[study of the structural polypeptides of chilo suppressalis iridescent virus (iridovirus type 6)].we report a procedure for the purification of chilo iridescent virus (iridovirus type 6), an evaluation of the purification procedure, and the results of analyses of the virion proteins by acrylamide gel electrophoresis. purity was evaluated in three ways, i.e., by analysis of purified virions from artificial mixtures of infected and labeled uninfected larvae, electrophoresis at neutral ph, and electron-microscopic examination. analysis of the polypeptides of purified civ gave the following resu ...1979476558
agrobacterium-transformed rice plants expressing synthetic cryia(b) and cryia(c) genes are highly toxic to striped stem borer and yellow stem borer.over 2,600 transgenic rice plants in nine strains were regenerated from >500 independently selected hygromycin-resistant calli after agrobacterium-mediated transformation. the plants were transformed with fully modified (plant codon optimized) versions of two synthetic cryia(b) and cryia(c) coding sequences from bacillus thuringiensis as well as the hph and gus genes, coding for hygromycin phosphotransferase and beta-glucuronidase, respectively. these sequences were placed under control of the m ...19989501164
agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of rice with the spider insecticidal gene conferring resistance to leaffolder and striped stem borer.immature embryos of rice varieties "xiushuill" and "chunjiang 11" precultured for 4d were infected and transformed by agrobacterium tumefaciens strain eha101/pext7 (containing the spider insecticidal gene). the resistant calli were transferred onto the differentiation medium and plants were regenerated. the transformation frequency reached 56% approximately 72% measured as numbers of geneticin (g418)-resistant calli produced and 36% approximately 60% measured as numbers of transgenic plants rege ...200111453547
inhibition of [(3)h]ponasterone a binding by ecdysone agonists in the intact sf-9 cell line.ecdysone agonists, including dibenzoylhydrazines, significantly inhibited the binding of [(3)h]ponasterone a ([(3)h]poa) in intact sf-9 cells (spodoptera frugiperda). the amount of [(3)h]poa binding varied in a concentration-dependent manner. according to the ic(50), concentration at which there is 50% inhibition, the order of potency of typical ecdysone agonists is tebufenozide (rh-5992) > methoxyfenozide (rh-2485) > poa > 20-hydroxyecdysone > cyasterone > rh-5849, makisterone a > or = inokoste ...200010978733
effect of plant age, larval age, and fertilizer treatment on resistance of a cry1ab-transformed aromatic rice to lepidopterous stem borers and foliage feeders.the resistance of vegetative, booting, and flowering stage plants of a variety of an aromatic rice, oryza sativa l., transformed with a bacillus thuringiensis berliner cry1ab gene under control of the maize phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (pepc) promoter was evaluated against four lepidopterous rice pests--the stem borers chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: crambidae) and scirpophaga incertulas (walker) (lepidoptera: pyralidae), and the foliage feeders cnaphalocrocis medinalis guenée (lepi ...200010826204
a potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor gene provides pathogen resistance in transgenic rice.a defensive role against insect attack has been traditionally attributed to plant protease inhibitors. here, evidence is described of the potential of a plant protease inhibitor, the potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor (pci), to provide resistance to fungal pathogens when expressed in rice as a heterologous protein. it is shown that rice plants constitutively expressing the pci gene exhibit resistance against the economically important pathogens magnaporthe oryzae and fusarium verticillioides. a m ...200717547659
insect resistant rice generated by introduction of a modified delta-endotoxin gene of bacillus a first step towards development of insect resistant rice we have introduced a truncated delta-endotoxin gene, cryia(b) of bacillus thuringiensis (b.t.) which has specific biological activity against lepidopteran insects into a japonica rice. to highly express the cryia(b) gene in rice the coding sequence was extensively modified based on the codon usage of rice genes. transgenic plants efficiently expressed the modified cryia(b) gene at both mrna and protein levels. bioassays using r2 genera ...19937764096
serial passage of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus of the silkworm, bombyx mori, in larvae of rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis. 19751089731
