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detection of leishmania within sand flies by kinetoplast dna hybridization.a kinetoplast dna hybridization probe method was used to detect leishmania within sand flies and to distinguish it from the non-pathogenic flagellate, endotrypanum. eighty-one sand flies (74 lutzomyia umbratilis, 1 lu. anduzei, and 6 lu. shannoni) collected outside manaus, brazil were dissected. forty-four of these were found to be infected with flagellates, and 2 hybridized with a leishmania braziliensis probe. thirty-three of sixty-one flies reprobed with an endotrypanum probe were positive.19882848422
leishmaniasis in brazil. xxv. sandfly vectors of leishmania in pará state, brazil.leishmania of the braziliensis complex were isolated from various members of the squamiventris series sandflies, including psychodopygus chagasi (costa lima), p.s.maripaensis (ready et al.), p.s.squamiventris (lutz & neiva), and also p.ayrozai (barreto & coutinho) and lutzomyia umbratilis ward & fraiha. three different serodemes of le.b.guyanensis floch were isolated from lu.anduzei rozeboom, lu.umbratilis and lu.whitmani antunes & coutinho, simultaneously captured in the same area. unidentified ...19872979555
first venezuelan record of lutzomyia umbratilis ward & fraiha, 1977 (diptera: psychodidae), a proven vector of leishmania braziliensis guyanensis. 19853832500
flagellate infections of brazilian sand flies (diptera: psychodidae): isolation in vitro and biochemical identification of endotrypanum and leishmania.flagellate infections were found in 1,063 of 18,895 sand flies collected in the states of amazonas, pará, rondonia and acre, brazil. infection rates were 13.4% (species group shannoni); 7.5% (subgenus nyssomyia); 6.7% (subgenus lutzomyia series cruciata); 0.5% (genus psychodopygus) and 3.1% for other sand flies (various subgenera). leishmania braziliensis guyanensis and l. mexicana amazonensis were isolated, respectively, from the known vectors, lutzomyia umbratilis and l. flaviscutellata. singl ...19853938924
a pilot study to control lutzomyia umbratilis (diptera:psychodidae), the major vector of leishmania braziliensis guyanensis, in a peri-urban rainforest of manaus, amazonas state, brazil.in the second half of 1980, 112 (or ca. 16%) of the inhabitants of the new settlement of são josé, city of manaus, contracted cutaneous leishmaniasis whilst clearing their properties of terra firme rainforest. with the aid of sucam, the authors carried out a pilot study to investigate the feasibility of reducing populations of lutzomyia umbratilis, the local silvatic vector of leishmania braziliensis guyanensis, by spraying insecticide on its favoured diurnal resting sites, the bases of the larg ...19854088044
hosts of sandfly vectors of leishmania braziliensis guyanensis in the central amazon of brazil.the blood meals of 2,569 phlebotomine sandflies from areas endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis in the central amazon of brazil were tested by the microcapillary precipitin method to determine their vertebrate hosts. the two-toed sloth, choloepus didactylus, was the predominant host of two incriminated vectors of leishmania braziliensis guyanensis in the region, lutzomyia umbratilis and lu. anduzei (64.0% and 63.6%, respectively). the lu. "shannoni" group, a complex of several species in which fe ...19827072886
epidemiology of leishmaniasis in french guiana.lutzomyia umbratilis is confirmed as the vector of leishmania braziliensis guyanensis, the cause of "pian bois" in man in french guiana. although spending most of the year in the forest canopy, this sandfly is abundant at ground level for about two weeks at the beginning of the long rainy season. the maximum number of infective bites per man per hour (3.9) was reached at the end of november 1979. infections were found in one of seven potos flavus, seven of 15 choleopus didactylus and two of 19 r ...19827080142
leishmaniasis in brazil: xvi. isolation and identification of leishmania species from sandflies, wild mammals and man in north para state, with particular reference to l. braziliensis guyanensis causative agent of "pian-bois".a total of 125 wild mammals (14 different species) were examined for evidence of infection with leishmania in an area of primary forest highly endemic for "pian-bois", due to leishmania braziliensis guyanensis, in north pará state, brazil. parasites isolated were characterized biologically, and biochemically on enzymic profiles. l. b. guyanensis was isolated from the viscera of one lesser anteater (tamandua tetradactyla) and one opossum (didelphis marsupialis), and the skin of one rodent (proech ...19817324128
