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chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils of lantana camara, ageratum houstonianum and eupatorium adenophorum.essential oils have applications in folk medicine, food preservation, and as feed additives. the essential oils of lantana camara linn. (verbenaceae), ageratum houstonianum mill. (asteraceae) and eupatorium adenophorum spreng. (asteraceae) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gcms). in l. camara oil, of the total identified (83.91%) volatile constituents, five constituents [3,7,11-trimethyl-1,6,10-dodecatriene (28.86%), beta-caryophyllene (12.28%), zingiberene (7.63%), gamma-cu ...201020645797
analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the volatile components of ageratina adenophora spreng., growing in the canary islands.the essential oil of ageratina adenophora spreng., growing in the canary islands was analyzed by gc-ms. a total of 78 volatile compounds was identified and p-cymene (11.6%) was the major component in the oil. the sesquiterpene fraction (44.3%) was higher than the monoterpene one (32.1%).200211883666
geographical and temporal changes of foliar fungal endophytes associated with the invasive plant ageratina adenophora.endophytes may gradually accumulate in the new geographic range of a non-native plant, just as pathogens do. to test this hypothesis, the dynamics of colonization and diversity of foliar fungal endophytes of non-native ageratina adenophora were investigated. previous reports showed that the time since the initial introduction (1930s) of a. adenophora into china varied among populations. endophytes were sampled in three provinces of southwest china in 21 sites that varied from 20 to 70 years sinc ...201424276537
preparation, phytochemical investigation, and safety evaluation of chlorogenic acid products from eupatorium adenophorum.eupatorium adenophorum is widely distributed throughout the world's tropical and temperate regions. it has become a harmful weed of crops and natural environments. its leaves contain bioactive compounds such as chlorogenic acid and may be used as feed additives. in this study, chlorogenic acid was extracted and separated from leaves of e. adenophorum. three chlorogenic acid products were prepared with different purities of 6.11%, 22.17%, and 96.03%. phytochemical analysis demonstrated that the m ...201628042867
tea is a key virulence factor for alternaria alternata (fr.) keissler infection of its host.a toxin-deficient mutant strain, hp001 mutant of alternaria alternata, whose mycelium is unable to infect its host, produces little tenuazonic acid (tea) toxin. how tea plays a role in initiating host infection by a. alternata remains unclear. in this research we use imaging-pam based on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and transmission electron microscopy to explore the role of tea toxin during the infection process of a. alternata. photosystem ii damage began even before wild type mycelium ...201728324684
acaricidal activity of extract from eupatorium adenophorum against the psoroptes cuniculi and sarcoptes scabiei in vitro.the possible acaricidal activity of eupatorium adenophorum was analyzed using extracts created by water decocting, ethanol thermal circumfluence, and steam distillation. the toxic effect of each extract was tested against psoroptes cuniculi and sarcoptes scabiei in vitro. ethanol thermal circumfluence extract had strong toxicity against mites, killing all s. scabiei at 0.5 and 1.0 g/ml (w/v) concentration, while 1g/ml extract was also found to kill all p. cuniculi within a 4-h period. similarly, ...201122244533
multiple mechanisms underlie rapid expansion of an invasive alien plant.• with growing concerns over serious ecological problems, a particular challenge is to reveal the complex mechanisms underlying rapid expansion of invasive species. ageratina adenophora is of particular interest in addressing this question. • we used geographic information systems and logistic regression to identify the geographic and environmental factors contributing to the presence of a. adenophora. join-count spatial statistics with reproduction mode examination were employed to elucidate th ...201121517870
microbial community on healthy and diseased leaves of an invasive plant eupatorium adenophorum in southwest china.invasive plants have caused great economic losses and environmental problems worldwide. eupatorium adenophorum is one of the most invasive weeds in china. to better understand its invasive mechanisms, in the present paper, the microbial communities of healthy and diseased leaves of e. adenophorum were obtained using both culture-independent and -dependent methods and their diversities were compared. the bacteria obtained from culture-independent method belong to proteobacteria (95.8%), actinobac ...201020437143
two new thymol derivatives from the roots of ageratina adenophora.two new thymol derivatives, 7,9-diisobutyryloxy-8-ethoxythymol (1) and 7-acetoxy-8-methoxy-9-isobutyryloxythymol (2), were isolated from fresh roots of ageratina adenophora, together with four known compounds, 7,9-di-isobutyryloxy-8-methoxythymol (3), 9-oxoageraphorone (4), (-)-isochaminic acid (5) and (1α,6α)-10-hydroxycar-3-ene-2-one (6). their structures were established on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis, and they were all isolated from the roots of a. adenophora for the first t ...201728397757
anti-inflammatory potential of ethanolic leaf extract of eupatorium adenophorum spreng. through alteration in production of tnf-a, ros and expression of certain genes.search for a novel anti-inflammatory agent from a herbal source, such as eupatorium adenophorum spreng., a plant from the eastern himalayas, is of prime interest in the present investigation. inflammation causes tissue destruction and development of diseases such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and so forth. the ethanolic leaf extract of e. adenophorum (eea) was administered intravenously and in other cases topically at the site of delayed type hypersensitivity (dth) reaction in mouse foot paw ...201121808653
the in vitro cytotoxic activity of ethno-pharmacological important plants of darjeeling district of west bengal against different human cancer cell lines.plant derived components have attracted particular attention as an alternative source to battle several diseases including cancer. the variation in the climate, the geographical location and the rich ethnomedicinal traditions has made the darjeeling himalayas an abode of invaluable repository of traditional medicinal plants. in this study, we explored the in vitro anticancer properties of traditionally used medicinal plants from the darjeeling hills against different human cancer cell lines.201525887417