survey of susceptibilities to monosultap, triazophos, fipronil, and abamectin in chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: crambidae).to provide a foundation for national resistance management of the asiatic rice borer, chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: crambidae), a study was carried out to determine dose-response and susceptibility changes over a 5-yr period in the insect from representative rice, oryza sativa l., production regions. in total, 11 populations were collected from 2002 to 2006 in seven rice-growing provinces in china, and they were used to examine their susceptibility levels to monosultap, triazophos, f ...200718232403
binding of bacillus thuringiensis cry1 toxins to the midgut brush border membrane vesicles of chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae): evidence of shared binding sites.volume 62, no. 5, p. 1544, abstract, line 4: "cry1aa" should read "cry1ac." [this corrects the article on p. 1544 in vol. 62.].199616535392
binding of bacillus thuringiensis cry1 toxins to the midgut brush border membrane vesicles of chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae): evidence of shared binding sites.binding and competition among cry1aa, cry1ac, and cry1ba toxins were analyzed quantitatively in vitro by using (sup125)i-labeled activated toxins and brush border membrane vesicles isolated from chilo suppressalis larval midguts. the three toxins bound specifically to the midgut brush border membrane vesicles. direct binding experiments showed that cry1aa and cry1ba recognized a single class of binding sites with different affinities, whereas cry1aa recognized two classes of binding sites, one w ...199616535306
[krigle estimation and its simulated sampling of chilo suppressalis population density].in order to draw up a rational sampling plan for the larvae population of chilo suppressalis, an original population and its two derivative populations, random population and sequence population, were sampled and compared with random sampling, gap-range-random sampling, and a new systematic sampling integrated krigle interpolation and random original position. as for the original population whose distribution was up to aggregative and dependence range in line direction was 115 cm (6.9 units), ga ...200415506091
do rice water weevils and rice stem borers compete when sharing a host plant?the rice water weevil (rww) lissorhoptrus oryzophilus kuschel (coleoptera: curculionidae) is an invasive insect pest of rice oryza sativa l. in china. little is known about the interactions of this weevil with indigenous herbivores. in the present study, adult feeding and population density of the weevil, injury level of striped stem borer chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: pyralidae) and pink stem borer sesamia inferens (walker) (lepidoptera: noctuidae) to rice, as well as growth status ...200818600788
bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin binding to brush border membrane vesicles of rice stem borers.the receptor binding step in the molecular mode of action of five delta-endotoxins (cry1ab, cry1ac, cry1c, cry2a, and cry9c) from bacillus thuringiensis was examined to find toxins with different receptor sites in the midgut of the striped stem borer (ssb) chilo suppressalis (walker) and yellow stem borer (ysb) scirpophaga incertulas (walker) (lepidoptera: pyralidae). homologous competition assays were used to estimate binding affinities (k(com)) of (125)i-labelled toxins to brush border membran ...200415027071
geographic variation in susceptibility of chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae) to bacillus thuringiensis toxins in china.geographic variation in the susceptibility of the striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: pyralidae), in china to bacillus thuringiensis (bt) insecticidal crystal proteins cry1ac and cry1ab was studied to establish baseline information for comparing the future response of populations with increased exposure to bt products. rice is the major host of c. suppressalis, and bt rice ma) be released in china in the near future. twelve populations of the pest were collected from th ...200314977124
development of insect-resistant transgenic rice with cry1c*-free endosperm.yellow stem borer (tryporyza incertulas walker), striped stem borer (chilo suppressalis walker) and leaf folder (cnaphalocrocis medinalis guenec) are three lepidopteran pests that cause severe damage to rice in many areas of the world. in this study, novel insect-resistant transgenic rice was developed in which bt protein expression was nearly absent in the endosperm. the resistant gene, cry1c*, driven by the rice rbcs promoter (small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase), ...200919479952
monitoring of the pesticide diazinon in soil, stem and surface water of rice fields.diazinon is an organophosphorus insecticide (opp) that is used as a pesticide for chilo suppressalis (wlk) (lep., pyralidae) in rice fields. the extraction of diazinon from soil and the stems of rice plants has been carried out by microwave-assisted extraction (mae) and the results compared with ultrasonic extraction (use). the best parameters for mae are hexane-acetone (8:2 v/v) as a solvent, a 2.5 min extraction time, and 20 ml of the solvent volume. also, surface-water samples of the rice fie ...200212137373
