igs-rflp analysis and development of molecular markers for identification of fusarium poae, fusarium langsethiae, fusarium sporotrichioides and fusarium kyushuense.the intergenic spacer (igs) regions of the rdna of several fusarium spp. strains obtained from the collaborative researchers (int. j. food microbiol. (2003)) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (pcr), and an igs-rflp analysis was performed. restriction digestion with alui, mspi and psti allowed differentiation between the related fusarium poae and fusarium kyushuense species. fusarium langsethiae was also separated from fusarium sporotrichioides (including var. minus) on the basis of the ...200415337596
specific detection of fusarium langsethiae and related species by dgge and arms-pcr of a beta-tubulin (tub1) gene fragment.fusarium langsethiae was recently described as a new toxigenic fusarium species, which morphologically resembles fusarium poae, but exhibits a mycotoxin pattern related to fusarium sporotrichioides. to develop tools for early and specific detection of f. langsethiae and distinguishing it from related species of section sporotrichiella and discolor (f. poae, f. sporotrichioides, fusarium kyushuense, fusarium robustum, fusarium sambucinum and fusarium tumidum) sequence variations in their beta-tub ...200415337597
an oligonucleotide microarray for the identification and differentiation of trichothecene producing and non-producing fusarium species occurring on cereal grain.cereal grain may be infected with a number of fusarium species some of which are producers of highly toxic compounds such as the trichothecenes. correct identification of these species is essential for risk assessment of cereal grain for human or animal consumption. most of the available methods for identification are either time consuming or aimed at only one or a few target species. microarray technology offers parallel analysis of a high number of dna targets. in this study 57 capture oligonu ...200515823394
limiting mycotoxins in stored wheat.the quality of harvested wheat grain can deteriorate markedly during the post-harvest management stages. biotic factors, such as grain type and ripeness, coupled with the prevailing abiotic factors, such as water content and temperature, and also preservative concentration will influence the safe storage life and the level of contamination with mycotoxins. these mycotoxins include deoxynivalenol (don) produced pre-harvest and zearalenone (zea) produced post-harvest by fusarium graminearum and fu ...201020455159
mycotoxin production of fusarium langsethiae and fusarium sporotrichioides on cereal-based substrates.the present study investigated and compared the mycotoxin production of two fusarium species, f. sporotrichioides and f. langsethiae, isolated from grain samples. fusarium strains were cultivated at 25°c for 7 days on two types of solid media, i.e. rice-flour and cereal-flour agar. toxins produced were measured after the incubation period with a multi-mycotoxin method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (lc-ms/ms). both f. sporotrichioides and f. langsethiae synthesised type- ...201123605980
control of t-2 toxin in fusarium langsethiae and geotrichum candidum co-culture.due to contamination of barley grains by fusarium langsethiae, t-2 toxin can be present in the brewing process. it has been observed that the presence of the yeast geotrichum candidum during malting can reduce the final concentration of this mycotoxin in beer. in this work, a co-culture method was carried out for both microorganisms in order to evaluate the effect on t-2 mycotoxin concentration in comparison with the pure culture of f. langsethiae in the same conditions. the microbial growth of ...201223334039
inoculum potential of fusarium spp. relates to tillage and straw management in norwegian fields of spring oats.the increased occurrence of fusarium-mycotoxins in norwegian cereals over the last decade, is thought to be caused by increased inoculum resulting from more cereal residues at the soil surface as a result of reduced tillage practices. in addition, weather conditions have increasingly promoted inoculum development and infection by fusarium species. the objective of this work was to elucidate the influence of different tillage regimes (autumn plowing; autumn harrowing; spring plowing; spring harro ...201627148236
deoxynivalenol and other selected fusarium toxins in swedish wheat--occurrence and correlation to specific fusarium species.wheat is often infected by fusarium species producing mycotoxins, which may pose health risks to humans and animals. deoxynivalenol (don) is the most important fusarium toxin in swedish wheat and has previously been shown to be produced mainly by fusarium graminearum. however, less is known about the co-occurrence of don and f. graminearum with other toxins and fusarium species in sweden. this study examined the distribution of the most important toxigenic fusarium species and their toxins in wi ...201323962919