differential responses of the activities of antioxidant enzymes to thermal stresses between two invasive eupatorium species in china.the effect of thermal stress on the antioxidant system was investigated in two invasive plants, eupatorium adenophorum spreng. and e. odoratum l. the former is sensitive to high temperature, whereas the latter is sensitive to low temperature. our aim was to explore the relationship between the response of antioxidant enzymes and temperature in the two invasive weeds with different distribution patterns in china. plants were transferred from glasshouse to growth chambers at a constant 25 degrees ...200818713373
putative nonribosomal peptide synthetase and cytochrome p450 genes responsible for tentoxin biosynthesis in alternaria alternata zj33.tentoxin, a cyclic tetrapeptide produced by several alternaria species, inhibits the f₁-atpase activity of chloroplasts, resulting in chlorosis in sensitive plants. in this study, we report two clustered genes, encoding a putative non-ribosome peptide synthetase (nrps) tes and a cytochrome p450 protein tes1, that are required for tentoxin biosynthesis in alternaria alternata strain zj33, which was isolated from blighted leaves of eupatorium adenophorum. using a pair of primers designed according ...201627490569
characteristics of the microbial community in rhizosphere of camptotheca acuminata cultured with exotic invasive plant eupatorium adenophorum.the traditional culture-dependent plate counting and culture-independent small-subunit-ribosomal rna gene-targeted molecular techniques, single-strand conformation polymorphism (sscp) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (trflp) combined with 16s rdna clone library were adopted to investigate the impacts of secretion from camptotheca acuminata (abbreviated to ca) roots on the quantities and structure of eukaryotic microbes and bacteria in the rhizosphere, and the possibility tha ...200717393079
identification of tenuazonic acid as a novel type of natural photosystem ii inhibitor binding in q(b)-site of chlamydomonas reinhardtii.tenuazonic acid (tea) is a natural phytotoxin produced by alternaria alternata, the causal agent of brown leaf spot disease of eupatorium adenophorum. results from chlorophyll fluorescence revealed tea can block electron flow from q(a) to q(b) at photosystem ii acceptor side. based on studies with d1-mutants of chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the no. 256 amino acid plays a key role in tea binding to the q(b)-niche. the results of competitive replacement with [(14)c]atrazine combined with jip-test and ...200717379181
accumulation and biotransformation of chromenes and benzofurans in a cell suspension culture of ageratina adenophora.a cell suspension culture of ageratina adenophora was shown to yield several novel chromene and benzofuran derivatives in minute amounts that were different to the compounds found in seedlings of the same species. the structure elucidation of the new compounds is described. when two of the seedling chromenes (demethoxyencecalin and demethylencecalin) were fed to the cell suspension culture, one biotransformation product each was obtained in high yields (80%) that originated from a hydroxylation ...198717269074
[plant diversity of different replaced communities after eupatorium adenophorum removal].plant diversity of different replaced communities after eupatorium adenophorum removal. wang in this paper, an investigation on the structure, species composition and plant diversity of replaced communities after the removal of invasive e. adenophorum at the beginning of 1980s was made in the shuangbo county of yunnan province, with local aged pinus yunnanensis and unmanaged e. adenophorum forests as the reference. the results showed that in replaced communities, the richness, shannon-wiener, si ...200616724727
hepatotoxicity and cholestasis in rats induced by the sesquiterpene, 9-oxo-10,11-dehydroageraphorone, isolated from eupatorium adenophorum.eupatorium adenophorum leaves cause hepatotoxicity and cholestasis in rats. the hepatotoxicant has been characterized as 9-oxo-10,11-dehydroageraphorone (oda), a cadinene sesquiterpene. oral administration of oda, mixed in feed to rats, caused jaundice in 24 h. the liver of the intoxicated animals had focal areas of hepatocellular necrosis, proliferation, and dilation of bile ducts with degenerative changes in the lining epithelium. there was marked increase in the conjugated form of plasma bili ...200111835625
biochemical alterations in the blood plasma of rats associated with hepatotoxicity induced by eupatorium adenophorum.eupatorium adenophorum (crofton weed), a native of central america. has appeared as a major weed in several areas in different parts of the world. horses that eat this plant are poisoned on prolonged exposure. toxicity due to consumption of this plant by other grazing animals is not clear. administration of freeze-dried leaf powder to mice results in hepatotoxicity. earlier attempts to produce toxicity in rats using the leaves of this plant were not successful. in the present study, administrati ...200111583383
chloroplastic oxidative burst induced by tenuazonic acid, a natural photosynthesis inhibitor, triggers cell necrosis in eupatorium adenophorum spreng.tenuazonic acid (tea), a nonhost-specific phytotoxin produced by alternaria alternata, was determined to be a novel natural photosynthesis inhibitor owning several action sites in chloroplasts. to further elucidate the mode of its action, studies were conducted to assess the production and involvement of reactive oxygen species (ros) in the toxic activity of tea. a series of experiments indicated that tea treatment can induce chloroplast-derived ros generation including not only (1)o(2) but also ...201020026008
acaricidal activity of 9-oxo-10,11-dehydroageraphorone extracted from eupatorium adenophorum in vitro.the acaricidal activity of the 9-oxo-10,11-dehydroageraphorone (euptox a), a cadenine sesquiterpene from eupatorium adenophorum (e. adenophorum) against sarcoptes scabiei and psoroptes cuniculi was tested in vitro. a complementary log-log (cll) model was used to analyze the data of the toxicity tests in vitro. the results showed euptox a had strong toxicity against mites, killing all s. scabiei at 3 and 4 mg/ml (m/v) concentration, while 4 mg/ml euptox a was also found to kill all p. cuniculi wi ...201424631419
hepatotoxicity of eupatorium adenophorum to rats.freeze dried eupatorium adenophorum leaf powder mixed in rat feed at a level of 25% elicited hepatotoxicity. the affected animals were jaundiced and had marked increase in plasma bilirubin levels and activities of alkaline phosphatase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase. the liver of intoxicated animals had focal areas of necrosis and bile duct proliferation. elevation in plasma bilirubin concomitant with alterations in enzyme profile and histopathological le ...200010665812
