[chemical and pharmacological study of leaves of anacardium occidentale l. (anacardiaceae)]. 1977413636
the possible relationship between cardiac glycogen levels, ouabain toxicity and the anti-arrhythmic effect of anacardium occidentale. 19751210327
[the use of the shell of the cashew nut, anacardium occidentale, as an alternative molluscacide].bioassays using hexanolic extracts of cashew nut shells, of anacardium occidentale, collected in ceará in 1972 (sample 1) and 1987 (sample 2) were undertaken with adult snails and egg masses of biomphalaria glabrata, b. tenagophila and b. straminea both in the laboratory and in the field. non extracted shells, 18.5 g, sample 1, were also tested with adult snails and egg masses of the three species. the toxicity of extract was tested with fish (poecilia reticulata) and tadpoles. the lethal concen ...19921342111
promoting action of cashew nut shell oil in dmba-initiated mouse skin tumour model system.the commercially available oil derived from the shell of cashew nut (anacardium occidentale) was tested for its potency in promoting the dmba-initiated cells into papillomas in a murine two-stage skin tumorigenesis model system. male swiss albino mice (9-10-weeks-old) were assorted into different groups and treated topically with single sub-carcinogenic doses of dmba (50 micrograms in 0.1 ml acetone) followed by application of 1% and 2% shell oil in acetone three times a week. animals were sacri ...19921540942
[psychologic reactions and psychiatric manifestations in hiv-positive patients].88 patients presenting hiv seropositivity are studied at the psychiatric intersurgery of the gregorio marañon general hospital in madrid. all of them but 4 are drug addicts having acquired the illness through homo or heterosexual relations. after a wide bibliographical survey of the psychologic ann psychiatric aspects related to hiv seropositivity, clinical results are compared with those of the different authors who have dealt with the issue in the last years. conclusions derived from the study ...19902184642
anti-inflammatory actions of tannins isolated from the bark of anacardium occidentale l.a mixture of tannins (hydrolysable and non-hydrolysable) obtained from the bark of anacardium occidentale l., on i.p. injection, demonstrated apparent anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan- and dextran-induced rat paw oedemas, cotton pellet granuloma test and adjuvant-induced polyarthritis in rats. at higher doses orally administered tannins also had activity in carrageenan paw oedema and adjuvant arthritis experiments. the tannins i.p. also inhibited acetic acid-induced "writhing responses" ...19852414605
glycaemic effects of traditional european plant treatments for diabetes. studies in normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice.twelve plants used for the traditional treatment of diabetes mellitus in northern europe were studied using normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice to evaluate effects on glucose homeostasis. the plants were administered in the diet (6.25% by weight) and/or as decoctions or infusions in place of drinking water, to coincide with the traditional method of preparation. treatment for 28 days with preparations of burdock (arctium lappa), cashew (anacardium occidentale), dandelion (taraxacum officinal ...19892743711
[phlebotomus fauna (diptera: psychodidae) of 3 provinces of the northeastern region of marañon, peru].two thousand seven hundred and seventy four sand flies were captured since 1987 to 1992 in endemic areas of human bartonellosis and peruvian verruga (district of san josé de lourdes, province of san ignacio - 05 degrees 03' ls, and district of lonya grande, province of utcubamba - 06 degrees 05'30" ls) belonging to the northeast region of marañon, peru. thirteen species were identified, 11 belonging to the genus lutzomyia, 1 to brumptomyia and the other to warileya. lutzomyia sp, close to l. ser ...19957480916
[the liver transplant program of the hospital general universitario gregorio marañón: an analysis of the first 100 patients].during a 3-year period between 1990 and 1993, 100 patients received orthotopic liver transplantation at the "gregorio marañón" university general hospital. the mean age of the patients was relatively high (46.9 +/- 10 years), with an important number of cirrhotic patients (91%). the rate of primary liver failure was relatively low (4.5% of transplantations) although 12 cases with more than 55 years were included in the present series. eleven retransplantations were performed, 8 for early failure ...19957784653
[an evaluation of the effect of a bark extract from the cashew (anacardium occidentale l.) on infection by leishmania (viannia) braziliensis].this paper presents an evaluation of the therapeutic effect of an hydroalcoholic extract of a. occidentale l. bark against leishmania (viannia) brasiliensis. the extract showed high activity in the in vitro model against the promastigotes of this species. however in the in vivo model no curative activity was observed.19938146389
effect of niclosamide (bayluscide wp 70), anacardium occidentale hexane extract and euphorbia splendens latex on behavior of biomphalaria glabrata (say, 1818), under laboratory conditions.the repellent effect of the molluscicides niclosamide (bayluscide wp 70), anacardium occidentale and the latex of euphorbia splendens on biomphalaria glabrata was observed through the investigation of the occurrence of escape behavior among molluscs that were exposed to dosages lower than the ld 50. the total number of individuals out of water among the surviving snails in the control group provided a "natural escape index". the comparison between this total and the total number of surviving sna ...19958531656
plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to leishmania (viannia) braziliensis in an endemic area of bahia, brazil.this paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to leishmania (viannia) braziliensis (l(v)b) among the rural population of a cocoa-producing coastal area of bahia state, brazil. an enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plants species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this leishmania species. the principal plants used are caju-branco (anacardium occidentale, anacardiaceae), used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (clidemia hirta,melast ...19968701041
mutagenic, carcinogenic and cocarcinogenic activity of cashewnut shell liquid.the petroleum ether extract of cashewnut shell (anacardium occidentale) was tested for its mutagenic, carcinogenic and cocarcinogenic potency. mutagenicity tests using salmonella typhimurium (ame's test) strains ta 1535, ta 100 and ta 98 showed that cashewnut shell liquid is non-mutagenic up to a concentration of 0.003% (in 0.1 ml dmso) with and without metabolic activation (s 9 mixture). carcinogenicity testing using murine (female swiss albino mice) two stage skin tumourigenesis model revealed ...19979029164
