vertebrate host specificity of two avian malaria parasites of the subgenus novyella: plasmodium nucleophilum and plasmodium vaughani.the susceptibility of wild-caught european passeriform birds to naturally isolated malaria parasites, plasmodium (novyella) nucleophilum and plasmodium (novyella) vaughani, was studied by means of intramuscular subinoculation of infected citrated blood. plasmodium nucleophilum of the great tit, parus major, was transmitted to 3 great tits, but 3 blackcaps (sylvia atricapilla) were not susceptible. plasmodium vaughani of the robin, erithacus rubecula, was transmitted to 1 robin and 1 blackcap, bu ...200515986631
where in europe should we look for sources of the cutaneous trematode collyriclum faba infections in migrating birds?cutaneous cysts with trematodes of collyriclum faba have been found in birds during their spring and post-breeding migrations in the czech republic. during spring migrations, c. faba was found in one dunnock prunella modularis, two european robins erithacus rubecula, three common nightingales luscinia megarhynchos, one song thrush turdus philomelos and one great reed warbler acrocephalus arundinaceus. during post-breeding migration, the same parasite was found in one garden warbler sylvia borin, ...200617125543
the importance of ixodes arboricola in transmission of rickettsia spp., anaplasma phagocytophilum, and borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the czech republic, central europe.abstract wild birds are known to be a reservoir of infectious disease agents and disseminatory hosts of ticks. the purpose of this work was to obtain information about the occurrence of rickettsial, anaplasmal, and borrelial infections in some ticks that parasitize wild birds in the czech republic. a total of 549 subadult ticks of three species ixodes arboricola (75.0%), ixodes ricinus (23.1%), and haemaphysalis concinna (1.8%) were collected from 20 species of birds (passeriformes). rickettsiae ...201121612531
candidatus neoehrlichia mikurensis in ticks from migrating birds in sweden.candidatus neoehrlichia mikurensis (cnm; family anaplasmataceae) was recently recognized as a potential tick-borne human pathogen. the presence of cnm in mammals, in host-seeking ixodes ticks and in ticks attached to mammals and birds has been reported recently. we investigated the presence of cnm in ornithophagous ticks from migrating birds. a total of 1,150 ticks (582 nymphs, 548 larvae, 18 undetermined ticks and two adult females) collected from 5,365 birds captured in south-eastern sweden wa ...201526207834
chlamydiosis in british garden birds (2005-2011): retrospective diagnosis and chlamydia psittaci genotype determination.the significance of chlamydiosis as a cause of mortality in wild passerines (order passeriformes), and the role of these birds as a potential source of zoonotic chlamydia psittaci infection, is unknown. we reviewed wild bird mortality incidents (2005-2011). where species composition or post-mortem findings were indicative of chlamydiosis, we examined archived tissues for c. psittaci infection using pcr and arraytube microarray assays. twenty-one of 40 birds tested positive: 8 dunnocks (prunella ...201424947738
conflict and cooperation over sex: the consequences of social and genetic polyandry for reproductive success in dunnocks.conflict and cooperation within and between the sexes are among the driving forces that lead to the evolution of mating systems. among mating strategies, female genetic polyandry and male reproductive cooperation pose challenging evolutionary questions regarding the maintenance of systems where one sex suffers from reduced fitness. here, we investigate the consequences of social and genetic polyandry for reproductive success of females and males in a population of the dunnock, prunella modularis ...201526257043
population differentiation and behavioural association of the two 'personality' genes drd4 and sert in dunnocks (prunella modularis).quantifying the variation in behaviour-related genes within and between populations provides insight into how evolutionary processes shape consistent behavioural traits (i.e. personality). deliberate introductions of non-native species offer opportunities to investigate how such genes differ between native and introduced populations and how polymorphisms in the genes are related to variation in behaviour. here, we compared the genetic variation of the two 'personality' genes, drd4 and sert, betw ...201626669286
occurrence of blood parasites and intensity of infection in prunella modularis in the montane and subalpine zone in the slovak carpathians.the objective of this study was to obtain primary information on the occurrence of blood parasites and intensity of infection in the dunnock prunella modularis in the montane region of slovakia. altogether 109 birds were examined during the years 2006-2010. the occurrence of haemoproteus sp., leucocytozoon fringillinarum and trypanosoma sp. was documented. blood parasite prevalences of 45% by microscopic examination and 55% by pcr diagnostics were found. the prevalence of leucocytozoon sp. was f ...201222875671