isolation of a compound from eupatorium adenophorum (spreng.) [ageratina adenophora (spreng.)] causing hepatotoxicity in mice.regular ingestion of eupatorium adenophorum [ageratina adenophora (spreng.)] or crofton weed causes chronic pulmonary disease in horses mainly in australia, new zealand, and the himalayas. the disease is characterized by pulmonary interstitial fibrosis, emphysema, alveolar epithelisation and reduced tolerance to exercise. horses apparently are the only animals affected and there are numerous reports of farms losing all their horses. the disorder was produced experimentally in horse feeding trial ...19958581319
molluscicidal activity of the plant eupatorium adenophorum against oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host snail of schistosoma japonicum.the potential molluscicidal activities of aqueous extracts of eupatorium adenophorum have recently been evaluated against oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host snail of schistosoma japonicum. the snails were continuously exposed to extracts of the leaves, roots or stems [each at concentrations of 0.27%, 0.50% and 0.86% (w/v)], with survival recorded 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, 52, 58, 70, 76, 82 and 96 h after the start of the exposure. even at the lowest concentration tested (0.27%), the leaf ...200919695160
[screening, identification, and antagonism assessment, of dominant bacteria in ageratina adenophora sprengel rhizosphere soil].by using isolation and culture method, 25 strains of dominant bacteria in ageratina adenophora rhizosphere soil were isolated and identified, of which, 8 strains were assessed for their antagonistic activity. the results showed that bacillus and pseudomonas were highly abundant in a. adenophora rhizosphere soil, of which, b. subtilis and b. megaterium were most abundant and occupied 55.6% of the total identified bacteria. these dominant bacteria had different level antagonistic activity to fusar ...200718333457
hepatotoxicity of eupatorium adenophorum extracts and the identification of major hepatotoxic components.eupatorium adenophorum can induce liver toxicity in animals. for the safe utilisation of the weed, the hepatotoxic components need to be discovered. in this study, in vitro hepatotoxicity of different extracts from e. adenophorum were determined on human hepatocyte cell line l02 and hepatocellular carcinoma cell line hepg2. the results showed that water extracts of e. adenophorum exhibited no hepatotoxicity in vitro while high concentrations of the organic solvent extracts had obvious hepatotoxi ...201728278655
hepatotoxicity in rat induced by partially purified toxins from eupatorium adenophorum (ageratina adenophora).a group of rats were administered a methanolic extract of eupatorium adenophorum (ageratina adenophora) oven-dried (60 degrees c) leaf powder and a partially purified fraction from the methanolic extract. administration of the methanolic extract and the partially purified fraction elicited a significant increase in total and conjugated bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, 5'-nucleotidase and transaminases. histopathology of the livers from these animals revealed dilated bile ducts and proliferative ...200111072039
investigations into crofton weed (eupatorium adenophorum) toxicity in horses. 19854039926
effect of ageratina adenophora invasion on the composition and diversity of soil microbiome.in the present study, high throughput 16s rrna gene sequencing was used to investigate soil invaded by the aggressive weed ageratina adenophora to determine its effect on the species composition, distribution, and biodiversity of the bacterial communities. soil samples from 12 micro-sites containing a monoculture of a. adenophora plants, mixtures of a. adenophora and different native plant species, and native species alone were studied. we found that the invasion of this weed resulted in a selec ...201728239038
in vivo assessment of effect of phytotoxin tenuazonic acid on psii reaction centers.tenuazonic acid (tea), a phytotoxin produced by the fungus alternaria alternata isolated from diseased croftonweed (ageratina adenophora), exhibits a strong inhibition in photosystem ii (psii) activity. in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence transients of the host plant croftonweed, show that the dominant effect of tea is not on the primary photochemical reaction but on the biochemical reaction after qa. the most important action site of tea is the qb site on the psii electron-acceptor side, blocking ...201425240106
land-use and socioeconomic change, medicinal plant selection and biodiversity resilience in far western nepal.indigenous plant use-systems have evolved under, and constantly adapted to human and non-human impacts. in the last decades however, increasing socioeconomic and cultural transformations, including land-use change, outmigration, globalized markets, the introduction of new species, and climate change have led to a decreasing availability of indigenous resources, and are ultimately leading to a reduction of local use-knowledge. participant observations, discussions, walks-in-the-woods, semi-struct ...201627936247
adsorptive removal of toxic chromium from waste-water using wheat straw and eupatorium adenophorum.environmental pollution with heavy metals is a serious issue worldwide posing threats to humans, animals and plants and to the stability of overall ecosystem. chromium (cr) is one of most hazardous heavy metals with a high carcinogenic and recalcitrant nature. aim of the present study was to select low-cost biosorbent using wheat straw and eupatorium adenophorum through simple carbonization process, capable of removing cr (vi) efficiently from wastewater. from studied plants a low cost adsorbent ...201627911906
endogenous trans-zeatin content in plants with different metal-accumulating ability: a field survey.a field survey was conducted to evaluate soil metal pollution and endogenous trans-zeatin content in the leaves of plants growing at six sites in a metal-polluted area located in gejiu, yunnan, china. five plant species were collected, and the physicochemical properties and concentrations of five metals in the soil were analyzed. the trans-zeatin content in plant leaves was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. based on the nemerow pollution index, the six sites were classified int ...201627613625