[expression and insecticidal activity of a novel gene cry2ab4 from bacillus thuringiensis strain b-pr-88].the full length cry2ab gene was cloned by pcr-rflp method from bt strain b-pr-88, which was isolated in china with high toxicity to the lepidopteran insect pests. nucleic acid sequence analysis showed that this gene was 1902 base pairs encoding 633 amino acids. this cry gene was named cry2ab4 as a novel gene by bacillus thuringiensis delta endotoxin nomenclature committee. the full open reading frame sequence of the cry2ab4 gene was amplified with a pair of pcr primers l2ab5/l2ab3 designed accor ...200717822035
bt rice harbouring cry genes controlled by a constitutive or wound-inducible promoter: protection and transgene expression under mediterranean field homozygous transgenic lines of two european commercial cultivars of rice (ariete (a) and senia (s)), harbouring the cry1b or cry1aa bacillus thuringiensis (bt) delta-endotoxin genes, were field evaluated for protection from striped stem borer (ssb) (chilo suppressalis) damage during the 2001 and 2002 summer crop seasons in the delta de l'ebre region, spain. the plant codon-optimized toxin gene was placed under the control of the promoter of either the constitutive ubi1 gene or the wound-in ...200417168888
cloning of heat shock protein genes (hsp90 and hsc70) and their expression during larval diapause and cold tolerance acquisition in the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis walker.the complete cdna sequences of heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) and of heat shock cognate protein 70 (hsc70) were cloned by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction from the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis walker. they potentially encode a 717-amino-acids (hsp90) and a 652-amino-acids (hsc70) protein, with calculated molecular weight of 82.5 and 71.3 kda, respectively. the deduced amino acid sequence of hsp90 showed the highest homology of 97.2% to spodoptera frugiperda hsp90. the closes ...200616921518
[geostatistical analysis on temporal patterns of chilo suppressalis population].the geostatistical analysis on the temporal patterns of chilo suppressalis population in the dingcheng district of changde city, hunan province from 1960 to 2001 indicated that the data series of the total number and the numbers of 1st generation, 2nd generation, and over-wintering larvae from year to year displayed better autocorrelation and prediction, especially for the total number, whose autocorrelation range and degree were 10.3 years and 91.1%, respectively. the data series of generation ...200616836100
effect of transgenic bacillus thuringiensis rice lines on mortality and feeding behavior of rice stem borers (lepidoptera: crambidae).ten transgenic bacillus thuringiensis bt rice, oryza sativa l., lines with different bt genes (two cry1ac lines, three cry2a lines, and five cry9c lines) derived from the same variety minghui 63 were evaluated in both the laboratory and the field. bioassays were conducted by using the first instars of two main rice lepidopteran insect species: yellow stem borer, scirpophaga incertulas (walker) and asiatic rice borer, chilo suppressalis (walker). all transgenic lines exhibited high toxicity to th ...200818330134
population genetic structure of chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: crambidae): strong subdivision in china inferred from microsatellite markers and mtdna gene sequences.chilo suppressalis (walker) displays significant geographical differences in ecological preference that may be congruent with patterns of molecular variation. to test this, we collected and analysed 381 individuals of this species from cultivated rice at 18 localities in china during the rice-growing season of 2005-2006. we used four microsatellite dna markers and four mitochondrial dna gene fragments. we found that this species is highly differentiated, coupled with an estimated population expa ...200818482260
[study on identification, colonization and reorganization of rice endophytic bacteria].endophytic sr-15, sr-25 and sl-37 strains screened from rice hybrid d you 527 in sichuan were analyzed. through penetration and microscopic test, the strains were found be mainly located in the cell gap, vacuole and cytoplasm. puc18 transferring and eric-pcr showed that the recombination strain sr-15 could grow in the plant stably. the strain was identified as bacillus halmapalus based on its chemical components of cell wall, physiological and biochemical characters. it was also shown that the s ...200516416963
