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hematoxylin substitutes: a survey of mordant dyes tested and consideration of the relation of their structure to performance as nuclear stains.in the search for hematoxylin substitutes 26 dyes were more or less extensively tested for performance as nuclear stains, usually in combination with aluminum, chronic, ferrous and ferric salts. reports from the literature on hematoxylin substitutes were also considered, and efforts were made to obtain samples of favorably reported dyes and test them. the reports on anthocyanins include isolated reports on several berry juices and a considerable number of studies on sambucus niger and vaccinium ...197659410
vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides pharmacokinetics in rats.the pharmacokinetics of vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides (vma) have been investigated in male rats. after intravenous administration anthocyanosides undergo a rapid body distribution and their disappearance from the blood is suitably fitted by a three-compartment pharmacokinetic model. the elimination occurs mostly through urine and bile. after a single oral administration the plasma concentrations of anthocyanosides reach peak level after 15 min and then rapidly decline within 2 h. the exten ...19912043174
effect of vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanins on triiodothyronine transport into brain in the rat. 19902097646
[enzymatic activities of retina and anthocyanoside extracts of vaccinium myrtillus (lactate dehydrogenase, alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, 5-nucleotidase, phosphoglucose isomerase)]. 19704329039
densities of ixodes ricinus ticks (acari: ixodidae) on moorland vegetation communities in the uk.unfed (questing) ixodes ricinus ticks were collected by blanket dragging on a monthly basis from heather-dominated, vaccinium-dominated and bracken-dominated vegetation communities from two different biogeographical regions of the uk (the quantock hills in somerset, south west england and the north york moors, north east england) throughout the spring and summer months of 1991 and 1992. eighteen sites were monitored across the two regions and a total of 1920 blanket drags were carried out. vacci ...19958575270
identification of the human lewis(a) carbohydrate motif in a secretory peroxidase from a plant cell suspension culture (vaccinium myrtillus l.).this paper reports for the first time the presence of the human lewis(a) type determinant in glycoproteins secreted by plant cells. a single glycopeptide was identified in the tryptic hydrolysis of the peroxidase vmpxc1 from vaccinium myrtillus l. by hplc/esi-ms. the oligosaccharide structures were elucidated by esi-ms-ms and by methylation analysis before and after removal of fucose by mild acid hydrolysis. the major structure determined is of the biantennary plant complex type containing the o ...19979350993
electrospray characterization of selected medicinal plant extracts.extracts of selected medicinal plants were examined by electrospray mass spectrometry (esi-ms). this technique allowed identification of the main components of each extract, thereby providing a typical finger-print of the examined plants. more specifically, anthocyanins (vaccinium myrtillus), isoflavones (glycine max, soybean), flavonol-glycosides and terpenes (ginkgo biloba), triterpenes (centella asiatica), caffeoyl-quinic acids (cynara scolymus, artichoke), ginsenosides (panax ginseng), catec ...200010898155
monograph. vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry). 200111703171
influence of extreme pollution on the inorganic chemical composition of some plants.leaves of nine different plant species (terrestrial moss: hylocomium splendens and pleurozium schreberi, blueberry: vaccinium myrtillus, cowberry: vaccinium vitis-idaea, crowberry: empetrum nigrum, birch: betula pubescens, willow: salix spp., pine: pinus sylvestris, and spruce: picea abies) have been collected from up to nine catchments (size 14-50 km2) spread over a 1,500,000 km2 area in northern europe. additional soil samples were taken from the o-horizon and the c-horizon at each plant sampl ...200111706797
comparison of the element composition in several plant species and their substrate from a 1500000-km2 area in northern europe.leaves of 9 different plant species (terrestrial moss represented by: hylocomium splendens and pleurozium schreberi; and 7 species of vascular plants: blueberry, vaccinium myrtillus; cowberry, vaccinium titis-idaea; crowberry, empetrum nigrum; birch, betula pubescens; willow, salix spp.; pine, pinus sylvestris and spruce, picea abies) have been collected from up to 9 catchments (size 14-50 km2) spread over a 1500000 km2 area in northern europe. soil samples were taken of the o-horizon and of the ...200111669279
habitat factors associated with bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus) and concomitant hantavirus in northern sweden.puumala virus (puuv), genus hantavirus, causes nephropathia epidemica, a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans. in this study, bank voles, the natural reservoir of puuv, were captured at locations of previous human puuv exposure and paired controls within a region of high incidence in northern sweden. the aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on the abundance of bank voles and the occurrence of puuv. the total number of voles and the numbe ...200516417427
the gathering and consumption of wild edible plants in the campoo (cantabria, spain).this paper discusses the traditional consumption of wild edible plants in the rural communities of the campoo (cantabria), a region in northern spain. through semi-structured interviews with key informants, data on the perception, gathering, preparation and use of 60 edible wild plant species were collected. social, economic and cultural factors need to be taken into account when trying to understand why some wild foods and traditional vegetables continue to be consumed while others are not. wil ...200516503563
in vivo sequential study of skeletal muscle capillary permeability in diabetic rats: effect of anthocyanosides.alterations in the capillary filtration of macromolecules are well documented in diabetic patients and experimental diabetes. various flavonoids including anthocyanosides and ginkgo biloba extracts have been shown to be effective against experimentally induced capillary hyperfiltration. the aim of the present study was to test the effects of anthocyanosides on capillary filtration in diabetic rats. for this purpose, we have validated the use of our previously described in vivo method for measure ...200010909999
soil to plant uptake of fallout 137cs by plants from boreal areas polluted by industrial emissions from smelters.to study the impact of industrial pollution on the soil-to-plant uptake of fallout-radiocesium in a boreal forest ecosystem, four study sites were selected at distances of 7, 16, 21 and 28 km from the large copper-nickel smelter at monchegorsk on the kola peninsula (russia). at each site, soil and selected plant species were sampled from five plots and analysed separately for 137cs and 40k. the data show that the root-uptake of 137cs, as characterised by the median aggregated transfer-factor t(a ...199910507160