enrichment and separation of chlorogenic acid from the extract of eupatorium adenophorum spreng by macroporous resin.a simple and efficient chromatographic method for separation of chlorogenic acid from eupatorium adenophorum spreng extract was developed. the adsorption properties of nine macroporous resins were evaluated. nka-ii resin showed much better adsorption/desorption properties. the adsorption of chlorogenic acid on nka-ii resin at 25°c was well fitted to langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model. the dynamic adsorption and desorption experiments were carried out on columns packed ...201626625338
are invasive plants more competitive than native conspecifics? patterns vary with competitors.invasive plants are sometimes considered to be more competitive than their native conspecifics, according to the prediction that the invader reallocates resources from defense to growth due to liberation of natural enemies ['evolution of increased competitive ability' (eica) hypothesis]. however, the differences in competitive ability may depend on the identity of competitors. in order to test the effects of competitors, ageratina adenophora plants from both native and invasive ranges competed d ...201526489964
aphicidal activity of an ageraphorone extract from eupatorium adenophorum against pseudoregma bambucicola (homoptera: aphididae, takahashi).the bamboo aphid, pseudoregma bambucicola, is an important insect pest of bamboo that affects normal bamboo growth and induces sooty molds. the control of p. bambucicola involves the application of chemicals, such as imidacloprid, to which many species are resistant. in this study, we isolate a novel botanical pesticide (9-oxo-10,11-dehydro-ageraphorone) from an eupatorium adenophorum(asteraceae: compositae) petroleum ether extract and test the aphicidal activity of this compound against p. bamb ...201526113513
comparisons of plastic responses to irradiance and physiological traits by invasive eupatorium adenophorum and its native congeners.to explore the traits contributing to invasiveness of eupatorium adenophorum and to test the relationship between plasticity of these traits and invasiveness, we compared e. adenophorum with its two native congeners at four irradiances (10%, 23%, 40%, and 100%). the invader showed constantly higher performance (relative growth rate and total biomass) across irradiances than its native congeners. higher light-saturated photosynthetic rate (p(max)), respiration efficiency (re), and nitrogen (pnue) ...201222472074
[root growth characteristics and competitive effects of ageratina adenophora and four functional type herbaceous plants].a field experiment was conducted to explore the root competitive effects of ageratina adenophora and setaria sphacelata, s. yunnanensis, eupatorium fortunei, chenopodium serotinum in monoculture and mixture, and the relative competitive abilities were evaluated. the results showed that the root length, superficial area and volume of a. adenophora in mixture were lower than in monoculture, but those of s. sphacelata were higher in mixture than in monoculture. the biomass of a. adenophora in mixtu ...201425796889
induction and mechanism of hela cell apoptosis by 9-oxo‑10, 11-dehydroageraphorone from eupatorium adenophorum.9-oxo-10, 11-dehydroageraphorone (euptox a), a cadenine sesquiterpene, is the main toxin from eupatorium adenophorum. the aim of the present study was to examine the induction and mechanism of hela cell apoptosis by euptox a. the apoptosis‑inducing effect of the euptox a on hela cells was examined by mtt assay. the underlying mechanism was analyzed by flow cytometry and quantitative pcr. flow cytometry results suggested that euptox a effectively inhibited the proliferation of hela cells, arreste ...201525647450
chalcone synthase eachs1 from eupatorium adenophorum functions in salt stress tolerance in tobacco.eachs1 functions in the tolerance of plantlets to salinity stress by maintaining ros homeostasis. chalcone synthase (chs) is an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of flavonoids. expression of chs is governed by a wide range of environmental stimuli, including uv light, pathogen attack, and circadian clocks. however, little research exists on the relationship between chs and salinity stress. in this work, we constructed separate overexpression and rna interference vectors of eachs1, and transfe ...201525632925
ice1 demethylation drives the range expansion of a plant invader through cold tolerance divergence.cold tolerance adaption is a crucial determinant for the establishment and expansion of invasive alien plants into new cold environments; however, its evolutionary mechanism is poorly understood. crofton weed (ageratina adenophora), a highly invasive alien plant, is continuously spreading across subtropical areas in china, north-eastward from the first colonized south-western tropical regions, through cold tolerance evolution. close relations between the cold tolerance levels of 34 populations, ...201525581031
clinical efficacy of 9-oxo-10, 11-dehydroageraphorone extracted from eupatorium adenophorum against psoroptes cuniculi in rabbits.animal acariasis is one of the important veterinary skin diseases. chemical drugs have been widely used to treat and control this kind of disease. but many chemicals control could increase resistance in target species, toxicity and environmental hazards. we found that the 9-oxo-10, 11-dehydroageraphorone (euptox a) extracted from e. adenophorum has strong toxicity against p. cuniculi in vitro, but the in vivo acaricidal actions of euptox a have yet to be investigated.201425527276
toxicity assessment of cadinene sesquiterpenes from eupatorium adenophorum in mice.this study evaluated toxic efficacy of eupatorium adenophorum extracts, against the kunming mice. in acute study, we firstly tested median lethal dose (ld50) in mice of three cadinene sesquiterpenes 2-deoxo-2-(acetyloxy)-9-oxoageraphorone (daoa), 9-oxo-agerophorone (oa) and 9-oxo-10,11-dehydro-agerophorone (oda) from eupatorium adenophorum (ea). daoa (215-4640 mg/kg bw, given orally) showed lowest ld50 at 926 mg/kg bw for male mice in contrast with oa (1470 mg/kg bw) and oda (1470 mg/kg bw). in ...201425500813
new chlamydosporol derivatives from the endophytic fungus fusarium sp. #001.two new chlamydosporol derivatives, fusarilactone a (1) and fusarilactone b (2), together with nine known compounds (3-11), have been isolated from the crude extract of endophytic fungus fusarium sp. #001. the structures of new compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods. compound 1 showed mild cytotoxicities against three tumor cell lines (smmc-7721, a-549, and mcf-7).201424717139