evaluation of bt (bacillus thuringiensis) rice varieties against stem borer (chilo suppressalis).three transgenic rice varieties namely khazar, neda and nemat, all containing a cry1ab gene, were evaluated through pcr analysis and field examinations for their resistance at natural infestation of insect pests during 2007. the results showed that all transgenic varieties produced 1.2 kb pcr product derived from application of cry1ab gene. in field conditions, transgenic varieties exhibited high levels of resistance against natural infestation of stem borer and the damaged plants based on dead ...200818817142
development and characterisation of transgenic rice expressing two bacillus thuringiensis genes.transgenic crops that produce insecticidal toxins from the bacterium bacillus thuringiensis berliner (bt) were first commercialised in 1996. the risk that pests have the potential to evolve resistance to bt toxins is one of the most serious challenges to this technology. gene stacking, pyramiding two bt genes into one variety, is considered to be an effective insect resistance management (irm) strategy. in this study, insect-resistant rice expressing two bt genes was developed by sexual crossing ...201121394874
[techniques of diseases, insect pests and weeds control and their efficacy in bio-rational rice production].studies on the efficacy of bio-rational pesticides and agricultural methods against the chief diseases, insect pests and weeds of rice showed that the efficacy of the mixtures of jingangmycin and bacillus-cereus, and jingangmycin and polyoxin against rice sheath blight were 75.16%-94.27% after sprayed once at the tiller and boot end stages of rice, respectively, and better than that of chemical fungicide triadimefon. the efficacy of kasugamycin and blasticidin was 50.54%-72.67% on rice leaf blas ...200415139200
population dynamics of sesamia inferens on transgenic rice expressing cry1ac and cpti in southern china.genetically modified insect-resistant rice lines containing the cry1ac gene from bacillus thuringiensis (bt) or the cpti (cowpea trypsin inhibitor) gene developed for the management of lepidopterous pests are highly resistant to the major target pests, chilo suppressalis (walker), cnaphalocrocis medinalis (guenée), and scirpophaga incertulas (walker), in the main rice-growing areas of china. however, the effects of these transgenic lines on sesamia inferens (walker), an important lepidopterous r ...200819036217
cloning of the heat shock protein 60 gene from the stem borer, chilo suppressalis, and analysis of expression characteristics under heat stress.heat shock protein 60 is an important chaperonin. in this paper, hsp60 of the stem borer, chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: pyralidae), was cloned by rt-pcr and rapid amplification of cdna end (race) reactions. the full length cdna of hsp6 degrees consisted of 2142 bp, with an orf of 1719 bp, encoding 572 amino acid residues, with a 5'utr of 158 bp and a 3'utr of 265 bp. cluster analysis confirmed that the deduced amino acid sequence shared high identity with the reported sequences from ...020673188
cloning, expression analysis, and molecular modeling of the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor alpha2 subunit gene from the common cutworm, spodoptera litura.intensive research on the molecule structures of the gamma-nminobutyric acid (gaba) receptor in agricultural pests has great significance to the mechanism investigation, resistance prevention, and molecular design of novel pesticides. the gaba receptor a2 (slgabarα2) subunit gene in spodoptera litura (fabricius) (lepidoptera: noctuidae) was cloned using the technologies of reverse transcription pcr and rapid amplification of cdna ends. the gemonic dna sequence of slgabarα2 has 5164 bp with 8 exo ...023909412
conserved chemosensory proteins in the proboscis and eyes of lepidoptera.odorant-binding proteins (obps) and chemosensory proteins (csps) are endowed with several different functions besides being carriers for pheromones and odorants. based on a previous report of a csp acting as surfactant in the proboscis of the moth helicoverpa armigera, we revealed the presence of orthologue proteins in two other moths plutella xylostella and chilo suppressalis, as well as two butterflies papilio machaon and pieris rapae, using immunodetection and proteomic analysis. the unusual ...201627877091
insectbase: a resource for insect genomes and transcriptomes.the genomes and transcriptomes of hundreds of insects have been sequenced. however, insect community lacks an integrated, up-to-date collection of insect gene data. here, we introduce the first release of insectbase, available online at the database encompasses 138 insect genomes, 116 insect transcriptomes, 61 insect gene sets, 36 gene families of 60 insects, 7544 mirnas of 69 insects, 96,925 pirnas of drosophila melanogaster and chilo suppressalis, 2439 lncrna of n ...201526578584