antioxidant action of vaccinium myrtillus extract on human low density lipoproteins in vitro: initial observations.oxidative modifications of low density lipoproteins (ldl) are now recognised as one of the major processes in atherogenesis. various drugs, as well as a number of natural products, have been proposed to inhibit such processes. among the naturally-occurring constituents of plants which appear to possess antioxidant activity are polyphenolic compounds such as flavonoids. the aqueous extract of vaccinium myrtillus is rich in such molecules. in this report, we describe the in vitro antioxidative pot ...19979182074
novel lipid-lowering properties of vaccinium myrtillus l. leaves, a traditional antidiabetic treatment, in several models of rat dyslipidaemia: a comparison with ciprofibrate.vaccinium myrtillus l. (blueberry) leaf infusions are traditionally used as a folk medicine treatment of diabetes. to further define this therapeutical action, a dried hydroalcoholic extract of the leaf was administered orally to streptozotocin-diabetic rats for 4 days. plasma glucose levels were consistently found to drop by about 26% at two different stages of diabetes. unexpectedly, plasma triglyceride (tg) were also decreased by 39% following treatment. subsequent to the latter observation, ...19968948058
determining diet composition on complex swards using n-alkanes and long-chain fatty alcohols.we conducted an experiment to quantify the accuracy of methods based on n-alkanes and long-chain fatty alcohols for determining the diet composition of animals grazing complex swards. we cut forage from two indigenous vegetation communities, a molinia caerulea-dominated grassland and a calluna vulgaris-dominated dwarf-shrub community, and offered it to mature ewes in different ratios in a zero-grazing experiment. nine dietary categories were identified within the forage offered: molinia caerulea ...200617069381
opposite effects of antioxidants on anxiety in wistar and oxys rats.passive behavior in the open field test and high anxiety in an elevated plus-maze develop in oxys rats by the age of 3 months and are regarded as manifestations of early aging. we studied the possibility of preventing these disturbances with vitamin e and whortleberry extract (20 mg/kg for 45 days from the age of 1.5 months). whortleberry extract alone increased horizontal activity and reduced anxiety of oxys rats, while anxiety in wistar rats increased significantly after treatment with both pr ...200617364063
wild vascular plants gathered for consumption in the polish countryside: a review.this paper is an ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants gathered for consumption from the end of the 18th century to the present day, within the present borders of poland.200717433114
[the antiviral action of medicinal plant extracts in experimental tick-borne encephalitis].some mechanisms of inducing resistance to experimental infection with tick-borne encephalitis virus were studied in experimental mice treated with aqueous extracts of berries of vaccinium vitis-idaea, black currant, vaccinium myrtillus, and of greater celandine grass. the condition of the immune system organs (spleen and thymus) after treatment with the extracts under study was analysed. a correlation was found between the degree of developing resistance to infection, virus accumulation in the b ...19938236942
the effect of blueberry extracts on giardia duodenalis viability and spontaneous excystation of cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, in vitro.the protozoan parasites giardia duodenalis and cryptosporidium parvum are common causes of diarrhoea, worldwide. effective drug treatment is available for g. duodenalis, but with anecdotal evidence of resistance or reduced compliance. there is no effective specific chemotherapeutic intervention for cryptosporidium. recently, there has been renewed interest in the antimicrobial properties of berries and their phenolic compounds but little work has been done on their antiparasitic actions. the eff ...200717560322
[anthocyanosides extracted from vitis vinifera, vaccinium myrtillus and pinus maritimus. i. elastase-inhibiting activities in vitro. ii. compared angioprotective activities in vivo]. 19836553084
studies on vascular permeability in hypertension: action of anthocyanosides.the initial phase of renal hypertension induced by ligature of the abdominal aorta was accompanied by a transient increase in vascular permeability. this permeability increase has not the same intensity in all parts of the organism: it is greater in the skin and in the aorta wall than in the brain vessels. treatment of rats with a flavonoid-type drug (anthocyanosides of vaccinium myrtillus) for 12 days before the induction of hypertension kept the blood-brain barrier permeability normal and limi ...19863698472
antiulcer and healing activity of vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides. 19873582621
antiulcer activity of an anthocyanidin from vaccinium myrtillus.the antiulcer effects of 3,5,7-trihydroxy-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-benzopyrylium chloride (idb 1027) were assessed in various experimental models. given orally, idb 1027 antagonized gastric ulcerations induced by pylorus ligation, stress, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, ethanol, reserpine, histamine and duodenal ulceration induced by mercaptamine (cysteamine). moreover it antagonized chronic gastric ulcers induced by acetic acid. given intraperitoneally, it was more potent than after oral ...19883415709
studies on vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides. ii. aspects of anthocyanins pharmacokinetics in the rat.vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanins adminstered by i.v. or i.p. route to the rat undergo a rapid body distribution and in part also are easily eliminated such as to fit a three-compartments pharmacokinetic model. the anthocyanins elimination occurs mostly through urine and bile. the slight difference between the amount of anthocyanins eliminated after i.v. and after i.p. application shows a modest liver extracion of these substances. vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanins possess a greater affinity for s ...1976989354
studies on vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides. i. vasoprotective and antiinflammatory activity.a vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides preparation (equivalent to 25% of anthocyanidins) demonstrated significant vasoprotective and antioedema properties in exerimental animals. in rabbits, the skin capillary permeability increase, due to chloroform, was reduced both after i.p. (25--100 mg/kg) and oral administration (200--400 mg/kg) of anthocyanosides. their activity was more lasting in comparison to rutin or mepyramine and this did not seem to be due to a specific antagonism towards inflammato ...19769100
cutin composition of five finnish berries.the raw cutin (i.e., extractive-free isolated cuticular membrane) fraction from finnish berries, sea buckthorn (hippophaë rhamnoides), black currant (ribes nigrum), cranberry (vaccinium oxycoccos), lingonberry (vaccinium vitis-idaea), and bilberry (vaccinium myrtillus), was depolymerized by naome-catalyzed methanolysis. the composition of cutin monomers was determined by gc-(ei)ms analysis either as methyl esters or as tmsi esters, with oh groups derivatized to tmsi ethers. there was a notable d ...200616417304