possible role of lutzomyia maranonensis and lutzomyia robusta (diptera: psychodidae) as vectors of human bartonellosis in three provinces of region nor oriental del marañon, peru. 19979394538
[anti-anaerobic activity of carbapenems].the critical concentrations of sensitivity and resistance for meropenem versus anaerobic bacterias were analyzed. it is demonstrated the meropenem is a powerful inhibitor of the microorganisms of the bacteroides groups (mic90 < 1 mg/l), prevotella > porphyromonas, fusobacterium, veillonella, clostridium perfringens is inhibited at a mic < 0.06 mg/l. the mic of meropenem versus c. difficile is 2 mg/l. they are also highly susceptible to the propionibacterium, peptostreptococcus and peptococcus ty ...19979410076
pulmonary complications following orthotopic liver transplant.pulmonary complications after orthotopic liver transplant (olt) are frequent, involving high morbidity and mortality. we have determined the pulmonary complication incidence in 187 patients submitted to olt at the general university hospital "gregorio marañón" in the last 4 years, analyzing the type of infection, evolution, diagnostic and therapeutic measures and their influence on olt mortality. a total of 120 patients had pulmonary complications, the most frequent being pleural effusion (61.94 ...19989664991
protective role of anacardium occidentale extract against streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.the protective effect of anacardium occidentale aqueous extract against streptozotocin-induced diabetes was evaluated in rats. the rats were treated with 175 mg/kg of the extract per os, twice daily; beginning 2 days before streptozotocin (stz) injection. a total of 3 days after stz administration, there was a 48% increase in blood glucose level in pretreated rats, compared with a 208% increase in diabetic control rats treated with stz alone. furthermore, these pretreated animals presented no gl ...19989741880
[splenectomy indications at a general hospital].to analyse the evolution of indications for splenectomy for a 11-year period.199910230289
anti-helicobacter pylori agents from the cashew apple.anacardic acids and (e)-2-hexenal characterized from the cashew anacardium occidentale l. (anacardiaceae) apple have been found to exhibit antibacterial activity against the gram-negative bacterium helicobacter pylori, which is now considered to cause acute gastritis. the same antibacterial compounds have also been found to inhibit urease (ec
screening of some nigerian medicinal plants for antibacterial activity.crude extracts from eight nigerian medicinal plants, used traditionally in the treatment of infectious and septic diseases in both humans and animals were screened in vitro for antibacterial activity, using the hole-plate diffusion method. most of the extracts were active against gram-positive bacteria. two of the plant, angeiossus schimperi and anacardium occidentale, had good antibacterial activity against escherichia coli and pseudomonas aeruginosa which are gram-negative bacteria.199910619388
medicinal plants used for dogs in trinidad and tobago.this paper documents ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat dogs in trinidad and tobago. in 1995, a 4-stage process was used to conduct the research and document the ethnoveterinary practices. twenty-eight ethnoveterinary respondents were identified using the school-essay method, which is a modified rapid rural appraisal (rra) technique. semi-structured interviews were held with these respondents as well as with 30 veterinarians, 27 extension officers and 19 animal-health assistants and/or agri ...200010821961
effect of inclusion of cashew globulin (anacardium occidentale) to a casein diet on lipid parameters in rats.the effect of inclusion of cashew globulin to a casein diet on lipid metabolism was studied in rats fed diets with two levels of cashew globulin meal. inclusion of cashew globulin to a casein diet produced lower levels of total cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipids in the serum and tissues and lower levels of serum lipoprotein cholesterol. there was decreased cholesterogenesis in the liver as evidenced by decreased activity of hmg coa reductase and decreased release of lipoproteins into ...199810890760
[segmental motor paralysis caused by the varicella zoster virus. clinical study and functional prognosis].segmental motor paralysis of the limbs (smp) complicates 2-3% of the cases of cutaneous herpes zoster. viral invasion and inflammation of the motor neurons of the anterior horn cells by the varicella-zoster virus (vvz) causes clinical weakness at the same time and site as the cutaneous eruption.200111293092
antimicrobial activity of anacardium occidentale bark.anacardium occidentale bark 60% methanolic extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against 13 out of 15 bacterial isolates at a concentration of 20 mg/ml.200111295307
the triatomines of northern peru, with emphasis on the ecology and infection by trypanosomes of rhodnius ecuadoriensis (triatominae).information on the distribution and synanthropic behaviour of triatomines is essential for chagas disease vector control. this work summarises such information from northern peru, and presents new data on rhodnius ecuadoriensis - an important local vector infesting 10-35% of dwellings in some zones. three species are strongly synanthropic and may be suitable targets for chemical control of domestic/peridomestic bug populations. panstrongylus herreri, the main domestic vector in the area, is prob ...200212016438
extra-abdominal infections due to gemella understand the role of gemella species as a pathogen causing extra-abdominal infections in the hospital general universitario gregorio marañón.200212044308
flavor composition of cashew (anacardium occidentale) and marmeleiro (croton species) honeys.the aim of this work was to characterize the volatile fractions of two brazilian honeys known as caju and marmeleiro. the volatile components were isolated by a column extraction technique using acetone as the extraction solvent. totals of 59 and 36 volatile compounds were definitely or tentatively identified in the caju and marmeleiro honeys, respectively, using reference substances, mass spectral libraries, and the odor qualities of the compounds eluted from the gc column. aroma extraction dil ...200212475279