the opossum, didelphis marsupialis (marsupialia: didelphidae), as a reservoir host of leishmania braziliensis guyanensis in the amazon basin of brazil.a total of 52 opossums (six species) were examined for evidence of infection with leishmania in three different areas of forest near manaus, amazonas state, brazil. no infections were detected in 27 opossums from a region of relatively undisturbed forest, including specimens of didelphis marsupialis (18); metachirus nudicaudatus (four); monodelphis brevicaudata (one); marmosa cinerea (two); m. murina (one) and m. parvidens (one). of 15 d. marsupialis captured from a biological reserve, much dist ...19817324129
distribution of sandflies (diptera:psychodidae) on tree-trunks in a non-flooded area of the ducke forest reserve, manaus, am, brazil.sandflies were collected in the base of tree-trunks in the seasons of high and least rainfall in the ducke forest reserve, near manaus in the state of amazonas. lutzomyia umbratilis was the most abundant sandfly species. caryocar villosum, chrysophyllum amazonicum, dinizia excelsa, eschweilera atropetiolata and parkia multijuga were the tree species on which most sandflies were collected and relative abundance were related to trunk characteristics. seasonal patterns of sandfly distribution in th ...199910348977
[sandflies (diptera, psychodidae) in a secondary forest area in the paco do lumiar city, maranhao, brazil: a leishmaniasis transmission area].this paper analyzes the wealth of species, relative abundance, seasonal fluctuation, and nocturnal activity of sandflies. the field survey was conducted in a "capoeira" (secondary forest) area in the county of paço do lumiar, maranhão, where cutaneous and transmission of visceral leishmaniasis frequently occurs. sandflies were captured by cdc-type light traps from 6:00 pm to 6:00 am, once a month, from march 1997 to february 1998. a total of 489 specimens were collected (251 males and 238 female ...200010738174
first report of lutzomyia (nyssomyia) umbratilis ward & frahia, 1977 outside of amazonian region, in recife, state of pernambuco, brazil (diptera: psychodidae: phlebotominae).lutzomyia umbratilis, a known vector of leishmania guyanensis in the north of amazon basin, has been exclusively found in the amazonian region. here we report for the first time the occurrence of this species in northeastern brazil. the epidemiological importance of the occurrence of this species in the atlantic forest is commented.200111313636
american cutaneous leishmaniasis in guyana, south america.the 185 patients who presented at the dermatology clinic of georgetown public hospital, guyana, between 1992 and 1998, with skin ulcers indicative of american cutaneous leishmaniasis (acl) were retrospectively reviewed. the laboratory-confirmed cases of acl were identified and the corresponding data were analysed for risk factors such as age, gender, areas of residence and of possible exposure to the causative agent (leishmania braziliensis guyanensis), ethnic origin, longevity of the ulcers, an ...200111339884
[vertical stratification of phlebotomine sandfly fauna (diptera, psychodidae) in a primary non-flooded forest of the central amazon, amazonas state, brazil].studies on the vertical stratification of phlebotomine sandfly fauna were conducted in a non-flooded primary forest at a tropical forest experimental station of the national institute of amazonian research from october 1998 to march 1999. cdc light traps were placed at one, 10, and 20 meters above ground. a total of 2,859 sandflies were captured, belonging to the lutzomyia (99.93%) and brumtomyia (0.07%) genera, represented by 38 species. in the lutzomyia gender, the most frequent sub-gender was ...200212048608
comparative studies of populations of lutzomyia umbratilis (diptera: psychodidae) in brazil and venezuela.we analyzed 64 quantitative and qualitative morphological characters in different populations of lutzomyia (nyssomyia) umbratilis ward & fraiha from venezuela (gran sabana, bolívar/bo) and brazil (serra do navio, amapá/ap manaus, amazonas/am, monte dourado, pará/ pa, and peixoto de azevedo, mato grosso/mt). based on an analysis of qualitative characters, no differences were observed that could distinguish between the populations. parametric tests were used to verify differences between sample me ...200212144289
