malassezia pachydermatis isolation from a scarlet macaw.a repeated isolation of malassezia pachydermatis weidman from a scarlet macaw is reported. this is the first report of birds infected with this yeast.19902267001
[the sinuatrial node of the avian heart (author's transl)].comparative histologic observations were made of the sinuatrial nodes of avian hearts from a short-tailed shearwater (puffinus tenuirostris), a black-crowned night heron (nycticorax nycticorax), two ducks (anas platyrhycha domestica), eight japanese quails (coturnix coturnix japonica), a pigeon (columba livia domestica), a macaw (ara macao), three budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus) and a jungle crow (corvus macrorhynchos). the node lies between the right atrial myocardium and epicardium at th ...19817318931
development of monoclonal antibodies for measurement of immunoglobulin g antibody responses in blue and gold macaws (ara ararauna).to produce monoclonal antibodies (mab) with specificity for the heavy chain of macaw igg; to incorporate these mab into an elisa to measure igg responses of macaws inoculated with bovine serum albumin (bsa); and to evaluate the antigenicity of bsa in blue and gold macaws.19968836367
immunocytochemical diagnosis of pacheco's indirect immunoperoxidase method for the detection of herpesvirus in the liver and digestive tract of two psittacines (ara macao and cacatua sulphurea) with pacheco's disease is described. the anti-pachecovirus antiserum used was obtained from hyperimmunized specific pathogen-free chickens. it is concluded that this easily executed technique yields reliable results, allows a firm diagnosis of pacheco's disease to be made and it would be suitable for investigating the pathogenesis of pacheco's ...199218670969
cardioprotection with the parrodiene 2,4,6-octatrienal and its potassium salt through activation of the akt-bcl-2 survival pathway.a study was undertaken to determine the cardioprotective effects of parrodienes prepared from the feather pigments of parrots (ara macao). adult male sprague-dawley rats were divided into three experimental groups and perfused with khb buffer with or without treatment of 2,4,6-octatrienal (1) (50 mm) or its potassium salt (2) (50 mm). all hearts were then subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by a 2 h reperfusion. ischemia/reperfusion resulted in a significant amount of tissue injury, cardiomyoc ...200919326879
proventricular dilatation disease associated with avian bornavirus in a scarlet macaw (ara macao).a case of proventricular dilatation disease is described in a scarlet macaw (ara macao) from clinical presentation to diagnosis with molecular methods. the initial clinical signs were depression progressing to head pressing over several days. a leukocytosis with toxic heterophil changes, hypoalbuminemia, and increased serum activity of aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase were present. lead and zinc assays were within reference ranges, and results from chlamydophila and polyomavirus te ...201021088184
a draft de novo genome assembly for the northern bobwhite (colinus virginianus) reveals evidence for a rapid decline in effective population size beginning in the late pleistocene.wild populations of northern bobwhites (colinus virginianus; hereafter bobwhite) have declined across nearly all of their u.s. range, and despite their importance as an experimental wildlife model for ecotoxicology studies, no bobwhite draft genome assembly currently exists. herein, we present a bobwhite draft de novo genome assembly with annotation, comparative analyses including genome-wide analyses of divergence with the chicken (gallus gallus) and zebra finch (taeniopygia guttata) genomes, a ...201424621616
identification of members of the pasteurellaceae isolated from birds and characterization of two new taxa isolated from psittacine birds.a collection of 43 unclassified members of the pasteurellaceae, most of which were obtained from lesions, were investigated using an extensive battery of phenotypical tests as well as by ribotyping. the isolates had been made from anser anser forma (f) domestica (d), agapornis fischer, amazona spp., ara macao, columba livia f.d., melanopsittacus undulatus, and psittacus erithacus. comparison of results with those obtained from reference strains allowed classification of 25 strains. three strains ...199926905494