efficacy of troxerutin on streptozotocin-induced rat model in the early stage of diabetic retinopathy.the vascular changes associated with early diabetic retinopathy, which include the formation of microaneurysms and acellular capillaries, vessel dilation, vascular endothelial growth factor expression, were investigated experimentally in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with antioxidants: troxerutin (trihydroxy-ethylrutoside, cas 7085-55-4), vaccinium myrtillus, and calcium dobesilate (hydroquinone calcium sulfonate, cas 20123-80-2). the development and progression of retinopathy was ...200516294503
toxicological assessment of p-9801091 plant mixture extract after chronic administration in cba/hzg mice--a biochemical and histological study.acute, subchronic and chronic effects of the p-9801091 plant mixture extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg body mass were assessed in serum of healthy cba/hzg mice at 24 hours, 7 days, 3 months and 6 months of treatment (experimental group), and compared with the values obtained in the control group of untreated healthy cba/hzg mice. the p-9801091 plant mixture extract is an antihyperglycemic preparation containing myrtilli folium (vaccinium myrtillus l.), taraxaci radix (taraxacum officinale web.), cic ...200818756913
catechins and procyanidins in berries of vaccinium species and their antioxidant activity.the fractions of monomeric catechins and the fractions of dimeric and trimeric procyanidins were extracted and concentrated from wild berries of vaccinium species to study their antioxidant activities. the compositions of the fractions were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography combined with diode-array and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection. rare a-type dimers and trimers were identified as the predominant procyanidins in wild lingonberry, cranberry, bilberry, ...200516248542
responses to ammonium and nitrate additions by boreal plants and their natural enemies.separate effects of ammonium (nh4+) and nitrate (no3-) on boreal forest understorey vegetation were investigated in an experiment where 12.5 and 50.0 kg nitrogen (n) ha(-1) year(-1) was added to 2 m2 sized plots during 4 years. the dwarf-shrubs dominating the plant community, vaccinium myrtillus and v. vitis-idaea, took up little of the added n independent of the chemical form, and their growth did not respond to the n treatments. the grass deschampsia flexuosa increased from the n additions and ...200616199116
[mechanisms that limit pollinator range in ericaceae].studies were conducted in 2001-2003 at valdai national park (novgorod region) and at the zvenigorod biological station of moscow state university. the morphology of flowers, flowering dynamics and composition of insect visiting flowers of ericaceae species: andromeda polifolia, chamaedaphne calyculata, ledum palustre, oxycoccus palustris, vaccinium myrtillus, v. uliginosum, and v. vitis-idaea l. were studied. some species of insects visiting flowers were excluded from the list of pollinators on ...200515977429
do multitrophic interactions override n fertilization effects on operophtera larvae?we examined how performance of operophtera brumata (lepidoptera) larvae was affected by nitrogen (n) fertilization of boreal forest understorey vegetation. we monitored larval densities on vaccinium myrtillus plants for a period of 7 years in a field experiment. preliminary results indicated that the n effect on larval densities was weak. to examine if this was due to indirect interactions with a plant pathogen, valdensia heterodoxa, that share the same host plant, or due to top-down effects of ...200515655688
gene expression of the ericoid mycorrhizal fungus oidiodendron maius in the presence of high zinc concentrations.a heavy metal tolerant strain of the ericoid mycorrhizal species oidiodendron maius, isolated from roots of vaccinium myrtillus growing in soil heavily contaminated with zinc, was previously shown to tolerate high concentrations of zinc and cadmium ions in the growth medium. we have investigated the genetic basis of this fungal strain tolerance to high zinc concentrations by using an untargeted approach. from a cdna library constructed by using mrna from zn-treated o. maius mycelia, 444 clones w ...200515558329
anthocyanins and glutathione s-transferase activities in response to low temperature and frost hardening in vaccinium myrtillus (l.).anthocyanin (acy) contents and gst activities of bilberry (vaccinium myrtillus l.) were investigated in two experiments conducted in june (exp. i: active growth) and in august september (exp. ii: beginning of frost hardening) in northern finland (65 degrees n). bilberry plants were subjected to +2 degrees c and +18 degrees c in exp. i or +5/0 degrees c (day/night) and +18/+13 degrees c (day/night) in exp. ii. gst activities were assessed using either 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (cdnb) or trans-c ...200415384401
avoidance of nonhost plants by a bark beetle, pityogenes bidentatus, in a forest of odors.the bark beetle, pityogenes bidentatus (coleoptera: scolytidae), searches in mixed conifer and deciduous forests of northern europe for suitable branches of its host, scots pine ( pinus sylvestris). we tested whether odors from several diverse nonhost trees and plants common in the habitat (e.g., mountain ash, sorbus aucuparia; oak, quercus robur; alder buckthorn, frangula alnus; blueberry, vaccinium myrtillus; raspberry, rubus idaeus; and grass, deschampsia flexuosa) would reduce the attraction ...200415146267
inhibitory actions of bilberry anthocyanidins on angiogenesis.the aim of this study was to examine the antiangiogenic properties and antioxidant activities (a) of the main anthocyanidins (delphinidin, cyanidin and malvidin) found as constituents in vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry) anthocyanosides (vma) and (b) of n-acetyl-l-cysteine (nac). each of these anthocyanidins concentration-dependently inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf)-induced tube formation in a co-culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (huvecs) and fibroblasts, the effe ...201019496063
comparative study of anthocyanin composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity in bilberry (vaccinium myrtillus l.) and blueberry (vaccinium corymbosum l.) fruits.simultaneous comparison of bilberry (vaccinium myrtillus l.) and blueberry (vaccinium corymbosum l) fruits for their anthocyanin composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity is reported. the aim of this study was to investigate and to compare anthocyanin composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity in bilberry and blueberry fruits and their skins. the investigations revealed that the highest amount of total anthocyanins was observed in fruits skins of blueberry cultivars. the resul ...200919702172
lonicera caerulea and vaccinium myrtillus fruit polyphenols protect hacat keratinocytes against uvb-induced phototoxic stress and dna damage.sunlight is a very potent environmental factor in skin pathogenesis and can induce skin cancer. uvb irradiation is known to cause oxidative stress, inflammation and especially dna damage. topical application of agents with uv absorbing, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities is a successful strategy in the protection of the skin against uv-caused damage.200919747801