yersinia species in the dunnock (prunella modularis) in sub-alpine habitats of the western carpathians.the study presents the prevalence of yersinia species in dunnok prunella modularis from the sub-alpine zone of the western carpathians. bacteria were detected from cloacal and pharyngeal swabs from 97 specimens using pcr assay. yersinia enterocolitica showed the highest prevalence (47.4%) from among the determined yersinia species. yersinia species (except y frederiksenii) were detected more frequently in pharyngeal than cloacal samples. the highest prevalence of yersiniosis was detected in apri ...201121630578
emerging infectious disease leads to rapid population declines of common british birds.emerging infectious diseases are increasingly cited as threats to wildlife, livestock and humans alike. they can threaten geographically isolated or critically endangered wildlife populations; however, relatively few studies have clearly demonstrated the extent to which emerging diseases can impact populations of common wildlife species. here, we report the impact of an emerging protozoal disease on british populations of greenfinch carduelis chloris and chaffinch fringilla coelebs, two of the m ...201020805869
transport of ticks by migratory passerine birds to norway.ticks can be transported over large distances and across geographical barriers by avian hosts. during the spring migrations of 2003 to 2005, 9,768 passerine birds from 4 bird observatories along the southern coastline of norway were examined for ticks. altogether, 713 birds carried a total of 517 larvae and 1,440 nymphs. the highest prevalence of tick infestation was observed in thrushes and dunnock (prunella modularis). the degree of tick infestation varied during each season, between localitie ...200919658452
ticks (ixodidae) from passerine birds in the carpathian region.birds have been found to be a reservoir host of borrelia. in order to assess the situation in slovakia ticks were collected from a total of 3057 mist-netted, ringed and released passerine birds in two locations at 500 m (in 2001) and 1000 m (in 2003) above sea level in the bukovské vrchy hills, part of the carpathian region in the north-east of slovakia. a total of 75 birds of 16 species were infested with subadult ticks of ixodes ricinus species (prevalence of parasitization 5%). sixty-two larv ...200617186172
prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the nightingale (luscinia megarhynchos) and other passerine order to explore the involvement of terrestrial birds in the ecology of lyme disease spirochetes, we determined the presence of borrelia burgdorferi s. i. dna in tick larvae feeding on the hosts. birds were caught at several study sites along the rhine valley in sw germany between august 1999 and march 2001. a total of 987 ixodes ricinus larvae were collected from 225 birds belonging to 20 host species. the following four passerine species that have not yet been subject to detailed reservoir ...200212141765
[nematoda of prunella modularis (l.)]. 19873630172
competition for male reproductive investment elevates testosterone levels in female dunnocks, prunella many songbirds, females occasionally sing in contexts of high female-female competition. testosterone may be involved in the activation of song, because testosterone implants elicit female song in many species with rare female song. a possible mechanism for the hormonal control of female song is provided by the challenge hypothesis, which predicts a rise in testosterone in response to aggressive interactions during socially unstable situations. we tested this by comparing faecal testosterone ...200212495491
can females gain extra paternal investment by mating with multiple males? a game theoretic approach.although females may require only one mating to become inseminated, many female animals engage in costly mating with multiple males. one potential benefit of polyandrous mating is gaining parental investment from multiple males. we developed two game theoretic models to explore this possibility. our first model showed that male care of multiple females' offspring evolves when male help substantially increases offspring fitness, future mating opportunity is limited, and group size is small. in ou ...200118707306
breeding biology and variable mating system of a population of introduced dunnocks (prunella modularis) in new zealand.species with variable mating systems provide a unique opportunity to investigate whether females receive direct fitness benefits from additional male partners. the direct benefits provide an obvious explanation for why females would breed polyandrously, in a situation where males clearly do not attain their optimal reproductive success. evidence for these direct benefits is, however, mixed. here, we present a detailed study of the breeding biology of the dunnock, prunella modularis, which inform ...201323874945