cloning, expression and functional analysis of a general odorant-binding protein 2 gene of the rice striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: pyralidae).a full-length cdna encoding a general odorant binding protein 2 (gobp2) was cloned from the antennae of the rice striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae), by the combination of reverse transcription pcr (rt-pcr) and rapid amplification of cdna ends pcr (race-pcr). the cdna contains a 489 bp open reading frame, which encodes a 162 amino acid protein, termed as ch. suppressalis gobp2 (csupgobp2). csupgobp2 is similar in the number of amino acids and protein sequence to gobp2 ...200919523072
heritability of tolerance to the cry1ab toxin of bacillus thuringiensis in chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: crambidae).heritability of chilo suppressalis (walker) tolerance to the cry1ab toxin of bacillus thuringiensis berliner was estimated using a half-sibling design. artificial diet with and without cry1ab was infested with progenies of 20 males, each mated with 2 females, and mortality was scored 5 d after infestation. the progeny of each female was reared and scored separately. mean mortality of the 20 families on the cry1ab diet was 46.5%. the effects of both male parent and of female parent within male pa ...200014658505
molecular cloning and expression analysis of ultraspiracle (usp) from the rice stem borer chilo suppressalis.cdna for ultraspiracle (usp) from the lepidopteran rice stem borer chilo suppressalis was cloned using pcr techniques. the deduced amino acid sequence of c. suppressalis usp (csusp) was very similar to those of other lepidopteran usps, especially to the manduca sexta usp-2 isoform. northern hybridization analysis detected a 6.5-kb message in the epidermis, fat body, and midgut of wandering larvae. csusp mrna expression in the epidermis varied little during the last larval instar. gel mobility sh ...200312459199
[anther culture generated stem borer-resistance dh lines of minghui 81(oryza sativa l. subsp. indica) expressing modified cry1ac gene].2600 anthers from t0 modified cry1 ac-transgenic rice lines of minghui 81, an elite restoring line of commercial cms indica hybrid rice, were cultured on sk3 media. 83 green plantlets were recovered, 43 double haploid (dh) and 40 haploid among them. results of pcr analyzes indicated that 55 plants of 83 were harbored the cry1ac gene, and the ratio of cry1ac-positive against cry1ac-negative was 2:1 (55/28). 36 putative transgenic dh plants were further confirmed by southern blot. elisa detection ...200212385240
diazinon resistance in different selected strains of chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: crambidae) in northern iran.asiatic rice borer, chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: crambidae), is a cosmopolitan and destructive pest in rice fields of the world. this pest was reported in 1973 in iran, and it has since spread widely in rice, oryza sativa l., fields throughout the country. in this study, we tried to evaluate comparative toxicity of diazinon in five colonies of c. suppressalis, collected from babol (ba), amol (am) of mazandaran province and rasht (ra), sheikhmahale (sh), and gourabzarmikh (go) of gui ...200919610437
[obtaining stem borer-resistant homozygous transgenic lines of minghui 81 harboring novel cry1ac gene via particle bombardment].a modified cry1ac gene was generated by fusing with lys-asp-glu-lue (kdel), an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal at the 3'-ends, with signal peptide coding sequence of soybean kunitz trypsin inhibitor (skti) at the 5'-ends. vector containing the modified cry1ac gene coding region flanked by the corn ubiquitin 1 promoter and the nopaline synthase gene (nos) terminator with hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) gene as a plant selection marker was constructed. the modified cry1ac gene in which ...200212096630
field survey and greenhouse evaluation of non-rice host plants of the striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae), as refuges for resistance management of rice transformed with bacillus thuringiensis toxin genes. 200212088543
a comparison of techniques for detecting invertebrate iridescent virus 6.the aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and precision of various methods for the detection and quantification of invertebrate iridescent virus 6 (iiv-6) (iridoviridae) isolated from a the stem-boring moth chilo suppressalis, and to apply these techniques to the detection of covert infections in the wax moth, galleria mellonella. the relationship between the virus concentration and absorbance at 260 nm was linear over the range of 1.6 x 10(9)-5.6 x 10(10) particles/ml. tcid(50) assay ...200111576637
