antemortem diagnosis and successful treatment of pulmonary candidiasis in a sun conure (aratinga solstitialis).an adult male sun conure (aratinga solstitialis) was evaluated because of lethargy, ruffled feathers, and decreased appetite. physical examination revealed hypothermia, dehydration, dyspnea, and crop distention. results of a complete blood cell count revealed a marked inflammatory leukogram, and cytologic examination of a crop swab sample identified gram-negative bacilli and occasional yeast organisms. radiographs demonstrated an opaque, ill-defined, soft tissue structure in the caudal coelom ju ...201425843470
discrepancy in the diagnosis of avian borna disease virus infection of psittaciformes by protein analysis of feather calami and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of plasma antibodies.the present study compares diagnosis of avian borna disease virus (abv) infection of psittacine birds by western blot of bornaviral proteins in dried feather stems with the detection of anti-bornaviral protein antibodies to bornaviral proteins in plasma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). the detection of abv proteins p40 and p24 in feather calami by western blotting was possible even after storage of the dried feathers for several years at ambient temperature. serological identificati ...201525701023
west nile virus infection in a sun conure (aratinga solstitialis).a 2-year-old sun conure (aratinga solstitialis) was examined because of acute lethargy and depression. physical examination revealed severe weakness with ventroflexion of the head and neck and seizure episodes precipitated by handling. empirical and supportive care was instituted, and serial diagnostic testing revealed no specific diagnosis or etiology. antemortem test results for west nile virus were negative. after 2 weeks of a deteriorating clinical condition, euthanasia was elected and necro ...200819014098
polymerase chain reaction assay for avian polyomavirus.a polymerase chain reaction assay was developed for detection of budgerigar fledgling disease virus (bfdv). the assay used a single set of primers complementary to sequences located in the putative coding region for the bfdv vp1 gene. the observed amplification product had the expected size of 550 bp and was confirmed to derive from bfdv dna by its restriction digestion pattern. this assay was specific for bfdv and highly sensitive, being able to detect as few as 20 copies of the virus. by using ...19911647403
molecular systematics in aratinga parakeets: species limits and historical biogeography in the 'solstitialis' group, and the systematic position of nandayus nenday.the parrot genus aratinga comprises 20 species that can be separated, based on morphological characters, in at least three distinct groups. we performed a phylogenetic analysis based on mtdna sequences of individuals belonging to the solstitialis group with the objectives of: (1) assessing the genetic differences among individuals in order to clarify their specific status; (2) testing the monophyly of the group and establishing its phylogenetic position relative to other aratinga species, (3) ma ...200415012946
histopathologic changes, ultrastructure, and molecular characterization of an adenovirus in a sun conure (aratinga solstitialis).in this case report, we describe the pathologic changes and the ultrastructural and molecular characteristics of an adenovirus in a sun conure (aratinga solstitialis) that presented with a history of sudden death. on histologic examination, there was multifocal hepatic and splenic necrosis. within some hepatocytes and unidentified cells in the spleen, renal interstitial fibroblasts, and ovarian stroma were intranuclear amphophilic inclusion bodies. electron microscopy of affected tissue showed i ...201931967440
intercontinental spread of asian-origin h7 avian influenza viruses by captive bird trade in 1990's.wild bird migration and illegal trade of infected poultry, eggs, and poultry products have been associated with the spread of avian influenza viruses (aiv). during 1992-1996, h7n1 and h7n8 low pathogenic aiv (lpaiv) were identified from captive wild birds; such as pekin robin (leiothrix lutea), magpie robin (copsychus saularis), flycatcher sp. (genus empidonax), a species of softbill and parakeet, sun conure (aratinga solstitialis), painted conure (pyrrhura picta), fairy bluebird (irena puella), ...201931054314
vertical transmission of avian bornavirus in psittaciformes: avian bornavirus rna and anti-avian bornavirus antibodies in eggs, embryos, and hatchlings obtained from infected sun conures (aratinga solstitialis).fertilized eggs were obtained from four pairs of sun conures (aratinga solstitialis) infected with avian bornavirus (abv) genotype 2, as determined by the sequence of the p24 gene. abv rna could be detected in early embryos of all four pairs. abv rna also was detected in brain, liver, and eyes of late-stage embryos of one of the pairs (pair 4) and in blood of a 2-wk-old hatchling of this pair, demonstrating that vertical transmission can occur. abv rna could be detected in the liver but not in t ...201223050462
evolutionary history, genomic adaptation to toxic diet, and extinction of the carolina the only endemic neotropical parrot to have recently lived in the northern hemisphere, the carolina parakeet (conuropsis carolinensis) was an iconic north american bird. the last surviving specimen died in the cincinnati zoo in 1918 [1]. the cause of its extinction remains contentious: besides excessive mortality associated to habitat destruction and active hunting, their survival could have been negatively affected by its range having become increasingly patchy [2] or by the exposure to poul ...202031839456
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