comparative biology of two populations of lutzomyia umbratilis (diptera: psychodidae) of central amazonia, brazil, under laboratory conditions.lutzomyia umbratilis is the main vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to leishmania guyanensis in northern south america. it has been found naturally infected with this species of leishmania only east of the rio negro and north of the rio amazonas. however, populations of this sand fly species are also present in areas south of the amazon river system, which may act as a geographical barrier to the leishmania guyanensis cycle. with the aim of looking for possible biological differences between ...200415462295
feeding preference of the sand flies lutzomyia umbratilis and l. spathotrichia (diptera: psychodidae, phlebotominae) in an urban forest patch in the city of manaus, amazonas, brazil.precipitin tests were performed on blood meals of 199 sand flies (161 lutzomyia umbratilis, 34 l. spathotrichia, two lutzomyia of group shannoni, one l. anduzei) in a non-flooded upland forest on the campus of the universidade federal do amazonas. this is the second largest forest fragment in an urban setting in brazil. results on l. umbratilis, which is considered to be the principal leishmaniasis vector in this region, indicated rodents as its predominant blood source in contrast to previous r ...200415558165
[phlebotomine sandflies in fragments of rain forest in recife, pernambuco state].an investigation was conducted into the distribution of sandfly fauna in 4 fragments of atlantic forest in the metropolitan area of recife. it consisted of the capture adult insects using cdc light traps. a total of 1,173 specimens were distributed in 11 species of lutzomyia: lutzomyia evandroi, lutzomyia choti, lutzomyia walkeri, lutzomyia umbratilis, lutzomyia brasiliensis, lutzomyia sordellii, lutzomyia claustrei, lutzomyia wellcomei, lutzomyia fluviatilis, lutzomyia furcata e lutzomyia araga ...200515895182
use of pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis to identify the main new world leishmania species and analyze their taxonomic properties and polymorphism by application of the assay to clinical samples.at least 13 characterized leishmania species are known to infect humans in south america. five of these parasites are transmitted in the sylvatic ecotopes of the whole french guianan territory and responsible for cutaneous leishmaniasis. for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis, restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analyses have shown promising results. thus, the end of the small subunit and internal transcribed spacer 1 of the rrna genes were sequenced and targeted by pcr-rflp an ...200616455899
diversity and ecology of sand flies (diptera: psychodidae: phlebotominae) in coastal french guiana.in french guiana, at least five leishmania species are known to be sympatically transmitted in sylvatic ecotopes. however, the previous surveys on the phlebotomine sand fly fauna were published 20 years ago. during that period, many ecological changes have occurred. sand fly collections were conducted with cdc light traps in five stations representing the main ecotopes of french guiana. a total of 817 sand flies belonging to 2 genera, 18 sub-genera, and 46 different species were identified. the ...200616837710
[epidemiology of tegumentary leishmaniasis in são joão, manaus, amazonas, brazil].in manaus, amazonas state, brazil, the degree of individual exposure to leishmaniasis is related to disorganized land occupation. in order to evaluate predisposing factors for an outbreak, confirm the parasitological diagnosis, treat patients, and assess etiological agents, reservoirs, and vectors, a 12-month study was conducted in manaus in a community located along the br-174 federal highway. some 451 individuals were studied, among whom 17 cases of american tegumentary leishmaniasis (atl) wer ...200617091169
transmission of leishmania metacyclic promastigotes by phlebotomine sand flies.a thorough understanding of the transmission mechanism of any infectious agent is crucial to implementing an effective intervention strategy. here, our current understanding of the mechanisms that leishmania parasites use to ensure their transmission from sand fly vectors by bite is reviewed. the most important mechanism is the creation of a "blocked fly" resulting from the secretion of promastigote secretory gel (psg) by the parasites in the anterior midgut. this forces the sand fly to regurgit ...200717517415