[the spectrum characteristics of an invasion plant: eupatorium adenophorum spreng].eupatorium adenophorum spreng. (eas) is a toxic invasion plant and has caused significant economic and environmental impacts in china. the eas has the characteristics of widely distributing and quickly spreading. the traditional detecting and supervising methods become invalid when applied for managing the spatial distribution of eas. based on the analyzing results of the spectrum features of eas, the present paper tried to structure the identifying models by remote sensing. the main objective o ...201020827985
transcriptome profiling of the crofton weed gall fly procecidochares utilis.procecidochares utilis is a tephritid gall fly, which is known to be an effective biological agent that can be used to control the notoriously widespread crofton weed eupatorium adenophorum. despite its importance, genetic resources for p. utilis remain scarce. in this study, 1.2 gb sequences were generated using illumina paired-end sequencing technology. de novo assemblies yielded 491,760 contigs, 90,474 scaffolds, and 58,562 unigenes. among the unigenes, 34,809 (59.44%) had a homologous match ...201424682983
larvicidal activity of ipomoea cairica (l.) sweet and ageratina adenophora (spreng.) king & h. rob. plant extracts against arboviral and filarial vector, culex quinquefasciatus say (diptera: culicidae).culex quinquefasciatus say, an arboviral and filarial vector, is one of the most widespread mosquitoes in the world, and insecticide-resistant populations have been reported worldwide. due to the emergence of resistance in c. quinquefasciatus plant based products or plant extracts may be alternative sources in integrated vector management program. the present study was carried out to establish the larvicidal activities of crude solvent extracts prepared from flowers and leaves of ipomoea cairica ...201424681043
isolation and identification of acaricidal compounds in eupatorium adenophorum petroleum ether extract and determination of their acaricidal activity against psoroptes cuniculi.we used multiple silica gel column chromatography and thin-layer chromatography coupled with (1)h nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) and (13)c nmr to separate and identify the active acaricidal ingredients in eupatorium adenophorum petroleum ether extract. the acaricidal activity of each compound was tested against psoroptes cuniculi in vitro. three compounds had strong acaricidal activity against p. cuniculi in vitro. the insecticidal effect of 0.5% compound 9β-hydroxy-ageraphorone was better tha ...201424569033
acaricidal activity of petroleum ether extracts from eupatorium adenophorum against the ectoparasitic cattle mite, chorioptes texanus.in this study, we evaluated the acaricidal efficacy of extracts obtained from the plant eupatorium adenophorum against the common cattle mite chorioptes texanus. the results showed that 95% ethanol extracts at concentrations of 1.0, 0.5, and 0.25 g/ml (w/v) were highly toxic to c. texanus in vitro, killing 100% of mites in 4 h. similarly, petroleum ether extracts of e. adenophorum resulted in between 80 and 100% mortality of mites in vitro at concentrations of 0.1, 0.05, and 0.025 ml/ml (v/v) wi ...201424464273
isolation and identification of bacteria capable of degrading euptox a from eupatorium adenophorum spreng.eupatorium adenophorum spreng (e. adenophorum), an invasive plant which has caused widespread poisoning of livestock and crop failures in china. 9-oxo-10, 11-dehydroageraphorone (known as euptox a) is the main toxin causing a series of respiratory and digestive system diseases in animals. the purpose of the research is to isolate and identify the bacteria with the capacity of degrading euptox a, in which way could we lay the foundation in the utilization and prevention for e. adenophorum. three ...201424269687
mosquito larvicidal and phytochemical properties of ageratina adenophora (asteraceae) against three important mosquitoes. 201323995317
changes in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus community along an exotic plant eupatorium adenophorum invasion in a chinese secondary forest.knowledge of the changes in arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungi is fundamental for understanding the success of exotic plant invasions in natural ecosystems. in this study, am fungal colonization and spore community were examined along an invasive gradient of the exotic plant eupatorium adenophorum in a secondary forest in southwestern china. with increasing e. adenophorum invasion, the density of arbuscules in the roots of e. adenophorum significantly increased, but the am root colonization rate ...201323812808
clinical efficacy of botanical extracts from eupatorium adenophorum against the sarcoptes scabiei (sarcoptidae: sarcoptes) in rabbits.the aims of present study were to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of extracts from eupatorium adenophorum against sarcoptes scabiei. a 30-day experiment was performed using new zealand rabbits that were naturally infested with s. scabiei in the toes (n=30) or artificially infected in the external ear margin with s. scabiei (n=30). rabbits were randomly divided into five groups (6 animals per group, a-e groups for rabbits of naturally infested and f-j groups for artificially infected rabbits), ...201323518619
complete chloroplast genome sequences of mongolia medicine artemisia frigida and phylogenetic relationships with other plants.artemisia frigida willd. is an important mongolian traditional medicinal plant with pharmacological functions of stanch and detumescence. however, there is little sequence and genomic information available for artemisia frigida, which makes phylogenetic identification, evolutionary studies, and genetic improvement of its value very difficult. we report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of artemisia frigida based on 454 pyrosequencing.201323460871
cadinene sesquiterpenes from eupatorium adenophorum and their antifungal activity.bioactive constituents of eupatorium adenophorum were investigated for antifungal activity. a structure-antifungal activity relationship of cadinene sesquiterpenes was predicted by evaluating individual derivatives. cadinene derivatives were extracted from leaves of eupatorium adenophorum using ethyl acetate. five cadinene sesquiterpenes were isolated by column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography. bioactivity of these cadinene sesquiterpenes were evaluated in vitro against f ...201323452218
linking trait differences to community dynamics: evidence from eupatorium adenophorum and co-occurring native species during a three-year succession.trait differences between invasive and native species are believed to be closely related to whether the former are successful. however, few studies have measured trait differences between invasive and native species directly under field conditions or during long term experiments. we examined the phenological pattern, plant height and biomass accumulation and allocation of crofton weed (eupatorium adenophorum spreng.) and co-occurring native species in a community during a three-year succession. ...201323382800