predicted metabolizable energy density and amino acid profile of the crop contents of free-living scarlet macaw chicks (ara macao).hand rearing of neonates is a common practice for the propagation of psittacines. however, nutritional requirements for their growth and development are not well understood, and malnutrition is common. we analysed the amino acid (aa) profile of the crop contents of 19 free-living scarlet macaw (ara macao) chicks, 19-59 days old. predicted metabolizable energy (pme) density was 16.9 mj/kg dm and true protein (total aa protein) 8.3 g/mj pme. crude protein (cp) was 10.0 g/mj pme, lower than the req ...201121883501
serological status for chlamydophila psittaci, newcastle disease virus, avian polyoma virus, and pacheco disease virus in scarlet macaws (ara macao) kept in captivity in costa rica.from 1998 to 1999, a total of 128 blood samples were collected from scarlet macaws (ara macao), kept in captivity in 11 different aviaries located in six provinces of costa rica. the sera were examined for antibodies directed against chlamydophila psittaci, newcastle disease virus (ndv), avian polyoma virus (apv), and pacheco disease virus (pdv). testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), showed 16 (12.39%) of the samples (n = 129) exhibited antibodies directed against c. psittaci. em ...200111846016
health evaluation of free-ranging and hand-reared macaws (ara spp.) in part of ongoing ecological studies and reproduction enhancement efforts for macaws in southwestern peru, a health survey of parent- and hand-reared scarlet macaws (ara macao) and blue and gold macaws (ara ararauna) was conducted in 1994. thirty-three birds were examined during handling procedures, and blood samples were collected from 27 (9 parent reared, 18 hand reared) for laboratory analysis. all but one bird appeared to be in good condition, with no abnormality noted during physical exami ...19979523629
fatal proventricular dilatation disease in captive native psittacines in outbreak of proventricular dilatation disease (pdd), a fatal inflammatory disease of psittacines (aves: psittaciformes), is described in native brazilian psittacines. twenty captive psittacines that died of suspected pdd were necropsied and 10 were submitted to histopathology, reverse transcriptase pcr (rt-pcr), and immunohistochemistry (ihc) for avian bornavirus (abv). examined species were one pileated parrot (pionopsitta pileata), three vinaceous-breasted parrots (amazona vinacea), two blu ...201424758135
lymphosarcoma with plasmacytoid differentiation in a scarlet macaw (ara macao).a lymphosarcoma in a scarlet macaw (ara macao) affecting periocular structures is described. microscopically and ultrastructurally, many of the lymphoid cells had plasmacytoid features. polymerase chain reaction amplification failed to detect exogenous avian retrovirus rav-1 in the neoplastic mass.20079201424
molecular detection and genotyping of chlamydia psittaci in captive psittacines from costa rica.oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs from 117 captive psittacine birds presented at veterinary clinics (88) and from shelters/rescue centers of wildlife (29) were collected to determine the prevalence of c. psittaci in captive birds in costa rica. samples were collected during 2009 from a total of 19 different species of parrots, with ara macao (33), amazona autumnalis (24), amazona ochrocephala (21), and ara ararauna (8) being the most representative species sampled. c. psittaci was detected in four ...201324163776
nutritional content of the diets of free-living scarlet macaw chicks in southeastern provide novel information on psittacine diets, we analyzed the texture, crude protein, crude fat, ca, p (total), mg, k, na, s, cu, fe, and zn concentrations of crop contents from 10 free-living scarlet macaw (ara macao) chicks from lowland forests of southeastern peru. we compared our results with nutrient concentrations of known wild parrot foods and published psittacine dietary recommendations to highlight similarities and differences and suggest future avenues of research. the diets were m ...201020496602
[the clinical case. scarlet macaw (ara macao), 6 years in captivity]. 19912048103
adverse effects of gentamicin in scarlet macaws and galahs.the adverse effects of administration of gentamicin (5 mg/kg of body weight, im, q 12 h) for 7 days were studied in healthy scarlet macaws (ara macao) and galahs (eolophus roseicapillus; cockatoos). polydipsia and polyuria developed in each species, but were greater and persisted longer in the cockatoos. peak water intake in the cockatoos more than quadrupled, and remained increased for 23 days after cessation of gentamicin administration. plasma aspartate transaminase activity increased signifi ...19902316918