why is coronary heart disease of uraemic patients so frequent and so devastating?on september 6, 2001, professor fernando valderrabano (hospital gregorio marañon, madrid) died at the age of 59 years. he was a leading figure in spanish nephrology, a full professor of medicine/nephrology at the university complutense of madrid, and an outstanding scientist who published more than 300 articles in medical journals. he was a very intelligent and cultured person, and a man of great style who enjoyed a wide range of hobbies and interests in addition to his medical work. all his col ...200312637626
laboratory evaluation of the hypoglycemic effect of anacardium occidentale linn (anacardiaceae) stem-bark extracts in rats.this study evaluated the hypoglycemic effect of stem-bark extracts of anacardium occidentale linn., of the anacardiaceae family, in normal (normoglycemic) and in streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. young adult, male wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were used. diabetes mellitus was induced in the test rats by intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (stz, 90 mg/kg). in one set of experiments, graded doses of the aqueous and methanolic stem-bark extracts of a. occidentale (100-800 mg/kg p.o.) ...200312743624
a sensitive sandwich elisa for the detection of trace amounts of cashew (anacardium occidentale l.) nut in foods.trace amounts of cashew nut protein can provoke severe allergic reactions in sensitive patients. consequently, commercial food processors and regulatory agencies must be vigilant to prevent cashew nut cross-contamination among foods and ensure proper labeling. toward this end, we have developed a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent (elisa) to detect the predominant cashew protein fraction (anacardein or cashew major protein, cmp) that can be extracted in aqueous buffer from food matrixes. prote ...200312744645
mutagenicity, antioxidant potential, and antimutagenic activity against hydrogen peroxide of cashew (anacardium occidentale) apple juice and cajuina.fresh and processed cashew (anacardium occidentale) apple juice (caj) are among the most popular drinks in brazil. besides their nutritional benefits, these juices have antibacterial and antitumor potential. the chemical constituents of both the fresh juice and the processed juice (cajuina) were analyzed and characterized as complex mixtures containing high concentrations of vitamin c, various carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and metals. in the present study, these beverages exhibited direct and ...200312802807
screening of cesticidal compounds on a tapeworm hymenolepis nana in vitro.a simple and convenient in vitro technique is described for the screening of compounds for action against hymenolepis nana and probably many other intestinal worms. the results obtained from this test are in broad agreement with the findings of clinical experience and of a small series of in vivo tests. among the substances tested, the most active ones were oil of chenopodium, dichlorophen, extract of cashew nut (anacardium occidentale), antimony potassium tartrate, and biq 20 [eicosamethylenebi ...196013750047
[the islands of langerhans of rats treated with the aqueous extract of anacardium occidentale l]. 196113859679
[the action of various extracts from cashew inner bark (anacardium occidentale l.) on the blood sugar of normal rats]. 196113920259
ana o 2, a major cashew (anacardium occidentale l.) nut allergen of the legumin family.we recently cloned and described a vicilin and showed it to be a major cashew allergen. additional ige-reactive cashew peptides of the legumin group and 2s albumin families have also been reported. here, we attempt to clone, express and characterize a second major cashew allergen.200314555856
indirect costs in ambulatory patients with hiv/aids in spain: a pilot estimate indirect costs in spanish ambulatory patients with hiv/aids and to identify changes in employment status and their current qol.200314596630
activity of cashew (anacardium occidentale) nutshell oil in human ancylostomiasis. 195014783111
vasorelaxation induced by common edible tropical plant extracts in isolated rat aorta and mesenteric vascular this study, the vasodilatory actions of nine edible tropical plant extracts were investigated. ipomoea batatas (sweet potato leaf), piper betle (betel leaf), anacardium occidentale (cashew leaf), gynandropsis gynandra (maman leaf), carica papaya (papaya leaf), and mentha arvensis (mint leaf) extracts exhibited more than 50% relaxing effect on aortic ring preparations, while piper betle and cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass stalk) showed comparable vasorelaxation on isolated perfused mesenteric ...200415138017
potentiation of the antiinflammatory effect of anacardium occidentale (linn.) stem-bark aqueous extract by grapefruit an attempt to scientifically appraise some of the ethnomedical uses of anacardium occidentale linn. (family: anacardiaceae), the present study was undertaken to examine the antiinflammatory effect of the plant's stem-bark aqueous extract in rats. young adult male wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were used. the antiinflammatory effect of a. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract alone and in combination with grapefruit (citrus paradisi macf.) juice was investigated on fresh egg albumin-induced ra ...200415148523
hypoglycaemic effect of stigmast-4-en-3-one and its corresponding alcohol from the bark of anacardium occidentale (cashew).intravenous administration of the hexane extract of the bark of anacardium occidentale (cashew) in normal, healthy dogs produced a significant lowering of the blood glucose levels. pursuit of the hypoglycaemic principle(s) in the hexane extract resulted in the isolation and characterization of two compounds, stigmast-4-en-3-ol (1) and stigmast-4-en-3-one (2). these compounds were purified by chromatographic methods and the structures were characterized by spectroscopic methods. both compounds pr ...200415174002
infections due to scedosporium apiospermum and scedosporium prolificans in transplant recipients: clinical characteristics and impact of antifungal agent therapy on outcome.unique characteristics, impact of therapy with antifungal agents, and outcome of infections with scedosporium species were assessed in transplant recipients.200415614697
screening of antifungal agents using ethanol precipitation and bioautography of medicinal and food the search for bioactive compounds, bioautography and ethanol precipitation of macromolecules (proteins, polysaccharides, etc.) of plant aqueous extracts were associated in an antifungal screening. thus, the supernatants, precipitates (obtained by ethanol precipitation) and aqueous extracts were investigated of medicinal and fruit bearing plants used against skin diseases by the brazilian population. the agar diffusion and broth dilution methods were used to assess the activity against three ...200415619579