bioactive quinic acid derivatives from ageratina adenophora.a novel quinic acid derivative, 5-o-trans-o-coumaroylquinic acid methyl ester (1), together with three known ones, chlorogenic acid methyl ester (2), macranthoin f (3) and macranthoin g (4), were isolated from the aerial parts of the invasive plant ageratina adenophora (spreng.). the structure of new compound 1 was elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1d- and 2d-nmr techniques. compounds 2-4 were isolated from plant a. adenophora for the first time. all the comp ...201324241153
immunomodulatory activity and protective effects of polysaccharide from eupatorium adenophorum leaf extract on highly pathogenic h5n1 influenza infection.the development of novel broad-spectrum, antiviral agents against h5n1 infection is urgently needed. in this study, we evaluated the immunomodulatory activities and protective effect of eupatorium adenophorum polysaccharide (eap) against the highly pathogenic h5n1 subtype influenza virus. eap treatment significantly increased the production of il-6, tnf- α , and ifn- γ both in vivo and in vitro as measured by qpcr and elisa. in a mouse infection model, intranasal administration of eap at a dose ...201324159339
clinical efficacy of botanical extracts from eupatorium adenophorum against the scab mite, psoroptes cuniculi.this study evaluated the in vivo clinical efficacy of crofton weed (eupatorium adenophorum) extracts against the scab mite, psoroptes cuniculi. a 30-day experiment was performed using new zealand rabbits that were naturally infested with p. cuniculi on a farm. rabbits were randomly divided into five groups (6 animals per group); animals in groups a, b and c were treated in each ear topically with 2 ml of 1.0, 0.5 and 0.25 g/ml (w/v) e. adenophorum ethanol extract, respectively. animals in groups ...201323107339
synergistic interactions of co2 enrichment and nitrogen deposition promote growth and ecophysiological advantages of invading eupatorium adenophorum in southwest china.global environmental change and ongoing biological invasions are the two prominent ecological issues threatening biodiversity worldwide, and investigations of their interaction will aid to predict plant invasions and inform better management strategies in the future. in this study, invasive eupatorium adenophorum and native congener e. stoechadosmum were compared at ambient and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (co(2)) concentrations combined with three levels of nitrogen (n; reduced, control ...201222684510
complete chloroplast genome sequence of a major invasive species, crofton weed (ageratina adenophora).crofton weed (ageratina adenophora) is one of the most hazardous invasive plant species, which causes serious economic losses and environmental damages worldwide. however, the sequence resource and genome information of a. adenophora are rather limited, making phylogenetic identification and evolutionary studies very difficult. here, we report the complete sequence of the a. adenophora chloroplast (cp) genome based on illumina sequencing.201222606302
a congeneric comparison shows that experimental warming enhances the growth of invasive eupatorium adenophorum.rising air temperatures may change the risks of invasive plants; however, little is known about how different warming timings affect the growth and stress-tolerance of invasive plants. we conducted an experiment with an invasive plant eupatorium adenophorum and a native congener eupatorium chinense, and contrasted their mortality, plant height, total biomass, and biomass allocation in ambient, day-, night-, and daily-warming treatments. the mortality of plants was significantly higher in e. chin ...201222536425
isolation of five bioactive components from eupatorium adenophorum spreng using stepwise elution by high-speed counter-current chromatography.semi-preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (hsccc) was successfully performed for isolation and purification of caffeic acid 4 bioactive flavonoids from eupatorium adenophorum spreng using stepwise elution with a pair of two-phase solvent systems composed of ethyl acetate-methanol-water at the volume ratios of 10: 1: 10 and 5: 1: 5 (v/v). from 378.5 mg of crude extract 24.1 mg of caffeic acid, 6.7 mg of 4'-methyl quercetagetin 7-o-(6"-o-e-caffeoylglucopyranoside), 6.5 mg of querc ...201122328809
soil biota reduce allelopathic effects of the invasive eupatorium adenophorum.allelopathy has been hypothesized to play a role in exotic plant invasions, and study of this process can improve our understanding of how direct and indirect plant interactions influence plant community organization and ecosystem functioning. however, allelopathic effects can be highly conditional. for example allelopathic effects demonstrated in vivo can be difficult to demonstrate in field soils. here we tested phytotoxicity of eupatorium adenophorum (croftonweed), one of the most destructive ...201121980442
isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for a worldwide invasive weed, chromolaena odorata (asteraceae). 201121865503
invasive eupatorium adenophorum has ecophysiological advantages over native congeners but similar responses to co(2) enrichment.both global change and biological invasions threaten biodiversity worldwide. however, their interactions and related mechanisms are still not well elucidated. to elucidate potential traits contributing to invasiveness and whether ongoing increase in co(2) aggravates invasions, noxious invasive eupatorium adenophorum and native e. japonicum and e. chinensis were compared under ambient and doubled atmospheric co(2) concentrations in terms of growth, biomass allocation, morphology, and physiology. ...201121645002
volatile chemicals from leaf litter are associated with invasiveness of a neotropical weed in asia.some invasive plant species appear to strongly suppress neighbors in their nonnative ranges but much less so in their native range. we found that in the field in its native range in mexico, the presence of ageratina adenophora, an aggressive neotropical invader, was correlated with higher plant species richness than found in surrounding plant communities where this species was absent, suggesting facilitation. however, in two nonnative ranges, china and india, a. adenophora canopies were correlat ...201121618911