comparison between quantitative nucleic acid sequence-based amplification, real-time reverse transcriptase pcr, and real-time pcr for quantification of leishmania parasites.dna or rna amplification methods for detection of leishmania parasites have advantages regarding sensitivity and potential quantitative characteristics in comparison with conventional diagnostic methods but are often still not routinely applied. however, the use and application of molecular assays are increasing, but comparative studies on the performance of these different assays are lacking. the aim of this study was to compare three molecular assays for detection and quantification of leishma ...200817959763
[sandfly fauna (diptera: psychodidae) in a focus of american cutaneous leishmaniasis on the urban periphery of manaus, state of amazonas].from august 2001 to july 2002, sand flies were collected from the bases of trees and, using cdc and disney traps, from areas surrounding homes and forested areas in the são joão community, on the urban periphery of manaus, state of amazonas. 4,104 specimens belonging to four subtribes, 13 genera and 49 species of the phlebotominae subfamily were collected. the subtribe psychodopygina predominated, with 3,403 (83%) specimens, especially of nyssomyia umbratilis, nyssomyia anduzei, trichophoromyia ...200819009191
species structure of sand fly (diptera: psychodidae) fauna in the brazilian western amazon.we surveyed areas of the state of rondônia in western amazon for phlebotomine, which are potential vectors of leishmaniasis. a total of 5,998 specimens were captured, resulting in the identification of 48 species within the lutzomyia (99.98%) and brumptomyia (0.02%) genera. the predominant species was lutzomyia davisi, followed by lutzomyia umbratilis, lutzomyia llanosmartinsi, lutzomyia c. carrerai, lutzomyia dendrophyla, lutzomyia nevesi and lutzomyia whitmani. all sand flies identified as vec ...200920027459
[phlebotomine fauna (diptera: psychodidae) in a campina reserve in the state of amazonas, and its epidemiological importance].in brazil, the largest diversity of phlebotomines is found in the amazon region, particularly in undisturbed terra-firma forest. however, the phlebotomine fauna in other ecosystems of this region is still not well known.201020305974
characterization of leishmania spp. causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in manaus, amazonas, brazil.in the state of amazonas, american tegumentary leishmaniasis is endemic and presents a wide spectrum of clinical variability due to the large diversity of circulating species in the region. isolates from patients in manaus and its metropolitan region were characterized using monoclonal antibodies and isoenzymes belonging to four species of the parasite: leishmania (viannia) guyanensis, 73% (153/209); leishmania (viannia) braziliensis, 14% (30/209); leishmania (leishmania) amazonensis, 8% (17/209 ...201021072540
serosurvey of selected arboviral pathogens in free-ranging, two-toed sloths (choloepus hoffmanni) and three-toed sloths (bradypus variegatus) in costa rica, 2005-07.we screened for antibodies to 16 arboviruses in four populations of free-ranging sloths in costa rica. blood samples were taken from 16 hoffman's two-toed sloths (htss; choloepus hoffmanni ) and 26 brown-throated sloths (btss; bradypus variegatus ) over a 3-yr period. we used serologic assays to detect antibodies against 10 arboviruses previously described in sloths (st. louis encephalitis [slev], changuinola, venezuelan equine encephalitis, ilheus [ilhv], oropouche, mayaro, utinga, murutucu, pu ...201627479900
proceedings of the ix international symposium on phlebotomine sandflies (isops ix), reims, france, june 28th-july 1st, 2016. 201627677701
studies on the sand fly fauna (diptera: psychodidae) in high-transmission areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the republic of suriname.sand flies (diptera: psychodidae) are the vectors of leishmania parasites, the causative agents of leishmaniasis. cutaneous leishmaniasis is an increasing public health problem in the republic of suriname and is mainly caused by leishmania (vianna) guyanensis, but l. (v.) braziliensis, l. (l.) amazonensis, and l. (v.) naiffi also infect humans. transmission occurs predominantly in the forested hinterland of the country. information regarding the potential vectors of leishmaniasis in suriname is ...201324499490