in vitro anti-rotavirus activity of some medicinal plants used in brazil against diarrhea.acute diarrhea, especially in children, is a very common disease with worldwide distribution and with a significant public health impact. rotaviruses have been recognized as the major agents of diarrhea in infants and young children in developed as well as developing countries. in brazil, diarrhea is one of the principal causes of death, mainly in the infant population. to fight diarrhea, traditional brazilian medicine uses a great variety of plants. in this work, 12 medicinal plant species were ...200515876501
ana o 3, an important cashew nut (anacardium occidentale l.) allergen of the 2s albumin family.cashew nut allergy is the second most commonly reported tree nut allergy in the united states. we have previously cloned and characterized major cashew allergens belonging to the vicilin and legumin families of seed storage proteins.200515940148
[tuberculosis epidemiological study in a third level hospital during 2001].estimate the incidence and epidemiological and clinical characteristics of tuberculosis (tb), analyzing the influence of factors such as: hiv infection, immigration, chronic diseases and styles of life.200516001937
pesticides and metabolites in cassava, eucalyptus, plum and cashew leaves and roots in relation to a point source in kibaha, tanzania.leaves of eucalyptus sp., prunus domestica (plum), and anacardium occidentale (cashew), as well as roots and leaves of manihot esculenta (cassava) were used to study the local distribution of pesticides and metabolites from a point source, an old storage site at vikuge farm in tanzania. the gpc-cleaned extracts were analyzed by gc-ecd and gc/ms. eleven organochlorine pesticide residues namely pentachloroanisole, p,p'-ddt, o,p'-ddt, p,p'-dde, o,p'-dde, p,p'-ddd, o,p'-ddd, alpha-hch, beta-hch, del ...200616403548
acute, subacute toxicity and genotoxic effect of a hydroethanolic extract of the cashew (anacardium occidentale l.).anacardium occidentale l. (anacardiaceae), popularly known as cajueiro is a native plant to brazil, and largely used in popular medicine to treat ulcers, hypertension and diarrhea. in the present study, acute, 30-day subacute toxicity and genotoxicity assays were carried out. the crude extract did not produce toxic symptoms in rats in doses up to 2000 mg/kg. based on biochemical analyses of renal and hepato-biliary functions, such as the level of urea, creatinine, transaminases and alkaline phos ...200717088034
screening of tropical fruit volatile compounds using solid-phase microextraction (spme) fibers and internally cooled spme this study, the optimization and comparison of an internally cooled fiber [cold fiber with polydimethylsiloxane (pdms) loading] and several commercial solid-phase microextraction (spme) fibers for the extraction of volatile compounds from tropical fruits were performed. automated headspace solid-phase microextraction (hs-spme) using commercial fibers and an internally cooled spme fiber device coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms) was used to identify the volatile compounds o ...200617090108
plants of restricted use indicated by three cultures in brazil (caboclo-river dweller, indian and quilombola).a detailed record of plants cited during ethnopharmacological surveys, suspected of being toxic or of triggering adverse reactions, may be an auxiliary means to pharmacovigilance of phytomedicines, in that it provides greater knowledge of a "bad side" to plant resources in the brazilian flora. this study describes 57 plant species of restricted use (abortive, contraceptive, contraindicated for pregnancy, prescribed in lesser doses for children and the elderly, to easy delivery, in addition to po ...200717196776
production of tannase through submerged fermentation of tannin-containing plant extracts by bacillus licheniformis kbr6.tannins are water-soluble polyphenolic compounds found in plants as secondary metabolites. the presence of these substances in the barks of eight different plants was initially examined and their crude extracts were used separately as a substrate for production of tannase through submerged fermentation by bacillus licheniformis kbr6. tannase production as well as biodegradation of the substrate reached a maximum within 15 to 18 h against crude tannin extract obtained from anacardium occidentale. ...200617416066
antiulcerogenic effect and acute toxicity of a hydroethanolic extract from the cashew (anacardium occidentale l.) leaves.the antiulcerogenic effect of a hydroethanolic extract of anacardium occidentale l. leaves was investigated. the extract inhibited gastric lesions induced by hcl/ethanol in female rats. a dose-response effect study showed that the ed50 was 150 mg/kgb.w. extract doses higher than 100 mg/kgb.w. were more effective than 30 mg/kg of lansoprazol in inhibiting gastric lesions. a methanolic fraction (257.12 mg/kg) which reduced gastric lesion at 88.20% is likely to contain the active principle of the a ...200717499463
molecular design of anti-mrsa agents based on the anacardic acid scaffold.a series of anacardic acid analogues possessing different side chains viz. phenolic, branched, and alicyclic were synthesized and their antibacterial activity tested against methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa). the maximum activity against this bacterium occurred with the branched side-chain analogue, 6-(4',8'-dimethylnonyl)salicylic acid, and the alicyclic side-chain analogue, 6-cyclododecylmethyl salicylic acid, with the minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) of 0.39 microg/ml, ...200717601740
[radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy: description, outcome and prognostic factors in and emerging practice].recently it has been reported in the eortc (european organisation for research and treatment of cancer) trial 22911 and the swog (southwest oncology group) 8794, the evidence that radiotherapy (rt) is an effective treatment after the prostatectomy in patients with high risk of biochemical failure. we analyze predictor factors of biochemical relapse and the potential benefits induced by rescue treatment are the main purposes of our study.200717847737
design and evaluation of anacardic acid derivatives as anticavity agents.on the basis of antibacterial anacardic acids, 6-pentadecenylsalicylic acids, isolated from the cashew apple, anacardium occidentale l. (anacardiaceae), a series of 6-alk(en)ylsalicylic acids were synthesized and tested for their antibacterial activity against streptococcus mutans atcc 25175. among them, 6-(4',8'-dimethylnonyl)salicylic acid was found to exhibit the most potent antibacterial activity against this cariogenic bacterium with the minimum inhibition concentration (mic) of 0.78 microg ...200817959274