molecular cloning of allelopathy related genes and their relation to hho in eupatorium adenophorum.in this study, conserved sequence regions of hmgr, dxr, and chs (encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coa reductase, 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase and chalcone synthase, respectively) were amplified by reverse transcriptase (rt)-pcr from eupatorium adenophorum. quantitative real-time pcr showed that the expression of chs was related to the level of hho, an allelochemical isolated from e. adenophorum. semi-quantitative rt-pcr showed that there was no significant difference in expres ...201121127986
invasive mechanism and control strategy of ageratina adenophora (sprengel).in order to ascertain the invasive mechanism and control strategy of the invasive crofton weed, ageratina adenophora, its ecological adaptability and population differentiation, the formation of single dominant population, displacement of native plants and sustainable management strategies were investigated. the present results helped to clarify and explain such issues as the adaptability post invasion, interaction and competition between inter- and intra-species and community resistance, thereb ...201021046320
phenolics from ageratina adenophora roots and their phytotoxic effects on arabidopsis thaliana seed germination and seedling growth.a bioassay-directed phytochemical study was conducted to investigate potential allelochemicals in the roots of the invasive plant ageratina adenophora. eleven phenolic compounds, including seven new ones, 7-hydroxy-8,9-dehydrothymol 9-o-trans-ferulate (1), 7-hydroxythymol 9-o-trans-ferulate (2), 7,8-dihydroxythymol 9-o-trans-ferulate (3), 7,8-dihydroxythymol 9-o-cis-ferulate (4), methyl (7r)-3-deoxy-4,5-epoxy-d-manno-2-octulosonate 8-o-trans-p-coumarate (5), methyl (7r)-3-deoxy-4,5-epoxy-d-manno ...201324180556
evaluation acaricidal efficacy of botanical extract from eupatorium adenophorum against the hard tick haemaphysalis longicornis (acari: ixodidae).the aim of this study was to evaluate the acaricidal activity of a botanical extract from eupatorium adenophorum against the hard tick haemaphysalis longicornis. this could result in developing effective extracts of e. adenophorum as a source of natural, low-toxicity plant-based acaricidal drugs. adult engorged females of h. longicornis were collected from naturally infected goats. the engorged females were reared in the laboratory and their offspring (larvae and nymphs) were used as test ectopa ...201324051345
inhibition of ageratina adenophora on spore germination and gametophyte development of macrothelypteris torresiana.allelopathy of ageratina adenophora plays an important role in its invasion. however, we have little knowledge of its allelpathic effects on ferns. in petri dish bioassays, the inhibitory potential of aqueous leachates from roots, stems and leaves of a. adenophora was studied on the spore germination and gametophyte development of macrothelypteris torresiana. all leachates inhibited the spore germination and growth of the first rhizoid of m. torresiana and inhibitory effects increased with incre ...200818713423
cadinane sesquiterpenes from the leaves of eupatorium adenophorum.four new cadinane sesquiterpenes (1- 4), including a dimeric cadinane derivative (2) and a peroxide cadinane analogue (3), have been isolated from the leaves of eupatorium adenophorum. their structures including absolute configurations were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation and single-crystal x-ray crystallography. compound 4 showed in vitro cytotoxicity against the hct-8, bel-7402, and a2780 cancer cell lines.200818620454
photosynthesis, nitrogen allocation and specific leaf area in invasive eupatorium adenophorum and native eupatorium japonicum grown at different irradiances.the mechanisms underlying biological invasions are still not well elucidated. in this study, ecophysiological traits of invasive eupatorium adenophorum and native e. japonicum were compared at 10 irradiances in field. i hypothesized that the invader may allocate a higher fraction of leaf nitrogen (n) to photosynthesis and have higher light-saturated photosynthetic rate (p(max)) and specific leaf area (sla) than e. japonicum. the invader had a significantly higher ability to acclimate to high irr ...200818312498
nitrogen allocation and partitioning in invasive and native eupatorium species.there is a trade-off between nitrogen (n) allocation to photosynthesis and to defence. invasive species may reduce n allocation to defence because of the absence of natural enemies. thus, i hypothesised that invasive species may allocate a higher fraction of total leaf n to photosynthesis and have higher light-saturated photosynthetic rate (p(max)) and photosynthetic n-use efficiency (pnue) than closely related native species. to test these hypotheses, invasive eupatorium adenophorum and native ...200818275466
comparative study on chemical pretreatment methods for improving enzymatic digestibility of crofton weed stem.in order to utilize and control the invasive weed, crofton weed (eupatorium adenophorum spreng), a potential pathway was proposed by using it as a feedstock for production of fermentable sugars. three chemical pretreatment methods were used for improving enzymatic saccharification of the weed stem. mild h2so4 pretreatment could obtain a relatively high yield of sugars in the pretreatment (32.89%, based on initial holocellulose), however, it led to only a slight enhancement of enzymatic digestibi ...200817709243
[effects of soil phosphorus level on morphological and photosynthetic characteristics of ageratina adenophora and chromolaena odorata].in this paper, a comparative study was made on the growth, morphology, biomass allocation, and photosynthesis of two invasive plant species ageratina adenophora and chromolaena odorata under five soil phosphorus levels, aimed to know how the test plant species acclimate to the changes of soil phosphorus level, evaluate which plant traits were associated with the invasiveness of the two species, and know whether the increased level of soil phosphorus could facilitate their invasion. the results s ...200616836086
analgesic activity of methanol extract of eupatorium adenophorum spreng. leaves.the methanol extract of the leaves of e. adenophorum (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, po) showed significant analgesic activity, as compared to standard drugs diclofenac sodium and pentazocine, employing acetic acid-induced writhing test, tail immersion test and tail flick test models.200516053275