diversity and distribution of sandflies (diptera: psychodidae: phlebotominae) in a military area in the state of amazonas, brazil.this study reports the distribution, ecotopes and fauna diversity of sandflies captured in five training bases on a military reserve in manaus, state of amazonas (am). a total of 10,762 specimens were collected, which were distributed among 58 species, with the highest number recorded at base instruction 1 (bi1). a higher rate of species richness was found at the base instruction boina rajada and low levels of diversity associated with a high abundance index with the clear dominance of lutzomyia ...023903983
phlebotomines (diptera: psychodidae) in a hydroelectric system affected area from northern amazonian brazil: further insights into the effects of environmental changes on vector ecology.during 2012-2015, an entomological survey was conducted as part of a phlebotomine (diptera: psychodidae) monitoring program in an area influenced by the santo antônio do jari hydroelectric system (amapá state, brazil). the purpose was to study aspects of amazon/guianan american cutaneous leishmaniasis (acl) vectors subjected to stresses by anthropogenic environmental changes. for sampling, cdc light traps were positioned 0.5, 1, and 20 m above ground at five capture locations along the jari rive ...201628042300
ecological aspects and molecular detection of leishmania dna ross (kinetoplastida: trypanosomatidae) in phlebotomine sandflies (diptera: psychodidae) in terra firme and várzea environments in the middle solimões region, amazonas state, brazil.phlebotomine sand flies (diptera: psychodidae) are insects of medical importance due to the role that some species play in the transmission of leishmaniasis. this work aimed to study some ecological aspects among sand flies fauna inhabiting two different environments: the várzea (lowland amazonian forest) and terra firme (upland amazonian forest), both located in tefé municipality, amazonas state, braziland to detect leishmania infection in those phlebotomine populations.201525889808
sand-fly saliva-leishmania-man: the trigger trio.leishmaniases are worldwide diseases transmitted to the vertebrate host by the bite of an infected sand-fly. sand-fly biting and parasite inoculation are accompanied by the injection of salivary molecules, whose immunomodulatory properties are actively being studied. this mini review focuses on how the interactions between sand-fly saliva and the immune system may shape the outcome of infection, given its immunomodulatory properties, in experimental models and in the endemic area. additionally, ...201324312093
molecular taxonomy of the two leishmania vectors lutzomyia umbratilis and lutzomyia anduzei (diptera: psychodidae) from the brazilian amazon.lutzomyia umbratilis (a probable species complex) is the main vector of leishmania guyanensis in the northern region of brazil. lutzomyia anduzei has been implicated as a secondary vector of this parasite. these species are closely related and exhibit high morphological similarity in the adult stage; therefore, they have been wrongly identified, both in the past and in the present. this shows the need for employing integrated taxonomy.201324021095
lutzomyia umbratilis, the main vector of leishmania guyanensis, represents a novel species complex?lutzomyia umbratilis is an important leishmania guyanensis vector in south america. previous studies have suggested differences in the vector competence between l. umbratilis populations situated on opposite banks of the amazonas and negro rivers in the central amazonian brazil region, likely indicating a species complex. however, few studies have been performed on these populations and the taxonomic status of l. umbratilis remains unclear.201222662146
comparative mt genomics of the tipuloidea (diptera: nematocera: tipulomorpha) and its implications for the phylogeny of the tipulomorpha.a traditionally controversial taxon, the tipulomorpha has been frequently discussed with respect to both its familial composition and relationships with other nematocera. the interpretation of internal relationships within the tipuloidea, which include the tipulidae sensu stricto, cylindrotomidae, pediciidae and limoniidae, is also problematic. we sequenced the first complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of symplecta hybrida (meigen, 1804), which belongs to the subfamily chioneinae of family limoni ...201627341029
