicide selection over genetically diverse weed populations. in south america, orchard, cereal and legume cropping systems show a strong dependence on glyphosate to control weeds. the goal of this report is to review the current knowledge on cases of evolved glyphosate-resistant weeds in south american agriculture. the first reports of glyphosate resistance include populations of highly diverse taxa (lolium multiflorum lam., ...200818161884
screening of endophytic streptomycetes isolated from parthenium hysterophorus l. against nosocomial pathogens.parthenium hysterophorus l. is an obnoxious weed of the family asteraceae recognized for its detrimental effects and significant economic losses to agriculture. in this study 42 endophytic streptomycetes strains were isolated from its roots and leaves. the isolates were identified by morphological, microscopic, biochemical and physiological characterization as members of genus streptomyces. in 16s rrna gene sequencing the selected isolates exhibited maximum similarity with streptomyces rochei (9 ...201323455197
allelopathic effect of parthenium (parthenium hysterophorus l.) extract and residue on some agronomic crops and weeds.allelopathic effects of entire shoot extract, plant part extracts, and shoot residue of parthenium (parthenium hysterophorus l.) on corn (zea mays l.), ryegrass (lolium multiflorum lam.), wheat (triticum aestivum l.), velvetleaf (abutilon theophrasti medik.), and soybean [glycine max (l) merr.] growth were examined. parthenium shoot contained water-soluble materials that were toxic to root growth of velvetleaf and wheat. at 4% (w/ v) concentration, root growth of velvetleaf and wheat were reduce ...198724302341
bio-fabrication of zinc oxide nanoparticles using leaf extract of parthenium hysterophorus l. and its size-dependent antifungal activity against plant fungal pathogens.the study reports the synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanoparticles from weed plant by a novel method. the aim of this work is to synthesize zinc oxide nanoparticles from parthenium hysterophorus l. by inexpensive, ecofriendly and simple method. highly stable, spherical and hexagonal zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by using different concentrations of 50% and 25% parthenium leaf extracts. both the concentrations of the leaf extract act as reducing and capping agent for con ...201323686093
inhibition of helicobacter pylori growth and its colonization factors by parthenium hysterophorus extracts.parthenium hysterophorus (asteraceae) is a traditional medicinal plant used to treat gastrointestinal disorders, such as gastritis. helicobacter pylori have been described as the etiological agent of gastritis, peptic ulcer, as well as gastric adenocarcinoma. 50% of the world's population is infected with this bacterium and the current therapy fails due to the increment in antibiotic resistance; therefore, it is necessary to find new approaches to control h. pylori infection, either by its eradi ...201526297842
occurrence of a snail borne disease, cercarial dermatitis (swimmer itch) in doon valley (uttarakhand), india.'cercarial dermatitis' also known as swimmers itch (skin allergies) is caused by a trematode parasite, schistosoma which has two hosts - an invertebrate (snail) and a vertebrate (livestock, human being). although the availability of both vector snails and pathogens at the selected site the doon valley in northern india has already been confirmed but there was a hazy picture of the disease, whether it is due to entrance of cercariae or due to wild variety of grass (parthenium hysterophorus). the ...201426060739
pesticidal properties of parthenin (from parthenium hysterophorus) and related compounds.eleven sesquiterpene lactone derivatives of parthenin (1), obtained from wild feverfew, parthenium hysterophorus, were prepared by chemical and photochemical transformations. the compounds tested were a pyrazoline adduct (2) of parthenin, its cyclopropyl (3) and propenyl (4) derivatives, anhydroparthenin (5), a dihydro-deoxygenated product (6), a formate (7) and its corresponding alcohol (8) and acetate (9), a rearranged product (10), lactone (11) and hemiacetal (12). all these derivatives, alon ...200111455638
air-borne contact dermatitis in varanasi.forty-six patients suspected to have air borne contact dermatitis were tested with various plant antigens. thirteen patients turned out to be sensitive to one or more antigens. the plant antigens, used for testing, were parthenium hysterophorus, lantana camara, cynodon dactylon, bougainvaled spectabills, calotropis procera, argimone mexicana, acacia arabica, azadiracha indica, eucalyptus rostrata, saraka indica, triticum vulgare, triticum aestivum, dryopteris filix, nerium indicum, eclipta alba, ...201728150592