deoxynivalenol and other selected fusarium toxins in swedish oats--occurrence and correlation to specific fusarium species.fusarium moulds frequently contaminate oats and other cereals world-wide, including those grown in northern europe. to investigate the presence of toxigenic fusarium species and their toxins in oats, samples were taken during 2010 and 2011 in three geographical regions of sweden (east, west, south). the samples were analysed by real-time pcr for the specific infection level of seven fusarium species associated with oats and other cereals (fusarium poae, fusarium graminearum, fusarium langsethiae ...201323962918
aphid infestation increases fusarium langsethiae and t-2 and ht-2 mycotoxins in wheat.fusarium langsethiae is a fungal pathogen of cereal crops that is an increasing problem in northern europe, but much of its epidemiology is poorly understood. the species produces the mycotoxins t-2 and ht-2, which are highly toxic. it was hypothesized that grain aphids, sitobion avenae, may transmit f. langsethiae inoculum between wheat plants, and a series of transmission experiments and volatile chemical analyses was performed to test this. manual translocation of aphids from inoculated to un ...201627590814
in vitro evaluation of sub-lethal concentrations of plant-derived antifungal compounds on fusaria growth and mycotoxin production.phytopathogenic fungi can lead to significant cereal yield losses, also producing mycotoxins dangerous for human and animal health. the fungal control based on the use of synthetic fungicides can be complemented by "green" methods for crop protection, based on the use of natural products. in this frame, the antifungal activities of bergamot and lemon essential oils and of five natural compounds recurrent in essential oils (citronellal, citral, cinnamaldehyde, cuminaldehyde and limonene) have bee ...201728758914
draft genome sequence and chemical profiling of fusarium langsethiae, an emerging producer of type a trichothecenes.fusarium langsethiae is a widespread pathogen of small grain cereals, causing problems with t-2 and ht-2 toxin contamination in grains every year. in an effort to better understand the biology of this fungus, we present a draft genome sequence of f. langsethiae fl201059 isolated from oats in norway. the assembly was fragmented, but reveals a genome of approximately 37.5 mb, with a gc content around 48%, and 12,232 predicted protein-coding genes. focusing on secondary metabolism we identified can ...201626803271
an integrated taxonomic study of fusarium langsethiae, fusarium poae and fusarium sporotrichioides based on the use of composite integrated systematic study was carried out to clarify the taxonomical position and relationship of fusarium langsethiae to other taxa within the fusarium section sporotrichiella. strains of this species were compared with strains of the closely related species fusarium poae and fusarium sporotrichioides using a composite dataset. this set consisted of dna sequences derived from the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (its) regions, partial sequences of the ribosomal intergenic spacer (igs) ...200415337598
the use of tri5 gene sequences for pcr detection and taxonomy of trichothecene-producing species in the fusarium section sporotrichiella.purified dna from isolates of fusarium poae, fusarium sporotrichioides, fusarium kyushuense and fusarium langsethiae was used as a template to amplify a 658-bp fragment from the trichodiene synthase (tri5) gene of these fungi with the gene-specific pcr primer pair tox5-1/tox5-2. fragments obtained were isolated and sequenced. dna sequence alignments revealed high similarity between the sequences derived from f. sporotrichioides and f. langsethiae (98.7%) and less similarity between the latter sp ...200415337595
aflp analysis of fusarium species in the section sporotrichiella-evidence for fusarium langsethiae as a new species.amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) was applied to compare 100 isolates of fusarium poae, fusarium sporotrichioides, and fusarium langsethiae. comparison of fingerprints revealed several markers specific for each group of isolates. cluster analysis showed a clear separation of f. poae from f. sporotrichioides and f. langsethiae. f. langsethiae isolates formed a rather homogeneous group separated from f. sporotrichioides. the aflp data obtained support f. langsethiae as a new fusarium s ...200415337594
phylogenetic analyses of the fusarium poae, fusarium sporotrichioides and fusarium langsethiae species complex based on partial sequences of the translation elongation factor-1 alpha gene.phylogenetic relationships between four fusarium species were studied using parts of the nuclear translation elongation factor-1 alpha (ef-1alpha) gene as a phylogenetic marker. sequences from 12 isolates of fusarium poae, 10 isolates of fusarium sporotrichioides and 12 isolates of fusarium langsethiae yielded 4, 5 and 5 haplotypes, respectively. in addition, we included one isolate of fusarium kyushuense. the aligned sequences were subjected to neighbor-joining (nj), maximum parsimony and maxim ...200415337593