taxonomy, diversity, temporal and geographical distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis in colombia: a retrospective study.leishmaniases are tropical zoonotic diseases, caused by kinetoplastid parasites from the genus leishmania. new world (nw) species are related to sylvatic cycles although urbanization processes have been reported in some south american countries such as colombia. currently, few studies show the relative distribution of leishmania species related to cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) in south america due to the lack of accurate surveillance and public health systems. herein, we conducted a systematic es ...201627328969
spatial distribution of sand fly vectors and eco-epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in colombia.leishmania is transmitted by phlebotominae insects that maintain the enzootic cycle by circulating between sylvatic and domestic mammals; humans enter the cycles as accidental hosts due to the vector's search for blood source. in colombia, leishmaniasis is an endemic disease and 95% of all cases are cutaneous (cl), these cases have been reported in several regions of the country where the intervention of sylvatic areas by the introduction of agriculture seem to have an impact on the rearrangemen ...201526431546
phlebotomine sandflies (diptera: psychodidae) from lábrea, state of amazonas, brazil, with a description of evandromyia (aldamyia) apurinan shimabukuro, figueira & silva, sp. nov.an entomological survey was conducted from july-december 2009 and september-december 2010, as part of the epidemiological monitoring of american cutaneous leishmaniasis (acl) in the municipality of lábrea, state of amazonas (am), brazil. sandflies were collected using cdc light traps installed in intra and peridomiciliary locations, as well as the border of forested areas around houses where autochthonous cases of acl were recorded. a total of 510 sandflies belonging to 26 species were collected ...023778658
catalogue of the type material of phlebotominae (diptera, psychodidae) deposited in the instituto evandro chagas, brazil.the available type material of phlebotominae (diptera, psychodidae) deposited in the "coleção de flebotomíneos" of the instituto evandro chagas (colfleb iec) is now presented in an annotated catalogue comprising a total of 121 type specimens belonging to 12 species as follow: nyssomyia richardwardi (2 female paratypes), nyssomyia shawi (9 male and 25 female paratypes), nyssomyia umbratilis (female holotype and 1 female paratype), nyssomyia yuilli yuilli (1 male and 1 female paratypes), pintomyia ...201424715786
first description of leishmania (viannia) infection in evandromyia saulensis, pressatia sp. and trichophoromyia auraensis (psychodidae: phlebotominae) in a transmission area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in acre state, amazon basin, brazil.studies on the sandfly fauna to evaluate natural infection indexes are still limited in the brazilian amazon, a region with an increasing incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. here, by using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction directed to leishmania kdna and hybridisation, we were able to identify l. (viannia) subgenus in 12 out of 173 sandflies captured in the municipality of rio branco, acre state, revealing a positivity of 6.94%. by sequencing the leishmania 234 bp-hsp70 amplified products ...201728076470
sand flies (diptera, psychodidae, phlebotominae), vectors of leishmania protozoa, at an atlantic forest conservation unit in the municipality of nísia floresta, rio grande do norte state, brazil.sand flies are insect vectors of protozoa from the genus leishmania, causative parasites of visceral and american tegumentary leishmaniases. the present study discusses the bioecological aspects of sand fly species, transmitters of leishmania protozoa, in different ecotopes of an atlantic forest conservation unit located in the metropolitan region of natal, rio grande do norte state, brazil.201626864023