Clinical evaluation of patients patch tested with plant series: a prospective study.Plants are ubiquitous in nature and are essential for human life, though some do have detrimental effects. In India, there are various indigenous and foreign plants that are well known to cause dermatitis, Parthenium hysterophorus being the foremost.201121965844
allergic reactivity to parthenium hysterophorus pollen: an elisa study of 582 sera from the united states gulf coast.parthenium hysterophorus (ph) is a ubiquitous weed found in the u.s. gulf coast. in this study, 582 sera, contributed by 22 physicians from 18 gulf coast cities, were examined by elisa for ige directed against determinants in an aqueous extract of ph pollen, and these were compared to an extract of western ragweed (ambrosia psilostachya [ap]). overall, 65.6% of the sera tested were positive for one or both of the pollen extracts examined. thirty-five percent of the sera were sensitive to ph and ...20082474593
reaginic allergy to parthenium pollen: evaluation by skin test and rast.the pollen of parthenium hysterophorus, an alien weed growing wild in india was found to be a potential source of allergic rhinitis. a clinical survey showed that 34% of the patients suffering from rhinitis and 12% suffering from bronchial asthma gave positive skin-prick test reactions to parthenium pollen antigen extracts. parthenium-specific ige was detected in the sera of sixteen out of twenty-four patients suffering from seasonal rhinitis. there was 66% correlation between skin test and rast ...20144053335
toxicity of six plant extracts and two pyridone alkaloids from ricinus communis against the malaria vector anopheles gambiae.the african malaria vector, anopheles gambiae s.s., is known to feed selectively on certain plants for sugar sources. however, the adaptive significance of this behaviour especially on how the extracts of such plants impact on the fitness of this vector has not been explored. this study determined the toxicity and larvicidal activity on this vector of extracts from six selected plants found in kenya and two compounds identified from ricinus communis: 3-carbonitrile-4-methoxy-n-methyl-2-pyridone ...201424996560
behavioural response of the malaria vector anopheles gambiae to host plant volatiles and synthetic blends.sugar feeding is critical for survival of malaria vectors and, although discriminative plant feeding previously has been shown to occur in anopheles gambiae s.s., little is known about the cues mediating attraction to these plants. in this study, we investigated the role of olfaction in an. gambiae discriminative feeding behaviour.201223069316
orientation of anopheles gambiae (diptera: culicidae) to plant-host volatiles in a novel diffusion-cage olfactometer.a novel diffusion-cage olfactometer tested the responses of anopheles gambiae giles to plant volatiles. green-leaf volatiles are often released from cut or injured plant tissue and may alter the headspace of plants used in olfactometer assays. the diffusion-cage olfactometer is designed for use with whole, intact plants, hence giving a more realistic behavioral assay. its simple plastic construction, ease of assembly, and accommodation to whole plants makes it a useful tool for measuring mosquit ...201526502752
in vitro antibacterial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of parthenium hysterophorus and characterization of extracts by lc-ms analysis.present work reports the biological activities of p. hysterophorus leaf, stem, flower, and root. dried samples were sequentially extracted with many solvents. hexane (hx), benzene (bz), and chloroform (ch) extracts of leaf showed considerable antibacterial activity against streptococcus mutans (mtcc 497), proteus vulgaris (mtcc 7299), and salmonella typhi (mtcc 3917). flower extracts exhibited presence of higher amount of flavonoids (13.9-59.6 μgqe/mg) followed by leaf, stem, and root. stem (hx, ...201424895583
allelopathic effect of four weed species extracts on germination, growth and protein in different varieties of glycine max (l.) merrill.allelopathic effect of ageratum conyzoides l., cynodon dactylon (l.) pers., parthenium hysterophorus l., and solanum nigrum l. were examined on seed germination, seedling growth, total protein content and protein profile on ankur, bhatt, bragg, pk -416, ps-1042 and shilajeet varieties of soybean (glycine max (l) merill). aqueous extracts of weeds (10% w/v) showed both inhibitory and stimulatory influence on percent seed germination and seedling growth in different varieties of soybean. on the ba ...200617402252
phytotoxicity of the volatile monoterpene citronellal against some weeds.a study was undertaken to assess the phytotoxicity of citronellal, an oxygenated monoterpenoid with an aldehyde group, towards some weedy species [ageratum conyzoides l., chenopodium album l., parthenium hysterophorus l., malvastrum coromandelianum (l.), garcke, cassia occidentalis l. and phalaris minor retz.]. a significant effect on weed emergence and early seedling growth was observed in a dose-response based laboratory bioassay in a sand culture. emergence of all test weeds was completely in ...200916869489