phylogenetic relationship of fusarium langsethiae to fusarium poae and fusarium sporotrichioides as inferred by igs, its, beta-tubulin sequences and up-pcr hybridization analysis.fusarium langsethiae was recently described to accommodate "powdery" isolates of fusarium poae, which morphologically resemble f. poae, but whose metabolite profile is similar to that of fusarium sporotrichioides. in order to investigate the phylogenetic relationship of f. langsethiae to closely related species, we sequenced the internal transcribed spacer (its) regions 1 and 2 and part of the intergenic spacer (igs) region of the rdna cluster and part of the beta-tubulin gene from 109 strains o ...200415337592
diversity in metabolite production by fusarium langsethiae, fusarium poae, and fusarium sporotrichioides.the production of mycotoxins and other metabolites by 109 strains of fusarium langsethiae, fusarium poae, fusarium sporotrichioides, and f. kyushuense was investigated independently in four laboratories by liquid or gas chromatography analyses of cultural extracts with uv diode array, electron capture, or mass spectrometric detection systems. from the compiled results, it was found that f. langsethiae consistently produced the trichothecenes diacetoxyscirpenol (das), t-2 toxin (t-2), ht-2 toxin ...200415337591
development of pcr assays for the detection and differentiation of fusarium sporotrichioides and fusarium langsethiae.isolates of the type-a trichothecene producing fusarium sporotrichioides and fusarium langsethiae were grouped and differentiated in a phylogenetic tree using its sequence dissimilarity. an attempt was made to develop a pcr-based assay for the detection and differentiation of fusarium sporotrichiodes from other fusarium species using the 5'-region of the tri5 gene as a template. however, this assay was unable to differentiate, to a satisfactory level, between isolates of fusarium sporotrichioide ...200415043871
real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay for group specific detection of important trichothecene producing fusarium species in wheat.trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivaneol (don), nivalenol (niv) and t2-toxin are produced by a variety of fusarium spp. on cereals in the field and may be ingested by consumption of commodities and products made thereof. the toxins inhibit eukaryotic protein biosynthesis and may thus impair human and animal health. aimed at rapid and sensitive detection of the most important trichothecene producing fusarium spp. in a single analysis, a real-time duplex loop-mediated isothermal amplificatio ...201424631635
mycotoxin profile of fusarium langsethiae isolated from wheat in italy: production of type-a trichothecenes and relevant glucosyl derivatives.fusarium langsethiae, formally described as a new species over a decade ago, has been identified as the main producer of ht-2 (ht2) and t-2 (t2) toxins in europe in small cereal grains. mycotoxin contamination caused by this fusarium species can represent a food safety hazard that deserves further attention. in the present work, the mycotoxin profile in wheat cultures of f. langsethiae is presented with particular reference to the production of major type-a trichothecenes and their glucosyl deri ...201324338884
influence of temperature on infection, growth, and mycotoxin production by fusarium langsethiae and f. sporotrichioides in durum wheat.information concerning the temperature requirements of the species causing fusarium head blight of small grains is essential for understanding which species cause the disease in different areas and years, for developing weather-driven disease models, and for predicting mycotoxin type and quantity in kernels. the optimal temperature range for growth was 20-25 °c for fusarium langsethiae and 25-30 °c for f. sporotrichioides, and the optimum for production of both t-2 and ht-2 toxins was 15 °c for ...201424387848
keratitis due to fusarium langsethiae: clinical profile, molecular identification, and susceptibility to antifungals.we report a case of keratitis due to fusarium langsethiae in a 56-year-old man. the patient presented with pain and tearing of 10 days duration in the right eye, which had sustained a paddy stalk injury. on examination, a hypopyon corneal ulcer was noted in the right eye. multiple scrapings were obtained from the affected part of the cornea. a lactophenol cotton blue wet mount and a gram-stained smear of scrapings were made. scrapings were also inoculated on various culture media, including sabo ...201525645251
a non-linear model for temperature-dependent sporulation and t-2 and ht-2 production of fusarium langsethiae and fusarium sporotrichioides.this research has produced new quantitative data on the sporulation and t-2+ht-2 toxin production that could be further integrated to develop a comprehensive disease or toxin prediction model for fusarium langsethiae and fusarium sporotrichioides. experiments were conducted to determine the effect of temperature or incubation time on sporulation and the effect of temperature on t-2+ht-2 toxin production of strains of the two species. f. sporotrichioides demonstrated a preference for higher tempe ...201627020157