philornis sp. bot fly larvae in free living scarlet macaw nestlings and a new technique for their fly larvae (philornis genus) are obligate subcutaneous blood-feeding parasites of neotropical birds including psittacines. we analyze twelve years of data on scarlet macaw (ara macao) nestlings in natural and artificial nests in the lowland forests of southeastern peru and report prevalence and intensity of philornis parasitism. bot fly prevalence was 28.9% while mean intensity was 5.0 larvae per infected chick. prevalence in natural nests (11%, n=90 nestlings) was lower than in wooden nest- ...201323384580
scanning electron microscopic study on the tongue in the scarlet macaw (ara macao).the dorsal lingual surface of scarlet macaw (ara macao) was examined by scanning electron microscopy. macroscopically, the lingual apex of the scarlet macaw had a lip-like shape. three parts were distinguished in the dorsal surface of the tongue: the apex, body, and root of the tongue. the surface of the lingual apex had many grooves toward lingual root. the surface of the lingual apex was relatively smooth. the central surface of the papillary layer in the lingual apex after removal of the epit ...201223429049
a multi-platform draft de novo genome assembly and comparative analysis for the scarlet macaw (ara macao).data deposition to ncbi genomes: this whole genome shotgun project has been deposited at ddbj/embl/genbank under the accession amxx00000000 (smacv1.0, unscaffolded genome assembly). the version described in this paper is the first version (amxx01000000). the scaffolded assembly (smacv1.1) has been deposited at ddbj/embl/genbank under the accession aouj00000000, and is also the first version (aouj01000000). strong biological interest in traits such as the acquisition and utilization of speech, co ...201323667475
molecular detection of mycobacterium avium avium and mycobacterium genavense in feces of free-living scarlet macaw ( ara macao) in costa rica.we conducted a study of the two main populations of free-living scarlet macaws ( ara macao) in costa rica to detect the causal agents of avian tuberculosis using noninvasive techniques. we analyzed 83 fecal samples collected between february and may 2016 from the central and southern pacific areas in the country. using pcr, we first amplified the 16s region of the rrna, common to all mycobacterium species. products from the insertion sequence is901 and from a 155-base pair (bp) dna fragment evid ...201729286261
nutritional and physical characteristics of commercial hand-feeding formulas for parrots.hand-rearing is a common practice for the propagation of captive psittacines, however, research on their nutrition is limited and the requirements of growing chicks are not well understood. the nutrition of 15 commercially available parrot hand-feeding formulas was compared with the average content of the crops of free living scarlet macaw (ara macao) chicks, as well as with the requirements of 6- to 12-week-old leghorn chickens. when the formulas were prepared for a 1-week-old chick, all except ...201323804545
beach almond (terminalia catappa, combretaceae) seed production and predation by scarlet macaws (ara macao) and variegated squirrels (sciurus variegatoides).knowledge of ecological impacts of exotic beach almond (terminalia catappa) in the central pacific of costa rica are little known, but studies have found this species to be a potentially important food source for endangered scarlet macaws (ara macao). in this study, reproductive phenology and seed predation by variegated squirrels (sciurus variegatoides) and scarlet macaws were measured during march and april 2011 on beaches of central pacific coastal costa rica. seed productivity and predation ...201425412525
early procurement of scarlet macaws and the emergence of social complexity in chaco canyon, nm.high-precision accelerator mass spectrometer (ams) (14)c dates of scarlet macaw (ara macao) skeletal remains provide the first direct evidence from chaco canyon in northwestern new mexico that these neotropical birds were procured from mesoamerica by pueblo people as early as ∼ a.d. 900-975. chaco was a prominent prehistoric pueblo center with a dense concentration of multistoried great houses constructed from the 9th through early 12th centuries. at the best known great house of pueblo bonito, ...201526100874