effect of parthenin--a sesquiterpene lactone from parthenium hysterophorus--on early growth and physiology of ageratum conyzoides.a study was undertaken to assess the effect of parthenin--a sesquiterpene lactone from parthenium hysterophorus--on the germination, growth, and some associated physiological changes in ageratum conyzoides. the study reveals that germination and growth of a. conyzoides was severely reduced by parthenin in the concentration range of 50, 100, and 200 microm, while at 400 microm a complete inhibition of germination was observed. the radicle length of a. conyzoides was reduced more than the plumule ...200212523560
analysis of the free amino acid content in pollen of nine asteraceae species of known allergenic activity.the study reports the free amino acid composition of the pollen of nine members of the family asteraceae, i.e. ageratum conyzoides l., blumea oxyodonta dc., eupatorium odoratum l., gnaphalium indicum l., mikania scandens willd., parthenium hysterophorus l., spilanthes acmella murr., vernonia cinerea (l.) lees. and xanthium strumarium l. by thin layer chromatography. the amino acid content was found to vary from 0.5-4.0% of the total dry weight. fourteen amino acids were identified, among which a ...19989852488
genetic diversity of subgroup 1 ilarviruses from eastern australia.this is the first report of the genetic diversity within ilarvirus subgroup 1 from eastern australia. it supports the separation of tobacco streak virus (tsv) strains from parthenium (parthenium hysterophorus) and crownbeard (verbescina encelioides) based on serology and host specificity. it has confirmed one previously described strain of tsv as a member of the species strawberry necrotic shock virus and another as a new subgroup 1 ilarvirus, ageratum latent virus (aglv), from ageratum houstoni ...201323474983
estimation of anticipated performance index and air pollution tolerance index and of vegetation around the marble industrial areas of potwar region: bioindicators of plant pollution response.mitigating industrial air pollution is a big challenge, in such scenario screening of plants as a bio monitor is extremely significant. it requires proper selection and screening of sensitive and tolerant plant species which are bio indicator and sink for air pollution. the present study was designed to evaluate the air pollution tolerance index (apti) and anticipated performance index (api) of the common flora. fifteen common plant species from among trees, herb and shrubs i.e. chenopodium albu ...201525503327
pseudomonas putida nbric19 dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase (sucb) gene controls degradation of toxic allelochemicals produced by parthenium hysterophorus.the aim of this study was to identify the gene responsible for degradation of toxic allelochemicals of parthenium by generating tn5-induced mutant of pseudomonas putida nbric19. furthermore, the study characterizes the mutant at physiological, biochemical and molecular level that helped in understanding the mechanisms of reducing the allelopathic inhibition of parthenium by ps. putida nbric19.201222324517
reduction of antigen exposure time in patch tests to 24 hours.results of patch tests obtained with 24 hour and 48 hour occlusion periods using antigen impregnated-discs' (aid) and antigen-containing-saucers(acs) were studied in 168 patients. of the 411 patches appr, 4 the results in 400 (97.3210/o) patch tests were concordant (91 positive and 309 negative reactions with both the 24 hour and the 48 hour occlusions tests), while 10 patch test reactions were positive only with 48 hour occlusion, and 1 patch test reaction were positive only with 24 hour occlus ...201728145385
biotechnological potential of endophytic actinomycetes associated with asteraceae plants: isolation, biodiversity and bioactivities.endophytic actinomycetes from five asteraceae plants were isolated and evaluated for their bioactivities. from parthenium hysterophorus, ageratum conyzoides, sonchus oleraceus, sonchus asper and hieracium canadense, 42, 45, 90, 3, and 2 isolates, respectively, were obtained. of the isolates, 86 (47.2 %) showed antimicrobial activity. majority of the isolates were recovered from the roots (n = 127, 69.7 %). the dominant genus was streptomyces (n = 96, 52.7 %), while amycolatopsis, pseudonocardia, ...201424375232
investigating a potential auxin-related mode of hormetic/inhibitory action of the phytotoxin parthenin.parthenin is a metabolite of parthenium hysterophorus and is believed to contribute to the weed's invasiveness via allelopathy. despite the potential of parthenin to suppress competitors, low doses stimulate plant growth. this biphasic action was hypothesized to be auxin-like and, therefore, an auxin-related mode of parthenin action was investigated using two approaches: joint action experiments with lactuca sativa, and dose-response experiments with auxin/antiauxin-resistant arabidopsis thalian ...201626686984