does migratory distance affect fuelling in a medium-distance passerine migrant?: results from direct and step-wise simulated magnetic birds, fat accumulation before and during migration has been shown to be endogenously controlled and tuned by, among other factors, the earth's magnetic field. however, our knowledge about the influence of the geomagnetic field on the fuelling in migrating birds is still limited to just a few nocturnally migrating passerine species. in order to study if variations of the magnetic field can also influence the fuelling of both day- and night-migrating passerines, we caught first-year dunnocks ( ...201626883627
borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection in passerine birds from the mazurian lake region (northeastern poland).the aim of the present study was to evaluate a potential role of different passerine birds species in mazurian lake region (northeast poland) in the spread of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the spirochaete that causes lyme disease. a total number of 1254 birds (representing 42 species) were captured during the 3-year study period. blood samples were collected from birds and analyzed with a nested polymerase chain reaction technique in order to detect fragments of the pathogen dna. positive res ...200414681070
salmonellosis in wild birds feeding at sewage treatment works.between june 1976 and august 1977 faeces were collected from 599 wild british birds caught during ringing operations at two sewage treatment works in south-east england. samples were incubated with selenite-f broth to detect the presence of salmonella. salm. anatum was isolated from one bird, a dunnock prunella modularis an incidence of 0.17% of the total birds examined and 3.23% of the dunnocks. comparisons are drawn with previously reported studies and it is suggested that sewage treatment wor ...1978690424
[electron microscope study of benign cutaneous tumors associated with a virus of the pox group in a sparrow (prunella modularis)]. 196213901621
testing avian compass calibration: comparative experiments with diurnal and nocturnal passerine migrants in south sweden.cue-conflict experiments were performed to study the compass calibration of one predominantly diurnal migrant, the dunnock (prunella modularis), and two species of nocturnal passerine migrants, the sedge warbler (acrocephalus schoenobaenus), and the european robin (erithacus rubecula) during autumn migration in south sweden. the birds' orientation was recorded in circular cages under natural clear and simulated overcast skies in the local geomagnetic field, and thereafter the birds were exposed ...201425505150
feather mites, pectoral muscle condition, wing length and plumage coloration of passerines.i compared the feather mite (acari, proctophyllodidae) loads of moulting birds with features of the new plumage that they were growing. i examined 21 samples, each sample containing individuals of the same species, sex and age class (juvenile, yearling or adult). i used nine species: wren, troglodytes troglodytes; dunnock, prunella modularis; robin, erithacus rubecula; blue tit, parus caeruleus; great tit, p. major; chaffinch, fringilla coelebs; greenfinch, carduelis chloris; linnet, c. cannabin ...199910479371
learning fine-tunes a specific response of nestlings to the parental alarm calls of their own species.parent birds often give alarm calls when a predator approaches their nest. however, it is not clear whether these alarms function to warn nestlings, nor is it known whether nestling responses are species-specific. the parental alarms of reed warblers, acrocephalus scirpaceus ("churr"), dunnocks, prunella modularis ("tseep"), and robins, erithacus rubecula ("seee") are very different. playback experiments revealed that nestlings of all three species ceased begging only in response to conspecific ...200415539356
ixodes eldaricus djaparidze, 1950 (ixodidae) on migrating birds--reported first time in poland.during the ornithological "operation baltic" on the hel peninsula (the baltic sea coast in poland) the first case of transfer to poland of ticks of the species ixodes eldaricus djaparidze, 1950, on prunella modularis (one female tick) and erithacus rubecula (two males and one female tick). p. modularis and e. rubecula have not previously been recorded among the hosts of this tick species. although the natural populations of i. eldaricus are very distant from poland, it should be taken into accou ...201222142944
chewing lice of genus ricinus (phthiraptera, ricinidae) deposited at the zoological institute of the russian academy of sciences, saint petersburg, russia, with description of a new species.we revised a collection of chewing lice deposited at the zoological institute of the russian academy of sciences, saint petersburg, russia. we studied 60 slides with 107 specimens of 10 species of the genus ricinus (de geer, 1778). the collection includes lectotype specimens of ricinus ivanovi blagoveshtchensky, 1951 and of ricinus tugarinovi blagoveshtchensky, 1951. we registered ricinus elongatus olfers, 1816 ex turdus ruficollis, r. ivanovi ex leucosticte tephrocotis and ricinus serratus (dur ...201626902646
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