regional differences in the occurrence of understorey species reflect nitrogen deposition in swedish forests.possible links between the occurrence of vaccinium myrtillus, v. vitis-idaea and deschampsia flexuosa and rates of nitrogen deposition were investigated in 557 coniferous forest stands. in areas with high n-deposition, v. myrtillus was less frequent, less abundant and more susceptible to the leaf pathogen valdensia heterodoxa than in areas with lower levels of n-deposition. the occurrence of v. vitis-idaea was also strongly negatively correlated with increasing n-deposition, but no such trend wa ...200312733792
[importance of biologically active components and plants in the prevention of complications of diabetes mellitus].diabetes complications, especially late (chronic) ones, are the main reasons of invalidity and early mortality. the most threatening diabetes complications are vascular and metabolic complications (diabetic neuropathy, angiopathy, cataract, glaucoma, optic neuropathy, retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy). good diabetes control is very important, because in early stages these changes are reversible. in order to decrease the number of diabetes complications and to postpone their development, the use ...200212532704
induction of apoptosis in cancer cells by bilberry (vaccinium myrtillus) and the anthocyanins.among ethanol extracts of 10 edible berries, bilberry extract was found to be the most effective at inhibiting the growth of hl60 human leukemia cells and hct116 human colon carcinoma cells in vitro. bilberry extract induced apoptotic cell bodies and nucleosomal dna fragmentation in hl60 cells. the proportion of apoptotic cells induced by bilberry extract in hct116 was much lower than that in hl60 cells, and dna fragmentation was not induced in the former. of the extracts tested, that from bilbe ...200312502387
protective effect of bilberry (vaccinium myrtillus l.) extracts on cultured human corneal limbal epithelial cells (hclec).the use of bilberry (vaccinium myrtillus l.) as a food and medicine for improving human vision has a long history all over the world. however, there is lack of convincing evidence from rigorous clinical trials or scientific research. this study investigated the effects of different concentrations of bilberry extracts on the cell viability, cell cycle and the expression of hyaluronic acid and glycosaminoglycans of cultured human corneal limbal epithelial cells. the data showed that bilberry extra ...201020077406
nitrate reductase activity in some subarctic species and uv influence in the foliage of betula pendula roth. seedlings.nitrate reductase (nr) activity was studied in the foliage of five subarctic species: mature trees of european white birch (betula pubescens erch. s.s.), scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.), norway spruce (picea abies l. karst), ericaceous shrub bilberry (vaccinium myrtillus l.), naturally growing in a forest, and seed-grown silver birch (betula pendula roth.) seedlings in an ultraviolet (uv) exclusion field experiment at the pallas-ounastunturi national park in finnish lapland (68 degrees n). mean ...200211846159
age-associated changes in oxidative damage and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rats with inherited overgeneration of free radicals.reactive oxygen species have been hypothesized to play an important role in the process of aging. to investigate the correlation between oxidative stress and accumulation of protein and dna damage, we have compared the age-dependent levels of protein carbonyl groups and the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in cytosol and mitochondrial extracts from liver cells of wistar and oxys rats. the latter strain is characterized by increased sensi ...200616563232
population genetic analysis of phialocephala fortinii s.l. and acephala applanata in two undisturbed forests in switzerland and evidence for new cryptic species.the genetic structure of the root endophytes phialocephala fortinii s.l. and acephala applanata was analyzed in two undisturbed forests. a total of 606 strains isolated from surface-sterilized, fine roots of picea abies and vaccinium myrtillus were examined. two new cryptic species of p. fortinii were recognized and host specialization of a. applanata was confirmed. this species was almost exclusively isolated from roots of p. abies. the index of association did not deviate significantly from ze ...200616631398
anthocyanin-rich extracts inhibit multiple biomarkers of colon cancer in rats.the aim of the present study was to investigate the chemoprotective activity of anthocyanin-rich extracts (ares) from bilberry (vaccinium myrtillus l.), chokeberry (aronia meloncarpa e.), and grape (vitis vinifera) by assessing multiple biomarkers of colon cancer in male rats treated with a colon carcinogen, azoxymethane. fischer 344 male rats were fed the ain-93 diet (control) or ain-93 diet supplemented with ares for 14 wk. biomarkers that were evaluated included the number and multiplicity of ...200616800776
bioavailability and tissue distribution of anthocyanins in bilberry (vaccinium myrtillus l.) extract in rats.to clarify how structural diversity of anthocyanins relates to their in vivo function, bioavailability was precisely studied in rats using bilberry (vaccinium myrtillus l.) extract (bilberon 25) as an anthocyanin source that contains 15 different anthocyanins. the bilberry extract was orally or intravenously administered to rats, and the plasma levels of each anthocyanin were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. as the result, all anthocyanins except peonidin 3-o-alpha-l-arabino ...200616939312
anthocyanins extracted from chinese blueberry (vaccinium uliginosum l.) and its anticancer effects on dld-1 and colo205 cells.vaccinium uliginosum l. is a type of blueberry found in the chinese changbai mountains. we extracted vaccinium uliginosum anthocyanins (a(v.uli)) to investigate its bioactivity on suppressing cancer cells.201021034658
bilberry (vaccinium myrtillus) anthocyanins modulate heme oxygenase-1 and glutathione s-transferase-pi expression in arpe-19 cells.to determine whether anthocyanin-enriched bilberry extracts modulate pre- or posttranslational levels of oxidative stress defense enzymes heme-oxygenase (ho)-1 and glutathione s-transferase-pi (gst-pi) in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (rpe) cells.200717460300
protective effect of anthocyanin-rich extract from bilberry (vaccinium myrtillus l.) against myelotoxicity induced by 5-fluorouracil.the toxicities associated with 5-fluorouracil (5-fu), a potent broad-spectrum chemotherapeutic agent, can not only affect the morbidity and the efficacy of chemotherapy but also limit its clinical use. the objective of this study is to investigate the effects of a commercial anthocyanin-rich extract from bilberry (areb) against 5-fu-induced myelotoxicity in vivo, and against chemosensitivity to 5-fu in vitro. a single injection of 5-fu at 200 mg/kg induced severe peripheral erythrocytopenia, thr ...200717611294
diversity of fungi in hair roots of ericaceae varies along a vegetation gradient.ericaceous dwarf shrubs including calluna vulgaris and vaccinium spp. occur both in open heathland communities and in forest ecosystems as understory vegetation. ericaceous shrubs were once thought to form ericoid mycorrhizal associations with a relatively narrow range of ascomycetous fungi closely related to, and including, rhizoscyphus ericae. however, perceptions have recently changed since the realization that a broader range of ascomycete fungi, and in some cases basidiomycete fungi, can al ...200717908212