identification of liver fibrosis in hiv/hcv-coinfected patients using a simple predictive model based on routine laboratory data.we constructed noninvasive models to predict significant fibrosis (f > or = 2) and advanced fibrosis (f > or = 3) among human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)/hepatitis c virus (hcv)-coinfected patients, naïve for anti-hcv treatment. a total of 296 patients with liver biopsy were randomly assigned to an estimation group (eg = 226; 70%) and a validation group (vg = 70; 30%). we developed the hospital gregorio marañón (hgm)-1 index, based on platelet count, aspartate aminotransferase (ast) and glucose ...200718070289
diet selection in immunologically manipulated selection is a complex problem that animals in wildlife have to deal with daily. in their natural environment, these animals meet a great variety of foods some of which they are able and prepared to eat, yet, not all of it is eaten. in addition to the biological factors, some of which we shall discuss deeper in this paper, an important factor in food preference is social contact. alterations in the physiology of mammals can have profound effects on the choice or preference for certain foods ...200818207023
investigations on oecophylla longinoda (latreille) (hymenoptera: formicidae) as a biocontrol agent in the protection of cashew plantations.cashew (anacardium occidentale l.) has become a very important non-traditional tree crop in ghana. the crop is, however, attacked by sap-sucking insects, particularly the mosquito bug, helopeltis schoutedeni reuter, the leaf-footed bug, pseudotheraptus devastans (dist.), and the coreid bug, anoplocnemis curvipes (f.), which feed on shoots, panicles and fruits. their damage is characterised by withering of the latter. in ghana, oecophylla longinoda latr. occurs in large numbers on cashew and othe ...200918785220
effects of processing on immunoreactivity of cashew nut (anacardium occidentale l.) seed flour proteins.cashew nut seeds were subjected to processing including autoclaving (121 degrees c for 5, 10, 20, and 30 min), blanching (100 degrees c for 1, 4, 7, and 10 min), microwave heating (1 and 2 min each at 500 and 1000 w), dry roasting (140 degrees c for 20 and 30 min; 170 degrees c for 15 and 20 min; and 200 degrees c for 10 and 15 min), gamma-irradiation (1, 5, 10, and 25 kgy), and ph (1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13). proteins from unprocessed and processed cashew nut seeds were probed for stability usi ...200818795784
pathological variations within xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae support its separation into three distinct pathovars that can be distinguished by amplified fragment length polymorphism.abstract bacterial black spot, caused by xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae, is an important disease of mango (mangifera indica). several other plant genera of the family anacardiaceae were described as host species for xanthomonads. we studied pathological variations among strains in a worldwide collection from several anacardiaceae genera. strains were classified into three pathogenicity groups. group i strains (from the old world) multiplied markedly in leaf tissue of mango and cash ...200718943717
effects of immature cashew nut-shell liquid (anacardium occidentale) against oxidative damage in saccharomyces cerevisiae and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity.the cashew tree (anacardium occidentale) represents one of the major cheapest sources of non-isoprenoid phenolic lipids, which have a variety of biological properties: they can act as molluscicides, insecticides, fungicides, have anti-termite properties, have medicinal applications, and demonstrate antioxidant activity in vitro. immature cashew nut-shell liquid (icnsl) is a unique natural source of unsaturated long-chain phenols. their use has stimulated much research in order to prepare drug an ...200818949700
tyrisonase inhibition and melanin reduction of human melanocytes (hemn-mp) using anacardium occidentale l extract.cashew (anacardium occindentale l) leaves extract (cle) has potential as tyrosinase inhibitor that can be used for therapeutic in pigmentation problem. this study investigates the real potential of cle to inhibit tyrosinase and melanin reduction using human epidermal melanocytes. the extracts were exposed to the human melanocytes for more than 24 hours. the cle extract exhibited potential as tyrosinase inhibitor, reduced melanin and high in antioxidant activity relative to commercial extract of ...200819025004
effect of high hydrostatic pressure on cashew apple (anacardium occidentale l.) juice preservation.high hydrostatic pressure is an alternative to thermal processing to inactivate spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. cashew apple juice has a pleasant flavor and is rich in vitamin c. studies to determine the effect of high pressure on microorganisms in cashew apple juice are still lacking. in this study, the inactivation of natural micropopulation and inoculated escherichia coli by high pressure was evaluated in fresh cashew apple juice. the microbiological stability of pressure-treated juic ...200819241557
protective effect of anacardic acids from cashew (anacardium occidentale) on ethanol-induced gastric damage in mice.cashew nut-shell liquid and the contained anacardic acids (aas) have been shown to possess antioxidant, lipoxygenase inhibitory, anti-helicobacter pylori and antitumor properties. despite these known effects, hitherto there were no published reports on their likely gastroprotective effects. the present study was designed to verify whether aas afford gastroprotection against the ethanol-induced gastric damage and to examine the underlying mechanism(s). gastric damage was induced by intragastric a ...201019853593
acute and subchronic toxicity of anacardium occidentale linn (anacardiaceae) leaves hexane extract in mice.these studies focus on the toxicity leaf hexane extract of a. occidentale l (anacardiaceae) used in cameroon traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes and hypertension. previous findings on antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory have given support to the ethnopharmacological applications of the plant. after acute oral administration, it was found that doses of the extract less than 6 g/kg are not toxic. signs of toxicity at high doses were asthenia, anorexia, diarrhoea, and syncope. the ld( ...200620162085
oviposition activity of aedes aegypti l. (diptera: culicidae) in response to different organic infusions.the present study investigates new sources of infusion as an oviposition attractant for aedes aegypti l. infusions with fetid and non-fetid odors were compared as an oviposition stimulant. traps baited with infusions of dehydrated cashew leaves (anacardium occidentale), potato peels (solanum tuberosum) and graminea (panicum maximum) were compared as attractants, and the effect of odor (fetid and unfetid) on attractiveness was tested. oviposition activity changed significantly according to the co ...201020498970
