the structural proteins and rna components of a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus from nymphalis io (lepidoptera: nymphalidae). 19744612108
eyespot display in the peacock butterfly triggers antipredator behaviors in naïve adult fowl.large conspicuous eyespots have evolved in multiple taxa and presumably function to thwart predator attacks. traditionally, large eyespots were thought to discourage predator attacks because they mimicked eyes of the predators' own predators. however, this idea is controversial and the intimidating properties of eyespots have recently been suggested to simply be a consequence of their conspicuousness. some lepidopteran species include large eyespots in their antipredation repertoire. in the peac ...201323243378
effect of bt-176 maize pollen on first instar larvae of the peacock butterfly (inachis io) (lepidoptera; nymphalidae).more than 10 years after registration of the first bt maize cultivar in europe, there still exists a remarkable lack of data on effects on lepidoptera which would be necessary for a complete and comprehensive environmental risk assessment. so far only very few european butterfly species have been tested in this aspect. in our study the effect of transgenic bacillus thuringiensis (bt) maize pollen (event bt-176) on the development and survival of neonate larvae of the peacock butterfly, inachis i ...201021122482
a mathematical model of exposure of non-target lepidoptera to bt-maize pollen expressing cry1ab within europe.genetically modified (gm) maize mon810 expresses a cry1ab insecticidal protein, derived from bacillus thuringiensis (bt), toxic to lepidopteran target pests such as ostrinia nubilalis. an environmental risk to non-target lepidoptera from this gm crop is exposure to harmful amounts of bt-containing pollen deposited on host plants in or near mon810 fields. an 11-parameter mathematical model analysed exposure of larvae of three non-target species: the butterflies inachis io (l.), vanessa atalanta ( ...201020053648
declines in common, widespread butterflies in a landscape under intense human use.analyses of species' population losses typically show a dichotomy between strongly affected, rare, and localized species and apparently unaffected, common, and widespread species. we analyzed 16 years (1992-2007) of butterfly transect count data from the netherlands in a reevaluation of the trends of common, widespread species. fifty-five percent (11 of 20 species) of these species suffered severe declines in distribution and abundance. overall, cumulative butterfly abundance declined by around ...200919637406
gene assignments of a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (type 2) from nymphalis io.the 10 double stranded (ds) rnas from cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (type 2) from nymphalis io have been separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fractionated into separate genes. separate and total dsrna were denatured using methyl mercury, and translated in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate. translation of unfractionated rna generated proteins that comigrated with virion and polyhedral structural proteins and six major non-structural proteins. translation of individual rnas, demonstrate ...19853892233
cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus classification by electropherotype; validation by serological analyses and agarose gel electrophoresis.serological analyses of several different cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses (cpvs), including two type 1 cpvs from bombyx mori, type 1 cpv from dendrolimus spectabilis, type 12 cpv from autographa gamma, type 2 cpv from inachis io, type 5 cpv from orgyia pseudotsugata and type 5 cpv from heliothis armigera, demonstrated a close correlation between the antigenic properties of the polyhedrin or virus particle structural proteins and the genomic dsrna electropherotypes. the dsrnas of these viruses w ...19892499658
selection toward shorter flowers by butterflies whose probosces are shorter than floral tubes.darwin's meticulous observations on the function of floral shape led to his famous prediction of a long-tongued pollinator, which he believed to be the evolutionary trigger for the long-spurred flowers of the madagascar star orchid. although tubular flowers are common, long tubes or spurs are an exception, suggesting that selection maintaining short flowers is widespread. using the butterfly-pollinated carnation dianthus carthusianorum and two butterfly species differing in proboscis length (mel ...200818831167
cytology of lepidoptera. v. the microtubule cytoskeleton in eupyrene spermatocytes of ephestia kuehniella (pyralidae), inachis io (nymphalidae), and orgyia antiqua (lymantriidae).the structural transformations of the microtubule cytoskeleton during eupyrene meiosis were characterized in the mediterranean mealmoth, ephestia kuehniella. anti-tubulin immunofluorescence was used in two strains, l and sbr, of this species. in addition, living primary eupyrene spermatocytes from strain l were observed with phase-contrast light microscopy, and metaphase i spermatocytes were studied with the electron microscope. the analysis did not reveal strain-specific differences in the beha ...19911935987
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