analysis of anthocyanin variation in wild populations of bilberry (vaccinium myrtillus l.) in finland.the berries of vaccinium myrtillus l. are characterized by 15 anthocyanins. to study the variation in the anthocyanins on a south-north axis of about 1000 km in finland, the berries from 179 individual bilberry plants in 20 populations were analyzed using an optimized rp-hplc-dad method. the mean content of the total anthocyanins was 2878 mg/100 g dry weight. there was extensive variation in the anthocyanin contents within and between the populations, suggesting differences in berry raw material ...200818072741
protective effects of bilberry (vaccinium myrtillus l.) extract on restraint stress-induced liver damage in mice.our experiments showed that 18 h restraint stress could induce serious liver damage, with an increase in plasma alanine aminotransferase (alt) level (107.68 +/- 3.19 u/l vs 18.08 +/- 1.46 u/l). meanwhile, we observed increased malondialdehyde (mda) levels and lowered oxygen radical absorbance capacity (orac) values in plasma and liver of restraint mice compared with starved mice. bilberry extract (containing 42.04% anthocyanins) was oral administrated to mice at 50, 100, and 200 mg/(kg x day) fo ...200818690680
increasing litter species richness reduces variability in a terrestrial decomposer system.debate on the relationship between diversity and stability has been driven by the recognition that species loss may influence ecosystem properties and processes. we conducted a litterbag experiment in the scottish highlands, united kingdom, to examine the effects of altering plant litter diversity on decomposition, microbial biomass, and microfaunal abundance. the design of treatments was fully factorial and included five species from an upland plant community (silver birch, betula pendula; scot ...200818831186
honeybees increase fruit set in native plant species important for wildlife conservation.honeybee colonies are declining in some parts of the world. this may have important consequences for the pollination of crops and native plant species. in spain, as in other parts of europe, land abandonment has led to a decrease in the number of non professional beekeepers, which aggravates the problem of honeybee decline as a result of bee diseases in this study, we investigated the effects of honeybees on the pollination of three native plant species in northern spain, namely wildcherry prunu ...201121519875
vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry) extracts reduce angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry) extracts (vme) were tested for effects on angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. vme (0.3-30 µg ml(-1)) and gm6001 (0.1-100 µm; a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor) concentration-dependently inhibited both tube formation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (huvecs) induced by vascular endothelial growth factor-a (vegf-a). in addition, vme inhibited vegf-a-induced proliferation of huvecs. vme inhibited vegf-a-induced phosphorylations of extracellula ...201018955266
interrelation between some butterflies and plant associations (turkey).the butterfly fauna in ordu province (n-turkey) was determined in this study. their relations with the phytosociological associations found in the zone were evaluated and the lepidoptera taxa in these units were presented. the numbers of determined taxa in each plant association are castanea-carpinus-corylus (23), fagus orientalis, carpinus betulus and picea orientalis mixed forest zone (23), subalpine zone (rhododendron luteum-vaccinium myrtillus) (25), lower alpine zone (festuca lazistanica ss ...200719069995
bilberry and its main constituents have neuroprotective effects against retinal neuronal damage in vitro and in vivo.our aim was to determine whether a vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry) anthocyanoside (vma) and/or its main anthocyanidin constituents (cyanidin, delphinidin, and malvidin) can protect retinal ganglion cells (rgcs) against retinal damage in vitro and in vivo. in rgc cultures (rgc-5, a rat ganglion cell-line transformed using e1a virus) in vitro, cell damage and radical activation were induced by 3-(4-morpholinyl) sydnonimine hydrochloride (sin-1, a peroxynitrite donor). cell viability was measured us ...200919415665
Anthocyanins from bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) alleviate pruritus in a mouse model of chronic allergic contact dermatitis.Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) is one of the richest sources of anthocyanins which are known to have anticancer, wound healing and anti-allergic effects. Here, we examined whether bilberry extract (Bilberon-25) alleviates pruritus in a mouse model of chronic allergic contact dermatitis.201122022165
Decreased frost hardiness of Vaccinium vitis-idaea in reponse to UV-A radiation.The aim was to investigate plant frost hardiness responses to UV radiation, since the few results reported are largely contradictory. It was hypothesized that functional adaptation of life forms could explain these contradictions. Dwarf shrubs and tree seedlings, representing both evergreen and deciduous forms, were tested (Vaccinium vitis-idaea, V. myrtillus, Pinus sylvestris, Betula pubescens, and its red form f. rubra). The research was performed in Sodankylä, Northern Finland (67ºN), with en ...201122182287
effect of vaccinium myrtillus and its polyphenols on angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in human endothelial cells.this study investigates if the connection between vaccinium myrtillus and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ace) might be an explanation of the pharmacological effects on circulation. cultured endothelial cells from human umbilical veins were incubated with bilberry 25e extract. the main anthocyanidins combined in myrtillin chloride and separately in cyanidin, delphinidin, and malvidin, respectively, were examined concerning their effects on ace. after 10 min of incubation with bilberry 25e, a sign ...200919441816
effects of a warmer climate on seed germination in the subarctic.in a future warmer subarctic climate, the soil temperatures experienced by dispersed seeds are likely to increase during summer but may decrease during winter due to expected changes in snow depth, duration and quality. because little is known about the dormancy-breaking and germination requirements of subarctic species, how warming may influence the timing and level of germination in these species was examined.200919443459
effect of ecosystem retrogression on stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes of plants, soils and consumer organisms in boreal forest islands.in the prolonged absence of catastrophic disturbance, ecosystem retrogression occurs, and this involves increased nutrient limitation, and reduced aboveground and belowground ecosystem processes rates. little is known about how the nitrogen and carbon stable isotope ratios (delta(15)n and delta(13)c) of plants, soils and consumer organisms respond to retrogression in boreal forests. we investigated a 5000 year chronosequence of forested islands in the boreal zone of northern sweden, for which th ...200919462406