fatal paratanaisia bragai (digenea: eucotylidae) infection in scarlet macaws (ara macao) in costa rica.we report on four fatal cases of renal infection due to paratanaisia bragai in scarlet macaws (ara macao) from two rescue centres in costa rica. at necropsy, birds had severe dehydration and cachexia. two birds had hydropericardium, oedematous lungs, and liver lipidic degeneration. all birds had enlarged kidneys with brown pale discoloration and diffuse white spots on the cortical and sliced surfaces. ureters were filled with many specimens of p. bragai. histopathologically, the urinary system r ...201526204012
blood biochemical values of wild scarlet macaw ( ara macao macao) nestlings and adults.blood biochemical values are useful as indicators of disease in veterinary practice and for health assessments of free-ranging animal populations. we analyzed blood biochemical values for free-living nestling and adult scarlet macaws ( ara macao macao) in southeastern peru with an abaxis vetscan vs2 portable analyzer with avian/reptilian profile plus rotors. the resulting data were used to create provisional age-independent reference intervals for this instrument for wild scarlet macaw nestlings ...201627736226
metastatic thymoma in a scarlet macaw ( ara macao ).a 49-year-old female scarlet macaw ( ara macao ) was presented with a mass in the cervical region. the bird showed no evidence of pain or discomfort, it swallowed food normally, and its breathing pattern was unremarkable. results of contrast radiographic imaging revealed a well-demarcated mass in the right cervical region not related to the crop. after surgical resection and histopathologic evaluation, a malignant nodular stage of an epithelioid cortical-type thymoma was diagnosed. one year late ...201728358603
complete mitochondrial genome of critically endangered blue-throated macaw (ara glaucogularis): its comparison with partial mitogenome of scarlet macaw (ara macao).blue-throated macaw (ara glaucogularis) is critically endangered species of parrot endemic to small bolivian area. in this study, full mitochondrial genome of considered species was sequenced. it is 16,983 bp long and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rrnas, 22 trnas and a control region. it`s comparison with published ara macao mitogenome revealed their high degree of identity. on the other hand, analysis of both the genome compositions showed incompleteness of ara macao cytb gene. hence, mit ...201624621219
cross-species amplification and optimization of microsatellite markers for use in six neotropical parrots.short amplicon primers were redesigned for 17 microsatellite loci developed in st. vincent's amazon and six loci developed in blue-and-yellow macaw and tested using six species of neotropical parrot. polymorphism was observed at 12 loci in blue-and-yellow macaw, 10 in red-and-green macaw, 11 in scarlet macaw, 10 in chestnut-fronted macaw, 11 in red-bellied macaw and 16 in mealy parrot. number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 23 and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.05 to 0.95. the res ...200821585906
forensic species identification of large macaws using dna barcodes and microsatellite profiles.using mitochondrial and nuclear markers species identification was conducted in the case of seized feathers. earlier, we had sequenced cytochrome c oxidase subunit i (coi) both from 10 seized specimens and 43 validation specimens from captive macaws belonging to 4 ara species (a. macao, a. chloropterus, a. ararauna, and a. ambiguus) and identified 19 haplotypes based on coi sequences. species-level identification using barcode of life data systems showed that seized feathers shared the highest s ...201221625864
complete mitochondrial genome of blue-and-yellow macaw (ara ararauna): the species morphologically similar to blue-throated macaw (ara glaucogularis).six genera of the arini tribe form morphologically diverse group termed as macaws. the presence of bare facial area distinguishes them from other members of the tribe. genera and species of macaw group differ in pattern of this bare skin as well as in body size. the genus ara contains eight extant species. two of them are classified as medium-sized macaws and other six species are classified as large macaws. based on morphological similarities and differences, large macaw species can be segregat ...201726714066