phenotypic and genotypic variations among three allopatric populations of lutzomyia umbratilis, main vector of leishmania guyanensis.in south america, lutzomyia umbratilis is the main vector of leishmania guyanensis, one of the species involved in the transmission of american tegumentary leishmaniasis. in brazil, l. umbratilis has been recorded in the amazon region, and in the state of pernambuco, northeastern region, where an isolated population has been identified. this study assessed the phylogeographic structure and size and shape differences of the wing of three brazilian populations.201526338469
distinct leishmania species infecting wild caviomorph rodents (rodentia: hystricognathi) from brazil.caviomorph rodents, some of the oldest leishmania spp. hosts, are widely dispersed in brazil. despite both experimental and field studies having suggested that these rodents are potential reservoirs of leishmania parasites, not more than 88 specimens were analyzed in the few studies of natural infection. our hypothesis was that caviomorph rodents are inserted in the transmission cycles of leishmania in different regions, more so than is currently recognized.201425503973
evidence of new species for malaria vector anopheles nuneztovari sensu lato in the brazilian amazon region.anopheles nuneztovari sensu lato comprises cryptic species in northern south america, and the brazilian populations encompass distinct genetic lineages within the brazilian amazon region. this study investigated, based on two molecular markers, whether these lineages might actually deserve species status.201627068120
mitochondrial genomes of two phlebotomine sand flies, phlebotomus chinensis and phlebotomus papatasi (diptera: nematocera), the first representatives from the family psychodidae.leishmaniasis is a worldwide but neglected disease of humans and animal transmitted by sand flies, vectors that also transmit other important diseases. mitochondrial genomes contain abundant information for population genetic and phylogenetic studies, important in disease management. however, the available mitochondrial sequences of these crucial vectors are limited, emphasizing the need for developing more mitochondrial genetic markers.201526381614
identification of six new world leishmania species through the implementation of a high-resolution melting (hrm) genotyping assay.leishmaniases are tropical zoonotic diseases, caused by parasites from the genus leishmania. new world (nw) species are related to sylvatic cycles although urbanization processes have been reported in some south american countries such as colombia. this eco-epidemiological complexity imposes a challenge to the detection of circulating parasite species, not only related to human cases but also infecting vectors and reservoirs. currently, no harmonized methods have been deployed to discriminate th ...201425394418
miltefosine and antimonial drug susceptibility of leishmania viannia species and populations in regions of high transmission in colombia.pentavalent antimonials have been the first line treatment for dermal leishmaniasis in colombia for over 30 years. miltefosine is administered as second line treatment since 2005. the susceptibility of circulating populations of leishmania to these drugs is unknown despite clinical evidence supporting the emergence of resistance.201424853871
leishmania (viannia) guyanensis infection, austria. 022932031
molecular detection of leishmania in sand flies (diptera: psychodidae: phlebotominae) collected in the caititu indigenous reserve of the municipality of lábrea, state of amazonas, brazil.phlebotominae sand flies are of medical importance because they are vectors of human pathogens, such as protozoa of the genus leishmania ross, etiological agent of american cutaneous leishmaniasis (acl). in lábrea, a municipality in the state of amazonas, brazil, acl is primarily associated with subsistence activities, such as collection and extraction of forest products, undertaken by both indigenous and nonindigenous people. data on acl in indigenous populations are scarce, such that there is ...201426309318
analysis of the genetic structure of allopatric populations of lutzomyia umbratilis using the period clock gene.in south america, lutzomyia umbratilis is the main vector of leishmania guyanensis, one of the species involved in the transmission of american tegumentary leishmaniasis. in brazil, l. umbratilis has been recorded in the amazon region, and an isolated population has been identified in the state of pernambuco, northeastern region. this study assessed the phylogeographic structure of three allopatric brazilian populations of l. umbratilis. samples of l. umbratilis were collected from rio preto da ...201626655040