effects of phenolic acids on the growth and production of t-2 and ht-2 toxins by fusarium langsethiae and f. sporotrichioides.the effect of natural phenolic acids was tested on the growth and production of t-2 and ht-2 toxins by fusarium langsethiae and f. sporotrichioides, on mycotoxin synthetic medium. plates treated with 0.5 mm of each phenolic acid (caffeic, chlorogenic, ferulic and p-coumaric) and controls without phenolic acid were incubated for 14 days at 25 °c. fungal biomass of f. langsethiae and f. sporotrichioides was not reduced by the phenolic acids. however, biosynthesis of t-2 toxin by f. langsethiae was ...201627049379
occurrence of fusarium langsethiae and t-2 and ht-2 toxins in italian malting barley.t-2 and ht-2 toxins are two of the most toxic members of type-a trichothecenes, produced by a number of fusarium species. the occurrence of these mycotoxins was studied in barley samples during a survey carried out in the 2011-2014 growing seasons in climatically different regions in italy. the percentage of samples found positive ranges from 22% to 53%, with values included between 26 and 787 μg/kg. the percentage of samples with a t-2 and ht-2 content above the eu indicative levels for barley ...201627556490
complete genome sequence of a novel hypovirus from the phytopathogenic fungus fusarium langsethiae.we describe a novel positive single-stranded rna virus, termed fusarium langsethiae hypovirus 1 (flhv1), from the isolate ah32 of the phytopathogenic fungus fusarium langsethiae the properties of flhv1 permit assignment to the genus alphahypovirus in the family hypoviridae this is the first report of a mycovirus identified in f. langsethiae.201728254984
identification and characterization of spontaneous auxotrophic mutants in fusarium langsethiae.analysis of 49 strains of fusarium langsethiae originating from northern europe (russia, finland, sweden, uk, norway, and latvia) revealed the presence of spontaneous auxotrophic mutants that reflect natural intraspecific diversity. our investigations detected that 49.0% of f. langsethiae strains were auxotrophic mutants for biotin, and 8.2% of the strains required thiamine as a growth factor. they failed to grow on vitamin-free media. for both prototrophic and auxotrophic strains, no growth def ...201728362313
differential retention of gene functions in a secondary metabolite fungi, distribution of secondary metabolite (sm) gene clusters is often associated with host- or environment-specific benefits provided by sms. in the plant pathogen alternaria brassicicola (dothideomycetes), the dep cluster confers an ability to synthesize the sm depudecin, a histone deacetylase inhibitor that contributes weakly to virulence. the dep cluster includes genes encoding enzymes, a transporter, and a transcription regulator. we investigated the distribution and evolution of the de ...201728460114
effect of fenpropimorph, prochloraz and tebuconazole on growth and production of t-2 and ht-2 toxins by fusarium langsethiae in oat-based medium.fusarium langsethiae has been isolated from infected cereals in central and northern europe where it has been identified in the last decade as the main species involved in the occurrence of high levels of t-2 and ht-2 toxins, mainly in oats. the efficacy of three fungicides (prochloraz, tebuconazole, fenpropimorph) for controlling growth of two strains of f. langsethiae isolated from oats was examined at 0.96 and 0.98 a(w) at 15, 20 and 25 °c on oat-based media. the concentrations necessary for ...022015243
fusarium langsethiae sp. nov. on cereals in europe.a new species of fusarium, fusarium langsethiae, is described, illustrated and discussed. this species is isolated from kernels of oats, wheat and barley in several european countries. morphologically, the species resembles fusarium poae. it is differentiated from f. poae by slower growth, less aerial mycelium and absence of odour; its napiform or globose conidia are borne in the aerial mycelium on the agar surface on often bent phialides which exhibit sometimes more than one opening, whereas th ...200415337590
fusarium sibiricum sp. nov, a novel type a trichothecene-producing fusarium from northern asia closely related to f. sporotrichioides and f. langsethiae.production of type a trichothecenes has been reported in the closely related species fusarium langsethiae and f. sporotrichioides. here, we characterized a collection of fusarium isolates from siberia and the russian far east (hereafter asian isolates) that produce high levels of the type a trichothecene t-2 toxin and are similar in morphology to the type a trichothecene-producing f. langsethiae, and to f. poae which often produces the type b trichothecene nivalenol. the asian isolates possess u ...201121459470