distribution of 210pb and 210po concentrations in wild berries and mushrooms in boreal forest ecosystems.the activity concentrations and distribution of 210pb and 210po in wild berries and edible mushrooms were investigated in finnish forests. the main study areas were located in scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) forests in southern and northern finland. the activity concentrations of 210pb and 210po in blueberry (vaccinium myrtillus l.) and lingonberry (vaccinium vitis-idaea l.) samples decreased in the order: stems>leaves>berries (i.e. fruits). the activity ratios of 210po/210pb in the wild berry ...200919800659
sod1-targeted gene disruption in the ericoid mycorrhizal fungus oidiodendron maius reduces conidiation and the capacity for mycorrhization.the genome sequences of mycorrhizal fungi will provide new opportunities for studying the biology and the evolution underlying this symbiotic lifestyle. the generation of null mutants at the wild-type loci is one of the best methods for gene-function assignment in the post-genomic era. to our knowledge, the generation of superoxide dismutase 1 (sod1)-null mutants in the ericoid mycorrhizal fungus oidiodendron maius is the first example of a gene-targeted disruption via homologous recombination i ...200919810810
activity of scottish plant, lichen and fungal endophyte extracts against mycobacterium aurum and mycobacterium tuberculosis.with tuberculosis the leading bacterial killer worldwide and other mycobacterial diseases on the increase, the search for new antimycobacterial agents is timely. in this study, extracts from plants, lichens and fungal endophytes of scottish provenance were screened for activity against mycobacterium aurum and m. tuberculosis h(37)rv. the best activity against m. aurum was observed for extracts of juniperus communis roots and cladonia arbuscula (mic = 4 microg/ml), and a fungal endophyte isolated ...201019827032
cytotoxic effects of bilberry extract on mcf7-gfp-tubulin breast cancer cells.bilberry (european blueberry) has been reported to have many biological effects, including anticancer activity. in this study, we investigated the antiproliferative effects of bilberry extract in relation to its ability to induce apoptosis and affect microtubule assembly and organization in mcf7 human breast cancer cells. we observed that bilberry extract inhibited cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent fashion with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 0.3-0.4 mg/ml, in concert with induct ...201020132040
protective effects of bilberry ( vaccinium myrtillus l.) extract against endotoxin-induced uveitis in mice.endotoxin-induced uveitis (eiu), a useful animal model of ocular inflammation, is induced by injection of lipopolysacharide (lps). these experiments showed that the nitric oxide (no) level significantly increased in the whole eye homogenate of balb/c mice 24 h after footpad injection of lps at a dosage of 100 mg/mouse. however, the elevated no level was significantly reduced by oral administration of bilberry extract (containing 42.04% anthocyanins) at dosages of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day for 5 ...201020222750
investigating the interaction between ungulate grazing and resource effects on vaccinium myrtillus populations with integral projection models.dense ungulate populations in forest accompanied by high grazing intensities have the potential to affect plant population dynamics, and such herbivory effects on populations are hypothesised to differ along environmental gradients. we investigated red deer grazing and resource interaction effects on the performance and dynamics of the functionally important boreal shrub vaccinium myrtillus using integral projection models (ipms). we sampled data from 900 v. myrtillus ramets in 30 plots in two c ...201020499103
vulnerability of black grouse hens to goshawk predation: result of food supply or predation facilitation?the plant cycle hypothesis says that poor-quality food affects both herbivorous voles (microtinae spp.) and grouse (tetraonidae spp.) in vole decline years, leading to increased foraging effort in female grouse and thus a higher risk of predation by the goshawk accipiter gentilis. poor-quality food (mainly the bilberry vaccinium myrtillus) for these herbivores is induced by seed masting failure in the previous year, when the bilberry is able to allocate resources for chemical defence (the mast d ...201121181416
inhibition activity of wild berry juice fractions against streptococcus pneumoniae binding to human bronchial cells.bacterial adhesion to the cell surface is a crucial step before infection can take place. inhibition of bacterial binding offers a novel preventive approach against infections. cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon ait.) juice has been found to have antiadhesive activity against different bacteria. streptococcus pneumoniae is an important pathogen and the most common cause for pneumonia, meningitis, and otitis media. in this study the inhibitory activity of cranberry (vaccinium oxycoccos l.), bilberr ...201120625989
long-term effects of single potassium fertilization on 137cs levels in plants and fungi in a boreal forest ecosystem.we examined the long-term effects of a single application of potassium (k) fertilizer (100 kg k ha(-1)) in 1992 on (137)cs uptake in a forest ecosystem in central sweden. (137)cs activity concentrations were determined in three low-growing perennial shrubs, heather (calluna vulgaris), lingonberry (vaccinium vitis-idaea) and bilberry (vaccinium myrtillus), and in four wild fungal species (cortinarius semisanguineus, lactarius rufus, rozites caperata and suillus variegatus). uptake of (137)cs by p ...201021144627
protective effects of bilberry (vaccinium myrtillus l.) extract on kbro3-induced kidney damage in mice.potassium bromate (kbro3) is an oxidizing agent used as a food additive which causes kidney damage as a potent nephrotoxic agent, and the mechanism may be explained by the generation of oxygen free radicals. our experiments showed that single intraperitoneal administration of 200 mg/kg kbro3 could induce serious kidney damage, with an increase in serum blood urea nitrogen (bun) and creatinine levels. five-day oral administration of bilberry ( vaccinium myrtillus l.) extract at 50, 100, and 200 m ...200818092757
effect of 'antidiabetis' herbal preparation on serum glucose and fructosamine in nod mice.the antihyperglycemic effect of the antidiabetis herbal preparation ((myrtilli folium (vaccinium myrtillus l.), taraxaci radix (taraxacum officinale web.), cichorii radix (cichorium intybus l.), juniperi fructus (juniperus communis l.), centaurii herba (centaurium umbellatum gilib.), phaseoli pericarpium (phaseolus vulgaris), millefollii herba (achillea millefolium l.), morii folium (morus nigra l.), valeriane radix (valleriana officinalis l.), urticae herba et radix (urtica dioica l.)), patent ...200111297848
adverse effects of herbal medicines: an overview of systematic reviews.this overview of systematic reviews (srs) aims to evaluate critically the evidence regarding the adverse effects of herbal medicines (hms). five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant srs, with 50 srs of 50 different hms meeting our inclusion criteria. most had only minor weaknesses in methods. serious adverse effects were noted only for four hms: herbae pulvis standardisatus, larrea tridentate, piper methysticum and cassia senna. the most severe adverse effects were liver o ...201323472485