synthesis and cytotoxicity screening of substituted isobenzofuranones designed from anacardic acids.this work is part of a large program, which seeks to discover new antitumor isobenfuranones designed from anacardic acids. the synthetic strategy for the construction of the title compounds takes into consideration the use of inexpensive anacardic acids (2), the major natural cashew (anacardium occidentale) nut-shell phenolic lipid, and features one-pot construction of fused-ring aromatic gamma-lactones, phthalides. the cytotoxicity screening in different human cancer cell lines (hl-60 leukemia, ...201020537433
[lemierre syndrome: several clinical features of "a forgotten disease"].lemierre syndrome (ls) is considered as a forgotten disease since the beginning of penicillin. the lack of use of beta-lactamase inhibitors antibiotics together with the increase in the use of macrolids or second-generation and third-generation cephalosporins for oropharyngeal processes has led to an increasing incidence. we propose to review all ls cases seen in an emergency department over the last 5 years.201020570017
hydro-ethanolic extract of cashew tree (anacardium occidentale) nut and its principal compound, anacardic acid, stimulate glucose uptake in c2c12 muscle cells.products of cashew tree (anacardium occidentale) are used in traditional medicine for various ailments, including diabetes.201020603833
antimycoplasmal activity of some plant species from northern nigeria compared to the currently used therapeutic agent.mycoplasma spp. are obligate parasites of humans and animals. but due to the special requirements needed to culture mycoplasma in the laboratory, little or no research has been done to evaluate the efficacy of medicinal plants on the organism.201020819025
molecular characterization and evaluation of virulence factors of cryptococcus laurentii and cryptococcus neoformans strains isolated from external hospital areas.cryptococcosis is a common opportunistic fungal infection that is mainly caused by the species cryptococcus neoformans and cryptococcus gattii, but there have recently been several reports of infection by non-neoformans cryptococcus species. the aims of this study were to genetically characterize cryptococcus spp. isolated from external hospital areas in minas gerais state, brazil, and to evaluate their pathogenic potential, analyzing their phospholipase and melanin production and the capacity f ...201020943154
biotechnological process for obtaining new fermented products from cashew apple fruit by saccharomyces cerevisiae brazil, the use of cashew apple (anacardium occidentale l.) to obtain new products by biotechnological process represents an important alternative to avoid wastage of a large quantity of this fruit, which reaches about 85% of the annual production of 1 million tons. this work focuses on the development of an alcoholic product obtained by the fermentation of cashew apple juice. the inoculation with two different strains of yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae viz. scp and sct, were standardized to a ...201021069555
cytotoxicity of cashew flavonoids towards malignant cell lines.the leaves of the cashew plant (anacardium occidentale l.) are used by the folk medicine in south america and west africa. this plant is rich in flavonoids, which are polyphenolic compounds widespread in plants, and that have diverse physiological effects. in a sub-acute toxicity assay it was found that an ethanolic extract of cashew leaves elicited lymphopenia in rats. the extract was also found to be cytotoxic and to induce apoptosis in jurkat (acute lymphoblastic leukemia) cells. the crude et ...201021106357
sub-chronic hepatotoxicity of anacardium occidentale (anacardiaceae) inner stem bark extract in rats.the extracts of anacardium occidentale have been used in the management of different cardiovascular disorders in nigeria. these have necessitated the assessment of the toxicity of this plant extract in sub-chronic administration. the inner stem bark of anacardium occidentale was extracted with 80 % methanol and quantitatively analysed for antinutrients and some heavy metals. the phytochemical compositions and acute toxicity of the extract were determined also. toxicity profiles of the extract on ...201021188045
microarray analysis revealed different gene expression patterns in hepg2 cells treated with low and high concentrations of the extracts of anacardium occidentale this study, the effects of low and high concentrations of the anacardium occidentale shoot extracts on gene expression in liver hepg2 cells were investigated. from mtt assays, the concentration of the shoot extracts that maintained 50% cell viability (ic(50)) was 1.7 mg/ml. cell viability was kept above 90% at both 0.4 mg/ml and 0.6 mg/ml of the extracts. the three concentrations were subsequently used for the gene expression analysis using affymetrix human genome 1.0 s.t arrays. the microarr ...201121484159
acute, subacute toxicity and mutagenic effects of anacardic acids from cashew (anacardium occidentale linn.) in mice.anacardium occidentale linn. (cashew) is a brazilian plant that is usually consumed in natura and is used in folk medicine. anacardic acids (aas) in the cashew nut shell liquid are biologically active as gastroprotectors, inhibitors of the activity of various deleterious enzymes, antitumor agents and antioxidants. yet, there are no reports of toxicity testing to guarantee their use in vivo models.201121511024
permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 april 2010 - 31 may 2010.this article documents the addition of 396 microsatellite marker loci to the molecular ecology resources database. loci were developed for the following species: anthocidaris crassispina, aphis glycines, argyrosomus regius, astrocaryum sciophilum, dasypus novemcinctus, delomys sublineatus, dermatemys mawii, fundulus heteroclitus, homalaspis plana, jumellea rossii, khaya senegalensis, mugil cephalus, neoceratitis cyanescens, phalacrocorax aristotelis, phytophthora infestans, piper cordulatum, pte ...201021565124
in vivo antigenotoxic and anticlastogenic effects of fresh and processed cashew (anacardium occidentale) apple juices.abstract cashew apple juice and cajuina (processed juice) are drinks widely consumed in northeast brazil. in vitro studies have shown that both juices have antimutagenic activity as well as antioxidant effects. these juices contain vitamins, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds. this in vivo study assessed the antigenotoxic and anticlastogenic effects of both drinks against genotoxicity and mutagenicity induced by cyclophosphamide. the comet, micronucleus, and chromosome aberrations tests were us ...201121612456