effect of eupatorium adenophorum spreng leaf extracts on the mustard aphid, lipaphis erysimi kalt: a scanning electron microscope study.scanning electron microscopic study revealed some remarkable adverse effects of eupatorium adenophorum spreng leaf extract on cuticular and antennal sensilla of the mustard aphid, lipaphis erysimi kalt. the study appears to be the first of its kind in providing evidence on toxic property of the plant on certain agricultural pests, although the indigenous tribes of the region know the insecticidal property of the plant for a long time. the study further provides indications regarding the neurotox ...200515816031
[adaptation of eupatorium adenophorum photosynthetic characteristics to light intensity].as an invasive species, eupatorium adenophorum threatens the biodiversity security in southwest china. to explore its light adaptation characteristics and related eco-physiological mechanism, this paper studied the physiological and morphological properties, e. g., gas exchange, fluorescence kinetics, chlorophyll content and specific leaf weight (slw), of e. adenophorum grown in xishuangbanna, china, during the dry season under four light regimes (100%, 36%, 12.5% and 4.5% full sunshine). under ...200415573991
bioconversion of chromene derivatives in seedlings of ageratina adenophora. 198617345378
[composition of phenolic allelochemicals in eupatorium adenophorum root zone soils and its effects on soil-borne pathogens].the allelochemicals released by eupatorium adenophorum roots is an important factor inducing the changes of the weed soil environment, which provides favorable conditions for the successful invasion of the weed. by using gc/ms technique, the components and their relative contents of phenolic allelochemicals in aphid-infested and non-infested e. adenophorum root zone soils were analyzed, with unplanted soil as the control. less difference was observed in the components of phenolic allelochemicals ...201020461998
isolation of caffeic acid from eupatorium adenophorum spreng by high-speed countercurrent chromatography and synthesis of caffeic acid-intercalated layered double hydroxide.preparative high-speed countercurrent chromatography (hsccc) was successfully used for isolation and purification of caffeic acid from eupatorium adenophorum spreng with a solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-methanol-water at a volume ratio of 10:1:10, v/v. using a preparative unit of the hsccc centrifuge, about a 938 mg amount of the crude extract was separated, yielding 63.2 mg of caffeic acid at purity of 96.0%. then, the anti-microbial and anti-virus drug caffeic acid (c(9)h(8)o(4)) was ...201020454592
[ecological adaptability of different provenance eupatorium adenophorum spreng].by using reciprocal transplant method, eupatorium adenophorum spreng. seedlings of five different provenances were reciprocally transplanted into six different sites in yunnan province, with the survival rate, plant height, branch number, biomass, flower number per plant, and seed production measured during the period from april 2007 to may 2008. the seedlings growth and reproductive traits of different provenance e. adenophorum all showed strong plasticity to environmental conditions. with incr ...200919899465
evolutionary tradeoffs for nitrogen allocation to photosynthesis versus cell walls in an invasive plant.many studies have shown that individuals from invasive populations of many different plant species grow larger than individuals from native populations and that this difference has a genetic basis. this increased vigor in invasive populations is thought to be due to life history tradeoffs, in which selection favors the loss of costly defense traits, thereby freeing resources that can be devoted to increased growth or fecundity. despite the theoretical importance of such allocation shifts for inv ...200919171910
terpenes from eupatorium adenophorum and their allelopathic effects on arabidopsis seeds germination (dagger).the invasive plant eupatorium adenophorum spreng. (or ageratina adenophora (spreng.) king and robinson) (compositae) has caused great economic loss in china, especially the southwestern region, and is gravely threatening the native biodiversity. the aerial part of this plant was phytochemically investigated for its allelochemicals. eleven terpenes (2 monoterpenes and 9 sesquiterpenes) were isolated and identified, which include a new monoterpene, (-)-(1r*,2s,*4r*,5s*)-3,3-dimethyl-5-hydroxybicyc ...200919154161
disturbance of dabao highway construction on plant species and soil nutrients in longitudinal range gorge region (lrgr) of southwestern china.the disturbance of highway construction upon surrounding vulnerable ecosystems is a common threat in the longitudinal range gorge region of southwestern china. we evaluated the disturbance of highway on plant species richness and diversity and soil nutrients from adjacent to the highway to 300 m upslope and 100 m downslope in forests and grasslands by setting 12 belt transects in forests and grasslands (six belt transects and six control belt transects, respectively). the results showed that the ...200918974942
[genetic variations among populations of ageratina adenophora from different areas, investigated by inter-simple sequence repeat markers].crofton weed, ageratina adenophora,a troublesome weed in the world,is an invasive organism in china. genetic diversity of thirty-two chinese populations of a. adenophora from different areas was analyzed with the inter-simple sequence repeat (issr) technique. it indicated that its genetic diversity was rich. nei's gene diversity and shannon's information index were 0.235 and 0.372 at species level respectively. genetic variation of crofton weed mainly existed in the population, and about 34.5% o ...200717357448
[seed population dynamics and germination characteristics of eupatorium adenophorum].with bare land, farmland, and masson pine forestland in the eupatorium adenophorum- invaded area of dechang county, sichuan province as test habitats, this paper studied the seed population dynamics of e. adenophorum at the levels of seed rain and seed bank, and its seed germination characteristics under effects of light and soil medium. the results showed that in the three habitats, the seed population of e. adenophorum only existed from march to june, and reached its peak by the end of april. ...200616964927
crofton weed (eupatorium adenophorum) toxicity in horses.the clinical signs and pathology of 6 field cases of a respiratory disease of horses which occurs in the coastal hinterland of south-eastern queensland are described. the condition has occurred for many years and has been thought to have been associated with ingestion of crofton weed (eupatorium adenophorum). coughing, rapid heaving respiration, decreased exercise tolerance and loss of condition were seen in affected horses. in longstanding cases fibrosis, alveolar lining cell proliferation, oed ...1979571272
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