study of diversity of anthocyanin composition in bilberry (vaccinium myrtillus l.) fruits.qualitative and quantitative composition of anthocyanins in bilberry (vaccinium myrtillus l.) fruits was assayed. the aim of our study was to evaluate total anthocyanin content and their composition in bilberries collected from various regions and at different time. for the quantification of total anthocyanins in frozen fruits, the spectrophotometrical assay was performed. the highest amount of anthocyanins in bilberry fruits, collected in lithuania, was found in samples from silute (0.399%), th ...200718182842
berries as chemopreventive dietary constituents--a mechanistic approach with the apcmin/+ mouse.berries contain a number of compounds that are proposed to have anticarcinogenic properties. we wanted to see if pure ellagic acid, natural ellagitannins and three wild berries have any effect on the adenoma formation in apc- mutated min/+ mice. min/+ mice were fed high-fat ain93-g diets containing 10% (w/w) freeze-dried bilberry (vaccinium myrtillus), lingonberry (vaccinium vitis-idaea), cloudberry (rubus chamaemorus), cloudberry seeds or cloudberry pulp or pure ellagic acid at 1564 mg/kg for 1 ...200818296318
range-body mass interactions of a northern ungulate - a test of hypothesis.summer diet, summer temperature, length of the growth season and animal density appeared to best explain annual and regional differences in calf and yearling body mass in moose from southeastern norway. in general animals inhabiting steep, alpine landscapes had less body mass than animals using flat, low-altitude habitats. autumn body mass of calves and yearlings decreased with increasing snow depth during the preceding winter and spring. however, calf body mass was more influenced by the summer ...199928307755
relationships between advance oak regeneration and biotic and abiotic factors.relationships between advance regeneration of four tree species (red maple (acer rubrum l.), white oak (quercus alba l.), chestnut oak (q. montana willd.) and northern red oak (q. rubra l.)) and biotic (non-tree vegetation and canopy composition) and abiotic (soil series and topographic variables) factors were investigated in 52, mature mixed-oak stands in the central appalachians. aggregate height was used as a composite measure of regeneration abundance. analyses were carried out separately fo ...200818450575
protective effect of bilberry (vaccinium myrtillus) against doxorubicin-induced oxidative cardiotoxicity in rats.doxorubicin (dox) is a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent. it is associated with serious dose-limiting cardiotoxicity, which is at least partly caused by generation of reactive oxygen species (ros). supplementations with bilberries were effective in reducing oxidative stress in many tissue injuries due their high content of antioxidants. the present study investigated the potential protective effect of bilberry extract against dox-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.201121455099
bioactive compounds from northern plants.northern conditions are characterised by long days with much light and low temperatures during the growing season. it has been chimed that herbs and berries grown in the north are stronger tasting compared to those of southern origin. the compounds imparting aroma and color to berries and herbs are secondary metabolites which in plants mostly act as chemical means of defense. recently, the production of secondary metabolites using plant cells has been the subject of expanding research. light int ...201021520706
a bilberry drink with fermented oatmeal decreases postprandial insulin demand in young healthy adults.abstract: background, in traditional medicine, blueberries have been used to facilitate blood glucose regulation in type 2 diabetes. recent studies in diabetic mice have indicated facilitated glycaemic regulation following dietary supplementation with extracts from european blueberries, also called bilberries, (vaccinium myrtillus). the purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of fermented oat meal drinks containing bilberries or rosehip (rosa canina) on glycaemic and insulinae ...201121600021
the ecology of tick-transmitted infections in the redwood chipmunk (tamias ochrogenys).the redwood chipmunk contributes to the maintenance of tick-borne diseases in northern california. the range of redwood chipmunks overlaps that of western black-legged ticks and tick-borne disease, including granulocytic anaplasmosis and lyme borreliosis. chipmunks have high anaplasma phagocytophilum pcr- and seroprevalence, are infested with a diversity of ixodes spp. ticks, and are reservoir competent for borrelia burgdorferi. we hypothesized that chipmunks could maintain tick-borne disease on ...201121643481
vaccinium myrtillus ameliorates unpredictable chronic mild stress induced depression: possible involvement of nitric oxide pathway.chronic unpredictable stressors can produce a situation similar to clinical depression and such animal models can be used for the preclinical evaluation of antidepressants. nitric oxide, a secondary messenger molecule, has been implicated in neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity, learning, aggression and depression. vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry) extract is a potent inhibitor of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and cytokine production. the present study investigated the role of nitric oxide in ...201122488796
bears and berries: species-specific selective foraging on a patchily distributed food resource in a human-altered landscape.when animals are faced with extraordinary energy-consuming events, like hibernation, finding abundant, energy-rich food resources becomes particularly important. the profitability of food resources can vary spatially, depending on occurrence, quality, and local abundance. here, we used the brown bear (ursus arctos) as a model species to quantify selective foraging on berries in different habitats during hyperphagia in autumn prior to hibernation. during the peak berry season in august and septem ...201627217612
black currant (ribes nigrum l.) and bilberry (vaccinium myrtillus l.) fruit juices inhibit adhesion of asaia spp.the aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of high-polyphenolic black currant (ribes nigrum l.) and bilberry (vaccinium myrtillus l.) juices against bacterial strains asaia lannensis and asaia bogorensis isolated as spoilage of commercial soft drinks. the composition of fruit juices was evaluated using chromatographic techniques hplc and lc-ms. the adhesion to glass, polystyrene, and polyethylene terephthalate in two different culture media was evaluated by luminometry and the plate count ...201627747228
promising results of cranberry in the prevention of oral candida biofilms.in the context of dental caries prevention by natural foodstuff sources, antifungal and antibiofilm activities of dry commercial extracts of cranberry fruit (vaccinium macrocarpon aiton) and two other red fruits (vaccinium myrtillus l. and malpighia punicifolia l.) were assessed on candida albicans and candida glabrata yeasts. when added to the culture medium, the cranberry extract displayed a significant anti-adhesion activity against candida spp. when used at low concentrations. in addition, t ...201424623607