molecular epidemiology of aspergillus fumigatus: an in-depth genotypic analysis of isolates involved in an outbreak of invasive aspergillosis.we recently reported an outbreak of invasive aspergillosis in the major heart surgery unit of hospital gregorio mara+¦+¦n, madrid, spain (t. pel+íez, p. mu+¦oz, j. guinea, m. valerio, m. giannella, c.h.w. klaassen, and e. bouza, submitted for publication). a. fumigatus was isolated from clinical samples in 10 patients admitted to the unit during the outbreak period (surgical wound invasive aspergillosis, n=2; probable pulmonary invasive aspergillosis, n=4; colonization, n=4). here, we have studi ...201121832010
the cashew nut, anacardium occidentale (anacardiaceae), and its perennial association with ants: extrafloral nectary location and the potential for ant defense.cashew nut trees are consistently ant-visited throughout the year, with the ants attracted to a large number of extrafloral nectaries on the leaves, inflorescences, flowers, and developing nuts. the commercial production of cashew nut, for example, in india, brazil, and east africa, consistently applies pesticides, especially insecticides, in large monoculture plantings. each year prophylactic spraying begins with the first flush of new leaves, continues through flowering, ending at about mid-nu ...199821684968
[the sexuality by marañón].it is noticeable that he always had an interest in sexuality marañón. it must be noted that at the time this included a series of processes that now have become separated from it, as all human reproduction, both from a social standpoint as a scientist or political issues and problems in speaking so very active. but specifically, referring to the current concept of sexuality, much to marañón investigated because, following the ideas of freud, then in vogue, i wanted to know the importance that th ...201021877403
antibacterial activity of some african medicinal plants used traditionally against infectious diseases.context: plants are known to play a crucial role in african traditional medicine for the treatment of infection diseases. objectives: to investigate the claimed antimicrobial properties of plants traditionally used in african countries, providing scientific validation for their use. materials and methods: eighty-three polar and non-polar extracts from 22 medicinal plants were screened for their antibacterial activity against gram-positive (staphylococcus aureus and enterococcus faecalis) and ...201122136524
comparison of gastric ulcerogenicity of percolated extract of anacardium occidentale (cashew nut) with indomethacin in traditional iranian medicine, the core of the fruit of anacardium occidentale (cashew nut) has been used in the management of the pain. in this study gastric ulcerogenicity effect of the percolated extract of a. occidentale was investigated in rats. the extract or indomethacin (200, 300, 400 and 800 mg/kg) was administrated orally. in the control group normal saline (5 ml/kg) was used. after getting extract, indomethacin or normal saline, animals were slaughtered. the stomachs were detached a ...201222186317
distribution and abundance of white-fronted spider monkeys, ateles belzebuth (atelidae), and threats to their survival in peruvian amazonia.the white-fronted spider monkey, ateles belzebuth, is listed as 'endangered' according to the iucn classification. in peru it is found in the departments of loreto, san martín, amazonas and cajamarca, but detailed data on its geographic distribution, population densities and conservation status are scarce. in order to obtain such information, we conducted transect censuses on the río aushiri and río san antonio (right bank of río napo), and between the río curaray and the río arabela and río nas ...201223296267
human papillomavirus genotypes in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with anal pathology in madrid, spain.we studied anal specimens to determine the distribution of human papillomavirus (hpv) genotypes and co-infection occurrence. this information will contribute to the knowledge of hpv genotype distributions and provide an estimate of the prevalence of different oncogenic hpv genotypes found in patients in madrid (spain).201324325764
in vitro antimicrobial activity of traditional plant used in mestizo shamanism from the peruvian amazon in case of infectious diseases.our survey was performed near iquitos (peruvian amazon) and its surroundings and leads us to consider mestizo ethnomedical practices. the plant species reported here are traditionally used for ailments related to microbial infections. inhabitants of various ethnic origins were interviewed, and 52 selected plants extracts were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties against a panel of 36 sensitive and multi-resistant bacteria or yeast. the study aimed at providing information on antimicrobia ...201527013805
in vitro propagation of vitro plant propagation was developed for seedling shoot tips, leaf axils, and cotyledonary nodes of cashew, anacardium occidentale. factors affecting multiplication rate included age of explant source, explant type, medium composition, light requirements, and transfer frequency. cotyledonary nodes produced more buds than other explant types. nodes had a 90% viability when transferred daily to fresh medium containing activated charcoal for 7 d while exposed to continuous dark. cultures were t ...199624178529
exposure to anacardiaceae volatile oils and their constituents induces lipid peroxidation within food-borne bacteria cells.the chemical composition of the volatile oils from five anacardiaceae species and their activities against gram positive and negative bacteria were assessed. the peroxidative damage within bacterial cell membranes was determined through the breakdown product malondialdehyde (mda). the major constituents in anacardium humile leaves oil were (e)-caryophyllene (31.0%) and α-pinene (22.0%), and in anacardium occidentale oil they were (e)-caryophyllene (15.4%) and germacrene-d (11.5%). volatile oil f ...201222893019
anatomy, histochemistry, and antifungal activity of anacardium humile (anacardiaceae) leaf.leaves of anacardium humile are used in brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of intestinal disturbances and skin lesions. this study aimed to define leaf diagnostic structural characters, to propose a new method of phytochemical analysis of secretions, prospect flavonoids and alkaloids, and to evaluate their inhibitory activity on candida albicans. common anatomical, phytochemical, and microbiological methods were used. leaves of anacardium occidentale were used as a reference for th ...201526586138