bilateral uveitis and hyphema in a catalina macaw (ara ararauna × ara macao ) with multicentric lymphoma.a 20-year-old, female catalina macaw (ara ararauna × ara macao ) was presented with bilateral uveitis and hyphema. the hyphema initially improved with 0.12% prednisolone acetate ophthalmic drops (1 drop ou q4h for 7 days), but the hyphema recurred after the drops were tapered. the bird subsequently developed inappetance, weight loss, regurgitation, and lethargy and was euthanatized 24 days after initial presentation. necropsy revealed marked splenomegaly and hepatomegaly, with significant mucosa ...201627315386
psittacine paranasal sinus--a new definition of compartments.documentation of the psittacine paranasal sinuses has been limited. to provide more published detail, spiral computed tomography (ct) was used to scan the cephalic and cervical region from cadavers of 10 psittacine birds (ara ararauna, ara chloroptera, ara macao, and anodorhynchus hyacinthinus). skeletal studies, histologic examinations, and evaluation of deep-frozen sections and anatomic preparations confirmed the results of the ct scans. new morphologic details of the paranasal sinus and some ...200112785700
comparative analysis of microsatellite variability in five macaw species (psittaciformes, psittacidae): application for conservation.cross-amplification was tested and variability in microsatellite primers (designed for neotropical parrots) compared, in five macaw species, viz., three endangered blue macaws (cyanopsitta spixii [extinct in the wild], anodorhynchus leari [endangered] and anodorhynchus hyacinthinus [vulnerable]), and two unthreatened red macaws (ara chloropterus and ara macao). among the primers tested, 84.6% successfully amplified products in c. spixii, 83.3% in a. leari, 76.4% in a. hyacinthinus, 78.6% in a. c ...201121734841
chromosomal diversity and karyotype evolution in south american macaws (psittaciformes, psittacidae).most species of macaws, which represent the largest species of neotropical psittacidae, characterized by their long tails and exuberant colours, are endangered, mainly because of hunting, illegal trade and habitat destruction. long tailed species seem to represent a monophyletic group within psittacidae, supported by cytogenetic data. hence, these species show karyotypes with predominance of biarmed macrochromosomes, in contrast to short tailed species, with a predominance of acro/telocentric ma ...201526087053
carotenoid pigments and the selectivity of psittacofulvin-based coloration systems in parrots.carotenoid pigments are commonly used as colorants of feathers and bare parts by birds. however, parrots (aves: psittaciformes) use a novel class of plumage pigments (called psittacofulvins) that, like carotenoids, are lipid-soluble and red, orange, or yellow in color. to begin to understand how and why parrots use these pigments and not carotenoids in their feathers, we must first describe the distribution of these two types of pigments in the diet, tissues, and fluids of these birds. here, we ...200415253871
giant cell tumor of the bone in a scarlet macaw (ara macao).a 6-mo-old female scarlet macaw (ara macao) was presented after a 2-mo period of anorexia and weakness. the bird was reluctant to fly 1 wk before referral due to a painful left wing. physical examination revealed a firm swelling around the left shoulder. on radiographs, the diaphysis and proximal metaphysis of the left scapula were radiolucent. computer tomography revealed an osteolytic process, suggestive of a bone tumor, affecting the left scapula. cytology of a fine needle aspiration biopsy o ...200717461283
the chemical structure of the pigments in ara macao plumage.parrots (psittaciformes) harbor unusually bright, non-carotenoid, feather pigments. we successfully extracted and purified a sufficient quantity of pigment from the red plumage of the scarlet macaw (ara macao) for a partial chemical analysis. the extracts were analyzed by hplc coupled with uv-vis and mass spectroscopy before and after total hydrogenation. we found at least four pigment components. we propose a linear polyenal structure comparable with the molecules tetradecahexenal, hexadecahept ...200111470444
tibiotarsal fracture repair in a scarlet macaw using external skeletal fixation.surgical repair of a fractured tibiotarsus in a scarlet macaw (ara macao) is described. the forces imposed on the fracture site are discussed and the unique features of avian bone emphasised. advantages of external skeletal fixation and specific details of the frame construction are highlighted.19979239631