rhamnolipids production by multi-metal-resistant and plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria.the biosurfactant-producing pseudomonas aeruginosa a11, with plant-growth-promoting (pgp) and multi-metal-resistant (mmr) features was isolated from the rhizosphere of a wild plant parthenium hysterophorus. the strain a11 was able to utilize glycerol as a carbon source and produce 4,436.9 mg/l of biosurfactant after 120 h of incubation. the biosurfactants was characterized as rhamnolipids (rls) by thin layer chromatography, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and ...201323640260
survival value and sugar access of four east african plant species attractive to a laboratory strain of sympatric anopheles gambiae (diptera: culicidae).mosquitoes derive energy from plant sugar, thereby promoting survival and reproduction. its survival value to females plays a key role in the vectorial capacity of mosquito populations. previous olfactometry assays of responsiveness demonstrated that senna didymobotrya fresenius, parthenium hysterophorus, l. senna occidentalis, (l) and lantana camara l were among the most attractive plants for the mbita strain of anopheles gambiae s.s. giles in eastern africa. here, we provide experimental evide ...201627247348
molecular typing of mealybug phenacoccus solenopsis populations from different hosts and locations in punjab, india.true identity and existence of genetic variability in mealy bug from different regions holds immense significance for adopting appropriate control measures along with predicting the development of any biotypes. mealy bug, phenacoccus solenopsis adults were collected from four host plants i.e., gossypium hirsutum--cotton (c), abelmoschus esculentus--okra (o), pennisetum glaucum--napier bajra (b) and a weed--parthenium hysterophorus (p) in five cotton growing districts i.e., abohar, bathinda, mans ...201223029900
evaluation of glycosyl hydrolases from thermophilic fungi for their potential in bioconversion of alkali and biologically treated parthenium hysterophorus weed and rice straw into ethanol.the aim of this work was to evaluate glycosyl hydrolases produced by diverse thermophilic fungal strains for saccharification of alkali and biologically (trametes hirusita/myrothecium roridum) treated parthenium hysterophorus and rice straw. the compositional analysis of hydrolysates by hplc showed distinct profiles of hexose, pentose and oligomeric sugars. malbranchea cinnamomea was most efficient source of glycosyl hydrolases producing 283.8, 35.9, 129.6, 27,193, 4.66, 7.26(units/gds) of endog ...201424835742
vermicomposting transforms allelopathic parthenium into a benign organic fertilizer.vermicompost, which had been derived solely by the action of the epigeic earthworm eisenia fetida on parthenium (parthenium hysterophorus), was tested for its impact on the germination and early growth of green gram (vigna radiata), ladies finger (abelmoschus esculentus) and cucumber (cucumis sativus). seedlings were germinated and grown in soil amended with 0 (control), 0.75, 1.5, 2, 4, 8, 20 and 40% (by weight) parthenium vermicompost. even though parthenium is known to possess strong negative ...201627233043
allergic reactivity to parthenium hysterophorus pollen: an unrecognized type i allergen. 20102958310
are the microcyclic rust species puccinia melampodii and puccinia xanthii conspecific?the taxonomic relationship between two microcyclic rust species, puccinia melampodii and puccinia xanthii, recorded from a number of asteraceae hosts, was explored by comparing teliospore morphology, host specificity and sequence data. teliospore morphology varied between and within individual rust accessions but, in general, teliospores of p. xanthii were larger than those of p. melampodii. field observations and cross-inoculation greenhouse studies showed that p. melampodii accessions were hig ...200919695329
impact of parthenium hysterophorus leaf extracts on the fecundity, fertility and behavioural response of aedes aegypti l.different extracts of 1,000 ppm were prepared from the leaves of parthenium hysterophorus using acetone, benzene, petroleum ether, diethyl ether and hexane as the solvents. the efficacy of each extract was assessed against dengue fever vector, aedes aegypti by evaluating the variations in fecundity, fertility and behavioural response of the female adults. the leaf extracts could cause 70-100% repellency in the oviposition behaviour of the adults. the diethyl ether extract was found to be the mos ...201120978787
fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy: reliable techniques for analysis of parthenium mediated vermicompost.fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ft-ir) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy have been carried out to investigate the chemical composition of parthenium mediated vermicompost. four different concentrations of parthenium and cow dung mixtures were vermicomposted using the earthworms (eudrilus eugeniae). ft-ir spectra reveal the absence of parthenin toxin (sesquiterpene lactone) and phenols in vermicompost which was obtained from high concentration of cow dung mixed treatments. gc-ms a ...201323998948
performance of a commercially available plant allergen series in the assessment of suspected occupational contact dermatitis to plants in north indian patients.parthenium hysterophorus is the leading cause of phytogenic allergic contact dermatitis in india. the indian standard series currently supplied by systopic laboratories ltd and manufactured by chemotechnique diagnostics ® contains parthenolide as the only allergen representing plant allergens.201525937142
conservation of soil, water and nutrients in surface runoff using riparian plant species.three riparian plant species viz. cynodon dactylon (l.) pers., saccharum bengalensis retz. and parthenium hysterophorus l. were selected from the riparian zone of kali river at aligarh to conduct the surface runoff experiment to compare their conservation efficiencies for soil, water and nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen). experimental plots were prepared on artificial slopes in botanical garden and on natural slopes on study site. selected riparian plant species showed the range of conservatio ...201223033642
[compositae dermatitis].compositae dermatitis is an allergic contact dermatitis caused by plant species of the compositae family. the first report of a cutaneous reaction to the chrysanthemum genus was made by howe js in 1887. in 1895 maiden jh reported about skin lesions among men working with tagetes minuta. case reports of contact allergic-ragweed dermatitis appeared in the american literature as early as 1919. the north american feverfew--parthenium hysterophorus was brought to india from america in 1956 and it cau ...200912793186
vermiremediation: detoxification of parthenin toxin from parthenium weeds.the aim of this work is the production of parthenin toxin (sesquiterpene lactone) free vermicompost from parthenium hysterophorus l. five different concentration of p. hysterophorus and cow dung mixtures were vermicomposted using eudrilus eugeniae. parthenium mediated vermicompost showed an increase in plant nutrition, but decrease in organic carbon and phenol contents when it was compared to initial feed mixtures. the 30-35% of organic carbon and 32-48% of phenol contents were reduced during ve ...201324076572
assessment of different organic supplements for degradation of parthenium hysterophorus by vermitechnology.globally, there are a number of treatments indicated for the control of invasive alien plant species like parthenium. the production and use of vermicomposts from weeds or other wastes in agriculture is economical and eco-friendly. the unique advantage of using vermicomposting is that it helps to build and sustain soil condition and fertility for sustainable agricultural activities. the present study was an attempt to produce the vermicompost from parthenium, farm and animal wastes and to analyz ...201525988005
impact of parthenium weeds on earthworms (eudrilus eugeniae) during vermicomposting.the aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of parthenium-mediated compost on eudrilus eugeniae during the process of vermicomposting. nine different concentrations of parthenium hysterophorus and cow dung mixtures were used to assess toxicity. the earthworms' growth, fecundity and antioxidant enzyme levels were analysed every 15 days. the antioxidant activities of enzymes [superoxide dismutase (sod), catalase (cat) and glutathione peroxidase (gpx)], considered as biomarkers, indicate the bio ...201424938809
herbicidal effects of extracts and residue incorporation of datura metel against parthenium weed.the present study was designed to evaluate the herbicidal activity of datura metel against the noxious weed parthenium (parthenium hysterophorus l.). in a laboratory bioassay, the effect of aqueous, methanol and n-hexane shoot and root extracts of 5, 10, 15 and 20% w/v (on a fresh weight basis) concentration of d. metel were tested against the germination and seedling growth of parthenium. both aqueous and methanol extracts markedly suppressed the germination and seedling growth of parthenium. g ...201020812130