modeling the effects of environmental conditions on ht2 and t2 toxin accumulation in field oat grains.fusarium head blight (fhb) of wheat and barley has been extensively researched worldwide; in contrast, there is limited information on the effects of environmental conditions on fusarium toxin accumulation in oat grains. more than 300 samples of oat grain from various regions of the united kingdom from 2006 to 2008 were analyzed for mycotoxin contamination due to infection by fusarium spp. ht2 and t2 toxins were the two most commonly detected, and their concentrations in individual samples were ...201423883158
phylogenetic relationships of fusarium poae based on ef-1 alpha and mtssu sequences.a molecular phylogenetic analysis of fusarium poae isolates from south america (argentina) and europe (mainly england, germany, italy) was performed using 98 f. poae, four fusarium culmorum, two fusarium sporotrichioides and one fusarium langsethiae isolates. phylogenetic analyses were performed using nuclear (translation elongation factor 1-alpha, ef-1 alpha) and mitochondrial (mitochondrial small subunit rdna, mtssu) sequences. partitioned (each dataset separately) and combined (ef-1 alpha+mts ...201020965066
comparisons of water activity and temperature impacts on growth of fusarium langsethiae strains from northern europe on oat-based media.this study has examined the effect of water activity (a(w), 0.995-0.90) and temperature (10-37 degrees c) on the lag phases prior to growth, growth rates and used models to develop two dimensional profiles for optimum and marginal conditions for two strains of fusarium langsethiae from four northern european countries (uk, norway, sweden, and finland) on an oat-based medium. results showed that the optimum a(w) for growth was at 0.98-0.995 and 25 degrees c. the limit for growth of the strains wa ...020688410
selective extraction, structural characterisation and antifungal activity assessment of napins from an industrial rapeseed meal.this article reports an extraction-purification of napins from an industrial rapeseed meal and the assessment of their antimicrobial activity against fusarium langsethiae. the best extraction conditions are observed at ph 2, 12% (w/w) of rapeseed meal after 15 min of extraction in water at room temperature. under these conditions the extraction is highly selective, allowing a simple purification process (ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by desalting size exclusion chromatography) to get p ...201223442668
influence of barley malting operating parameters on t-2 and ht-2 toxinogenesis of fusarium langsethiae, a worrying contaminant of malting barley in europe.the fungus fusarium langsethiae, exclusively described in europe at present, seems to have taken the place of other fusarium species in barley fields over the last 5 years. it has proved to be a highly toxic type-a trichothecene producer (t-2 and ht-2 toxins). the aim of this work was to study the ecotoxinogenesis of this fungus the better to identify and manage the health risk it may pose during the beer manufacturing process. the influence of temperature and water activity on its growth rate a ...201020597020
different sample treatment approaches for the analysis of t-2 and ht-2 toxins from oats-based media.a lc-dad method is proposed for the determination of the t-2 and ht-2 toxins in cultures of fusarium langsethiae in oat-based and other in vitro media. test media consisted of freshly prepared milled oats to which t-2 and ht-2 toxin stock solutions were added. different mixtures of extraction solvent (acetonitrile:water and methanol:water), extraction times (30', 60' or 90') and drying methods were investigated. results showed that extraction with methanol:water (80:20, v/v) for 90 min, drying w ...201020580329
temperature and water activity effects on production of t-2 and ht-2 by fusarium langsethiae strains from north european countries.this study has examined the effect of ecophysiological factors, water activity (a(w), 0.995-0.90) and temperature (10-37 °c), on the t-2 and ht-2 toxins production by fusarium langsethiae. two dimensional profiles for optimum and marginal conditions have been built for two strains from each of four northern european countries (uk, norway, sweden, finland) on an oat-based medium. this showed that the optimum a(w) and temperature conditions for t-2 + ht-2 production was between 0.98-0.995, and 20- ...021356443
molecular studies to identify the fusarium species responsible for ht-2 and t-2 mycotoxins in uk oats.high levels of fusarium mycotoxins ht-2 and t-2 have been detected in uk oats since surveys started in 2002. fusarium langsethiae and the closely related species f. sporotrichioides have previously been associated with the contamination of cereals with type a trichothecenes ht-2 and t-2 in nordic countries. preliminary microbiological analysis of uk oat samples with high concentrations of ht-2 and t-2 detected and isolated f. langsethiae and f. poae but not the other type a trichothecene produci ...022521800
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