susceptibility of candida albicans biofilms to caspofungin and anidulafungin is not affected by metabolic activity or biomass production.micafungin is more active against biofilms with high metabolic activity; however, it is unknown whether this observation applies to caspofungin and anidulafungin and whether it is also dependent on the biomass production. we compare the antifungal activity of anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin against preformed candida albicans biofilms with different degrees of metabolic activity and biomass production from 301 isolates causing fungemia in patients admitted to gregorio marañon hospital ...201626543157
combination of candida biomarkers in patients receiving empirical antifungal therapy in a spanish tertiary hospital: a potential role in reducing the duration of treatment.initiation of empirical antifungal therapy for invasive candidiasis (ic) is usually based on clinical suspicion. serological biomarkers have not yet been studied as a means of ruling out ic. we evaluated the potential role of two combined biomarkers in stopping unnecessary antifungals in patients at risk of ic in the icu and in other wards.201526311840
candida biomarkers in patients with candidaemia and bacteraemia.microbiological strategies are necessary to help clinicians discontinue empirical antifungal therapy in patients with suspected invasive candidiasis. culture methods and biomarkers each show low sensitivity. we analysed the value of combining different biomarkers as a decision-making tool for discontinuing empirical antifungal treatment.201525900160
in vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of anacardium occidentale and mangifera indica in oral care.oral health is an integral and important component of general health. infectious diseases such as caries, periodontal, and gingivitis indicate the onset of imbalance in homeostasis between oral micro biota and host. the present day medicaments used in oral health care have numerous side effects. the uses of herbal plants as an alternative have gained popularity due to side effects of antibiotics and emergence of multidrug resistant strains. anacardium occidentale (cashew) and mangifera indica (m ...201725709341
micafungin is more active against candida albicans biofilms with high metabolic activity.the ability to form biofilm enables candida spp. to cause catheter-related candidaemia. the use of agents with in vitro activity against candida albicans biofilms, such as micafungin, could obviate catheter removal. the metabolic activity of c. albicans biofilms is strain-dependent, and cell wall formation is thought to be more prominent in biofilms showing high metabolic activity.201424942468
self-assembled cardanol azo derivatives as antifungal agent with chitin-binding ability.cardanol is a non-isoprenoic phenolic lipid-mixture of distilled cashew nut shell liquid obtained from anacardium occidentale. herein, cardanol is purified from cashew nut shell liquid (cnsl) and synthesized to new compounds with different azo amphiphiles. these synthesized compounds are allowed to self-assembled in hydrophobic environment and checked antifungal activity against candida albicans. self-assembled structure of caba showed higher antifungal activity (16μg/ml) and chitin-binding abil ...201424836571
potential protective role of linezolid against clostridium difficile infection.clostridium difficile infection (cdi) is one of the main causes of diarrhoea associated with antimicrobial therapy. antibiotics with good 'in vitro' activity against c. difficile could protect patients from developing cdi. in this study, the potential of linezolid to protect patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (vap) from developing cdi was assessed. over a 4-year period, a cohort of patients who developed vap following major heart surgery (mhs) in gregorio marañón general hospital (mad ...201222445203
potential prebiotic properties of cashew apple (anacardium occidentale l.) agro-industrial byproduct on lactobacillus species.the prebiotic effects of a cashew apple (anacardium occidentale l.) agro-industrial byproduct powder (cap) on different potentially probiotic lactobacillus strains, namely lactobacillus acidophilus la-05, lactobacillus casei l-26 and lactobacillus paracasei l-10, were assessed using in vitro experimental models. accordingly, the growth of the lactobacillus strains when cultivated in a broth containing cap (20 or 30 g l(-1) ), glucose (20 g l(-1) ) or fructooligosaccharides (fos) (20 g l(-1) ) wa ...201728111773
proteomic analysis of responsive stem proteins of resistant and susceptible cashew plants after lasiodiplodia theobromae infection.gummosis is an aggressive disease caused by the necrotrophic fungus lasiodiplodia theobromae (pat.) griffon & maubl that threatens commercial cashew orchads in brazil. to study the molecular mechanisms involved in the cashew response to l. theobromae, a proteomic analysis of stems from the commercial cashew clone brs 226 (resistant) was conducted at early times post-artificial infection. in addition, changes in the stem proteome profiles of gummosis resistant and susceptible cashew plants grown ...201525289588
listeria monocytogenes infection in inflammatory bowel disease patients: case series and review of the literature.listeria monocytogenes (lm) is a gram-positive intracellular bacillus that in immunodeficient patients, children, geriatric patients, pregnant women, and even in healthy individuals can cause central nervous system infection, bacteremia, and other clinical manifestations, becoming a relevant pathogen.201425171025
differentiation of meloidogyne incognita and m. arenaria novel resistance phenotypes in lycopersicon peruvianum and derived bridge-lines.lycopersicon peruvianum pi 270435 clone 2r2 and pi 126443 clone 1mh were crossed reciprocally with three l. esculentum-l. peruvianum bridge-lines. the incongruity barrier between the two plant species was overcome; f1 progeny were obtained from crosses between four parental combinations without embryo-rescue culture. hybridity was confirmed by leaf and flower morphology and by the production of nematode-resistant f1 progeny on homozygous susceptible parents. clones of the five f1 bridgeline hybr ...199624162431
evidence of rabies virus exposure among humans in the peruvian may of 2010, two communities (truenococha and santa marta) reported to be at risk of vampire bat depredation were surveyed in the province datem del marañón in the loreto department of perú. risk factors for bat exposure included age less than or equal to 25 years and owning animals that had been bitten by bats. rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (rvnas) were detected in 11% (7 of 63) of human sera tested. rabies virus ribonucleoprotein (rnp) immunoglobulin g (igg) antibodies were detected ...201222855749
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