harmful and beneficial aspects of parthenium hysterophorus: an update.parthenium hysterophorus is a noxious weed in america, asia, africa and australia. this weed is considered to be a cause of allergic respiratory problems, contact dermatitis, mutagenicity in human and livestock. crop production is drastically reduced owing to its allelopathy. also aggressive dominance of this weed threatens biodiversity. eradication of p. hysterophorus by burning, chemical herbicides, eucalyptus oil and biological control by leaf-feeding beetle, stem-galling moth, stem-boring we ...201122558530
microbial production, ultrasound-assisted extraction and characterization of biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (phb) from terrestrial (p. hysterophorus) and aquatic (e. crassipes) invasive weeds.this study reports synthesis of biodegradable poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (phb) polymer from two invasive weeds, viz. p. hysterophorus and e. crassipes. the pentose and hexose-rich hydrolyzates obtained from acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of two biomasses were separately fermented using ralstonia eutropha mtcc 8320 sp. phb was extracted using sonication and was characterized using ftir, (1)h and (13)c nmr and xrd. phb content of dry cell mass was 8.1-21.6% w/w, and the phb yield was 6.85 ...201728366692
inhibition of salvinia (salvinia molesta mitchell) by parthenium (parthenium hysterophorus l.). ii. relative effect of flower, leaf, stem, and root residue on salvinia and paddy.the relative effect of parthenium (parthenium hysterophorus l.) plant residue on growth of salvinia and paddy seedlings was studied. the inhibitory activity of the residue as shown by its effect on the number of healthy fronds (hfn) and biomass was in the order: flower and leaf > stem and root. the flower (fp) and leaf (lp) residue was lethal at and above 0.75% (w/v, the convention used throughout), and inhibitory at lower doses. the stem (sp) and root (rp) residue supported growth of salvinia a ...199424241981
contact dermatitis due to plants in chandigarh.two hundred and seven patients (151 males and 56 females) were patch tested with a battery of plants, potassium dichromate and formaldehyde. sensitivity to parthenium hysterophorus. nerium indicum, calotropis procera, eucalyptus sp and mangifera indica was found in 60.87, 23.64, 15.46 andl2.08% patients respectively. one hundred and twenty six patients (92 males and 34 females ) including five teenage girls and one 13 years old child had parthenium dermatitis. majority (74.60%) were between 30 t ...201728145295
introduction, establishment, and potential geographic range of carmenta sp. nr ithacae (lepidoptera: sesiidae), a biological control agent for parthenium hysterophorus (asteraceae) in australia.parthenium (parthenium hysterophorus l.), a major weed causing economic, environmental, and human and animal health problems in australia and several countries in asia, africa, and the pacific, has been a target for biological control in australia since the mid-1970s. nine species of insects and two rust fungi have been introduced as biological control agents into australia. these include carmenta sp. nr ithacae, a root feeding agent from mexico. the larvae of c. sp. nr ithacae bore through the ...201222507004
traditional knowledge on poisonous plants of udhampur district of jammu and kashmir, india.poisonous plants comprise the third largest category of poisons known around the world. other than affecting the humans directly, they are the major cause of economic losses in the livestock industry since the advent of civilisation. aim of the present study was to collect and systematically document the traditional knowledge of poisonous plants of udhampur district for the benefit of humanity before it is entombed forever.201424412380
phytoaccumulation of heavy metals in natural plants thriving on wastewater effluent at hattar industrial estate, pakistan.the objective of this research was to compare the potential of native plants for the phytoaccumulation of heavy metals (hm). thirteen predominant plant species (including trees, bushes and grasses) namely ricinus communis, ipomoea carnea, cannabis sativa, parthenium hysterophorus, acacia nilotica, dalbergia sissoo, acacia modesta, solanum nigrum, xanthium stromarium, chenopodium album, cynodon dactylon, eleusine indica, and dactyloctenium aegyptium were collected from the wastewater originated f ...201525254600
bio-control potential of cladosporium sp. (mcpl-461), against a noxious weed parthenium hysterophorus l.the phenological survey of parthenium hysterophorus l., in and around the campus of banaras hindu university (bhu) was done for about two years (2004-06). during nov 2004, a few parthenium plants were found diseased, and symptoms were restricted to the flowers, buds, and inflorescences. the disease causes sterility and reduces seed viability, which was observed with seed germination test from infected and healthy plants. the fungal pathogen was isolated and identified as cladosporium sp. (mcpl-4 ...200920121037
Displaying items 1 - 99 of 99