scarlet macaw (ara macao) (psitaciformes: psittacidae) parental nest visitation in costa rica: implications for research and conservation.we studied temporal parental visitation of scarlet macaws (ara macao) to six active nests in the central pacific conservation region of costa rica. total parental time in the nest decreased significantly as the nestlings aged. results provide guidelines to scientists for planning invasive activities to nestlings, such as placement of radio collars, or biological sample collection. these activities should be performed close to the end of the nesting period for minimal disturbance of parents and n ...200919637717
scarlet macaw (ara macao, psittaciformes: psittacidae) nest characteristics in the osa peninsula conservation area (acosa), costa rica.the scarlet macaw (ara macao) is an endangered species. in costa rica, the scarlet macaw population of the central pacific conservation area (acopac, n =432 individuals) has undergone considdrable study and has been used effectively as a flagship species for regional conservation. costa rica's only other viable scarlet macaw population, located in the osa peninsula conservation area (acosa, n=800-1200 individuals), remains virtually unstudied. we studied acosa scarlet macaw nest cavities from fe ...200919637716
scarlet macaw, ara macao, (psittaciformes: psittacidae) diet in central pacific costa rica.from 1993 to 1997, we observed scarlet macaw (ara macao) feeding behavior in central pacific costa rica. feeding data acquired in this study were not collected systematically, but opportunistically whenever macaws were observed feeding. to supplement feeding observations, we conducted interviews with local residents. scarlet macaws fed on seeds, fruits, leaves, flowers and/or bark of 43 plant species. various plant parts eaten by macaws from several tree species contain secondary compounds toxic ...200618491633
thyrotropin stimulation test for evaluation of thyroid function in psittacine birds.serum thyroid hormone concentrations were determined before and after thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone [tsh]) stimulation in caged psittacine birds to determine whether the tsh stimulation test could be used to evaluate thyroid function in this class of birds. the mean (+/- sd) resting thyroxine concentrations (ng/ml) for the species studied were: cockatoos, 13.63 +/- 6.53 (n = 6); amazon parrots, 8.19 +/- 6.90 (n = 8); scarlet macaws, 1.34 +/- 0.51 (n = 9); blue and gold macaws, 3.41 +/ ...19853965424
amorphous diamond-structured photonic crystal in the feather barbs of the scarlet macaw.noniridescent coloration by the spongy keratin in parrot feather barbs has fascinated scientists. nonetheless, its ultimate origin remains as yet unanswered, and a quantitative structural and optical description is still lacking. here we report on structural and optical characterizations and numerical simulations of the blue feather barbs of the scarlet macaw. we found that the sponge in the feather barbs is an amorphous diamond-structured photonic crystal with only short-range order. it possess ...201222615350
hypothyroidism in a scarlet macaw.a diagnosis of hypothyroidism was confirmed by use of thyrotropin stimulation testing in an imported male scarlet macaw. clinical signs included delayed molt; uniform, diffuse contour feather loss over the entire body; and excessive fat deposition over the legs and ventral portion of the abdomen. clinical signs were associated with mild, non-regenerative anemia; mild leukocytosis; heterophilia; hypoalbuminemia; and hypercholesterolemia. histologic examination of punch biopsy specimens from regio ...19921289344
yeasts and filamentous fungi in psittacidae and birds of prey droppings in midwest region of brazil: a potential hazard to human health.birds of prey and from psittacidae family are host to fungal microbiota and play an important role in the epidemiology of zoonoses. few studies in the literature have characterized mycelial and yeast fungi in the droppings of these birds and correlated the isolates with the zoonotic potential of the microorganisms. droppings from 149 birds were evaluated and divided into two groups: captive: rhea americana araneipes, primolius maracana, ara ararauna, ara chloropterus, anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, ...201930304251