anti-inflammatory effects of anthocyanins-rich extract from bilberry (vaccinium myrtillus l.) on croton oil-induced ear edema and propionibacterium acnes plus lps-induced liver damage in mice.bilberry (vaccinium myrtillus l.) has been known to play a protective role in human health due to its high anthocyanin content. this study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of bilberry extract (be, containing 42.04% anthocyanin) on propionibacterium acnes (p. acnes) plus lipopolysaccharide (lps) induced liver injury and croton oil-induced ear edema in mice. results showed that be could effectively inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema and liver inflammation provoked by p. acnes plus lps, ...201424548119
effects of bilberry (vaccinium myrtillus) in combination with lactic acid bacteria on intestinal oxidative stress induced by ischemia-reperfusion in mouse.intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (i/r) results in oxidative stress, inflammation, and tissue injuries. the present study investigates the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of a dietary supplement of bilberry, either alone or in combination with lactobacillus plantarum reso56, l. plantarum heal19, or pediococcus acidilactici jam046, in an i/r-induced model for oxidative stress in mice. a bilberry diet without addition of bacteria significantly decreased both lipid peroxidation (p = 0.001 ...201323488931
ripeip1, a gene from the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus rhizophagus irregularis, is preferentially expressed in planta and may be involved in root colonization.transcriptomics and genomics data recently obtained from the arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungus rhizophagus irregularis have offered new opportunities to decipher the contribution of the fungal partner to the establishment of the symbiotic association. the large number of genes which do not show similarity to known proteins witnesses the uniqueness of this group of plant-associated fungi. in this work, we characterize a gene that was called ripeip1 (preferentially expressed in planta). its expre ...201627075897
natural and anthropogenic radioactivity in the environment of kopaonik mountain, serbia.to evaluate the state of the environment in kopaonik, a mountain in serbia, the activity concentrations of (4) k, (226)ra, (232)th and (137)cs in five different types of environmental samples are determined by gamma ray spectrometry, and radiological hazard due to terrestrial radionuclides is calculated. the mean activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in the soil are higher than the global average. however, with an exception of two sampling locations, the external radiation hazard inde ...201627213569
biological availability of (238)u, (234)u and (226)ra for wild berries and meadow grasses in natural ecosystems of belarus.this work is devoted to investigation of behavior of (234)u, (238)u and (226)ra by determining the soil to plant transfer under different natural conditions such as forest or swamped areas and meadow lands with different soil types. the paper summarizes the data on investigation of uranium and radium uptake by wild berries and natural meadow grasses in the typical conditions of belarus. parameters characterizing the biological availability of (234)u, (238)u and (226)ra for bilberry (vaccinium my ...201423871250
salinity-induced expression of hkt may be crucial for na(+) exclusion in the leaf blade of huckleberry (solanum scabrum mill.), but not of eggplant (solanum melongena l.).reduced na(+) accumulation in the leaf blade is an important aspect of salinity tolerance and high affinity k(+) transporters (hkts) are known to play a significant role in the process. huckleberry and eggplant have previously been shown to display 'excluder' and 'includer' characteristics, respectively, under salt stress, but the underlying mechanisms have not been investigated. here, we isolated the cdna of the hkt homologs, solanum scabrum hkt (sshkt) from huckleberry and solanum melongena hk ...201525796329
pathogenicity of phytophthora infestans on solanaceous and asteraceous plant species in cameroon.experiments were conducted to detect potential hosts of phytophthora infestans, causal agent of potato late blight. isolates of p. infestans recovered from garden huckleberry (solanum scabrum), potato (s. tuberosum) and tomato (lycopersicon esculentum) were inoculated on detached leaves of 12 solanaceous and 14 asteraceous plant species collected in and around potato fields in the western highlands of cameroon. the inoculated leaves were maintained in petri dishes in the laboratory for 7 days at ...200315151295
large brood sizes of pied flycatcher, sparrowhawk and goshawk in peak microtine years: support for the mast depression hypothesis.the mast depression hypothesis (mdh) proposes that cyclic population fluctuations of microtines and other herbivores are an effect of cyclic seed cropping of plants. this is because high seed crops, termed masts, are produced at the expense of chemical defence against herbivores. it has generally been assumed that bird-hunting raptors produce high numbers of offspring when microtine prey are abundant because of reduced competition from generalist predators. however, this may also be caused by hi ...199828307513
alleviation of doxorubicin-induced toxicities by anthocyanin-rich bilberry (vaccinium myrtillus l.) extract in rats and mice.the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract (be) with highly antioxidative potential against doxorubicin (dox)-induced toxicity in rat and mouse models. sprague-dawley rats treated with dox (15 mg/kg intraperitoneally) showed marked body weight loss, increased abdominal ascites and serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (got) level, serum and cardiac lipid peroxidation, myocardial histopathological damage, and depletion of cardiac glutathion ...201020623509
a cross-cultural comparison of folk plant uses among albanians, bosniaks, gorani and turks living in south kosovo.kosovo represents a unique hotspot of biological and cultural diversity in europe, which allows for interesting cross-cultural ethnobotanical studies. the aims of this study were twofold: 1) to document the state of traditional knowledge related to local (esp. wild) plant uses for food, medicine, and handicrafts in south kosovo; and 2) to examine how communities of different ethnic groups in the region (albanians, bosniaks/gorani, and turks) relate to and value wild botanical taxa in their ecosy ...201525964167
glutathione s-transferases and malondialdehyde in the liver of nod mice on short-term treatment with plant mixture extract p-9801091.changes in the concentration of glutathione s-transferases (gsts) and malondialdehyde (mda) were assessed in the liver of normal and diabetic nod mice with and without treatment with the plant extract p-9801091. the plant extract p-9801091 is an antihyperglycaemic preparation containing myrtilli folium (vaccinium myrtillus l.), taraxaci radix (taraxacum of fi cinale web.), cichorii radix (cichorium intybus l.), juniperi fructus (juniperus communis l.), centaurii herba (centaurium umbellatum gili ...200312722130
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