complete mitochondrial genome of lutzomyia (nyssomyia) umbratilis (diptera: psychodidae), the main vector of leishmania guyanensis.the nearly complete mitochondrial genome of lutzomyia umbratilis ward & fraiha, 1977 (psychodidae: phlebotominae), considered as the main vector of leishmania guyanensis, is presented. the sequencing has been performed on an illumina hiseq 2500 platform, with a genome skimming strategy. the full nuclear ribosomal rna segment was also assembled. the mitogenome of l. umbratilis was determined to be at least 15,717 bp-long and presents an architecture found in many mitogenomes of insect (13 protein ...201626000939
phlebotominae sand flies (diptera: psychodidae): potential vectors of american cutaneous leishmaniasis agents in the area associated with the santo antônio hydroelectric system in western amazonian brazil.an entomological study was conducted as part of a vector-monitoring program in the area associated with the santo antônio hydroelectric system in state of rondônia, western amazonian brazil.201526108003
on the taxonomic status of phlebotomus breviductus barretto, 1950 (diptera: psychodidae: phlebotominae).the taxonomic status of phlebotomus breviductus barretto, 1950 was evaluated based on the morphological and morphometric analysis of the male holotype described from fazenda jerusalém, located in the municipality of alegre, espírito santo state, brazil. after measuring, drawing and photographing the holotype, we concluded that the head and wing of this specimen belong to trichopygomyia sp., but that the thorax and abdomen belong to a different species, nyssomyia umbratilis, with an anomalous gon ...201325277929
natural leishmania (viannia) infections of phlebotomines (diptera: psychodidae) indicate classical and alternative transmission cycles of american cutaneous leishmaniasis in the guiana shield, brazil.from 1996 to 1999 multi-trapping methods (center of diseases control, cdc) light traps, light-baited shannon traps, and aspiration on tree bases) were used to study the phlebotomine fauna of the "serra do navio" region of the brazilian state of amapá, which is part of the guiana shield. fifty-three species were identified among 8,685 captured individuals. the following species, associated with the transmission of american cutaneous leishmaniasis in amazonian brazil, were captured: nyssomyia umbr ...201728508745
new records of phlebotomine sand flies (diptera: psychodidae) from the state of alagoas, northeast of brazil.phlebotomine sand flies are small insects of great medical importance. this study presents new records of phlebotomine sand flies, which augment the list of species, recorded in the state of alagoas, brazil. sand flies were collected using cdc miniature light traps. collections were made between november 2008 and april 2016, in 47 municipalities within the state of alagoas. twenty-seven thousand two-hundred forty-four sand flies were collected, representing 18 species in seven genera. lutzomyia ...201829029319
phlebotomine sand flies (diptera: psychodidae: phlebotominae) in urban rainforest fragments, manaus -- amazonas state, brazil.the non-flooded upland rainforest fragment in the federal university of amazonas campus is considered one of the world's largest urban tropical woodland areas and brazil's second largest one in an urban setting. it is located in the city of manaus, state of amazonas at 03° 04' 34″ s, 59° 57' 30″ w, in an area covering nearly 800 hectares. forty-one (41) sand fly species belonging to genus lutzomyia were found attaining a total of 4662 specimens collected. lutzomyia umbratilis was the dominant sp ...201323352955
morphological description of the immature stages of nyssomyia umbratilis (ward & frahia) (diptera: psychodidae: phlebotominae), the main vector of leishmania guyanensis floch (kinetoplastida: trypanosomatidae) in the brazilian amazon region.nyssomyia umbratilis (ward & frahia) is the main vector of leishmania guyanensis in the brazilian amazon region, where it is widely distributed. studies have hypothesized that this phlebotomine is part of a cryptic species complex, spatially delimited by the amazonian river systems, and with different transmission potential of l. guyanensis. in the present study, the immature stages of n. umbratilis are described from laboratory-reared specimens originating from the states of amazonas and pará, ...201829374388
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