health assessment of captive psittacine species in prerelease programs at costa rican rescue centers.with stricter laws regulating the capture and possession of wild animals in costa rica, local wildlife-rescue centers have been overwhelmed by an influx of confiscated or relinquished illegal pets, specifically of psittacine species. as part of a nationwide health-assessment program targeting these centers, 122 birds representing five psittacine species ( ara macao, amazona autumnalis, amazona auropalliata, amazona farinosa, aratinga finschi) and one hybrid macaw ( ara macao × ara ambiguus) were ...201729297799
key ring fixator: a novel external fixation technique for avian long bone stabilization.a 12-year-old blue-fronted amazon parrot (amazona aestiva) of unknown sex (case 1) and a 14-year-old female hybrid catalina macaw (ara ararauna × ara macao) (case 2) were evaluated and treated for an open tarsometatarsal fracture and a tibiotarsal fracture, respectively. in case 1, 1 month of external coaptation resulted in a delayed union, significant osteolysis, and presumptive osteomyelitis, which led to the decision to treat with a key ring fixator. in case 2, a key ring fixator was chosen f ...201931251504
in silico identification and characterization of novel microsatellite loci for the blue-and-yellow macaw ara ararauna (linnaeus, 1758) (psittaciformes, psittacidae).the illegal trade is a major threat to many bird species, and parrots are common victims of this activity. domestic and international pet markets are interested on different parrot species, such as the blue-and-yellow macaw (ara ararauna). this south american macaw is not globally threatened, but is under protection from over-exploitation. this study aimed to identify and characterize novel microsatellite loci for population and parentage analysis of a. ararauna. scaffold sequences of ara macao ...202030730527
fatty acid profiles of crop contents of free-living psittacine nestlings and of commercial hand-feeding formulas.research on psittacine nutrition is limited, and nestling requirements are poorly understood. this study analysed fatty acid (fa) profiles of crop contents of free-living scarlet macaws (ara macao, n = 18), red-and-green macaws (ara chloropterus, n = 5), cuban parrots (amazona leucocephala bahamensis, n = 27), lilac-crowned amazons (amazona finschi, n = 33) and thick-billed parrots (rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha, n = 32). the same analysis was carried out on 15 commercial parrot hand-feeding formul ...202032974980
intestinal and blood parasites in scarlet (ara macao) and great green (ara ambigua) macaws in wildlife rehabilitation centers in costa rica.costa rica undertakes continuous efforts to recover the native population of macaw species through rehabilitation programs for breeding and releasing birds in protected areas. in the summer of 2018, a total of 107 scarlet (ara macao) and 93 great green (ara ambigua) macaws were sampled in four wildlife rehabilitation centers in costa rica. fecal samples representing 200 individuals were analyzed for intestinal parasites, and 23 individuals were sampled for hemoparasites. ascaridia and capillaria ...202032549569
archaeogenomic evidence from the southwestern us points to a pre-hispanic scarlet macaw breeding colony.hundreds of scarlet macaw (ara macao cyanoptera) skeletons have been recovered from archaeological contexts in the southwestern united states and northwestern mexico (sw/nw). the location of these skeletons, >1,000 km outside their neotropical endemic range, has suggested a far-reaching pre-hispanic acquisition network. clear evidence for scarlet macaw breeding within this network is only known from the settlement of paquimé in nw dating between 1250 and 1450 ce. although some scholars have spec ...201830104352
seven years of parrot conservation in la moskitia, honduras.the population of the central american scarlet macaw ( ara macao cyanoptera) and other parrots have and continue to decline throughout the region largely from poaching to supply the illegal wildlife trade. conservation efforts address this issue through protection efforts, including community patrols and government engagement, as well as nest monitoring, rescue and release operations, capacity building, and education and consciousness raising programs, all of which rely on long-lasting relations ...201829905097
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