field evaluation of resistance of transgenic rice containing a synthetic cry1ab gene from bacillus thuringiensis berliner to two stem borers.two transgenic rice (oryza sativa l.) lines, kmd1 and kmd2 at the r4 generation, transformed with a synthetic cry1ab gene from bacillus thuringiensis berliner, were first evaluated for stem borer resistance in the field during the rice growing season of 1998 in two areas of zhejiang province, china. both kmd1 and kmd2 were highly resistant to the stem borers chilo suppressalis (walker) and scirpophaga incertulas (walker), and were completely undamaged during the whole rice growing season. in con ...200111233125
analysis of rice genes induced by striped stemborer (chilo suppressalis) attack identified a promoter fragment highly specifically responsive to insect feeding.the objective of this study was to identify rice gene promoters that are specifically induced by feeding of the striped stemborer (chilo suppressalis). two pcr-selected cdna subtractive libraries were constructed from the rice variety minghui 63. up- and down-regulated cdnas induced by c. suppressalis feeding were arrayed on nylon membranes. after array hybridization and northern blot analysis, a cdna (b1-a04) encoding a putative subtilisin/chymotrypsin inhibitor was found to be rapidly and high ...200717522952
transgenic indica rice breeding line ir58 expressing a synthetic cryia(b) gene from bacillus thuringiensis provides effective insect pest control.the indica rice breeding line ir58 was transformed by particle bombardment with a truncated version of a synthetic cryia(b) gene from bacillus thuringiensis. this gene is expressed under control of the camv 35s promoter and allows efficient production of the lepidopteran specific delta-endotoxin. r0, r1 and r2 generation plants displayed a significant insecticidal effect on several lepidopterous insect pests. feeding studies showed mortality rates of up to 100% for two of the most destructive in ...19969636319
pyramiding and evaluation of both a foreign bacillus thuringiensis and a lysine-rich protein gene in the elite indica rice 9311.gene pyramiding is an efficient approach for the genetic improvement of multiple agronomic traits simultaneously. in this study, we pyramided two foreign genes, cry1ac driven by the rice actin i promoter, and lysine-rich protein (lrp), driven by the endosperm-specific glutelin1 (gt1) promoter, into the elite indica cultivar 9311. these two genes were chosen in an attempt to enhance insect-resistance and lysine (lys) content. in the pyramided line, the foreign gene cry1ac was efficiently expresse ...201627795684
ice nucleus production of fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans in relation to its growth characteristics.the effects of culture conditions on the ice nucleus production of fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans isolated from the gut of larvae of the rice stem borer (chilo suppressalis walker) were examined. the ice nucleus production was only affected by cultivation temperature and ph: the optimum temperature and ph were 15 degrees c to 20 degrees c and 4.0 to 6.0, respectively.19968987607
comparison of dose responses and resistance ratios in four populations of the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae), to 20 insecticides.chemical control is a major strategy for suppressing the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis (walker). owing to their high toxicity and increasing resistance development in the target insect, many insecticides will be phased out entirely in 2007 in china. alternatives with relatively low toxicity are urgently needed to replace traditional chemicals for rice stem borer control. in this study, the authors examined four field populations of c. suppressalis for their toxicological responses to more ...200818172878
a comparison of the structural polypeptides of three iridescent viruses (types 6, 9, and 16) and the mapping of the dna region coding for their major capsid polypeptides.the iridoviruses from wiseana cervinata (wiv, type 9), costelytra zealandica (cziv, type 16) and chilo suppressalis (civ, type 6) were compared by sds-page and western protein blotting for antigenic determinants. the major capsid proteins were isolated and oligonucleotide probes were synthesized from the partial amino acid sequences. the dna regions coding for the major capsid proteins of wiv (vp52), cziv (vp53) and civ (vp50) were located by hybridization of the oligonucleotide probes to blots ...19921550496
cloning and characterization of a novel cry1a toxin from bacillus thuringiensis with high toxicity to the asian corn borer and other lepidopteran insects.a novel cry1a was cloned from bacillus thuringiensis strain bt8 and expressed in the b. thuringiensis acrystalliferous mutant hd73(-). the gene, designated cry1ah1, encoded a protein with a molecular weight of 134 kda. reverse transcriptase-pcr and western blotting showed that cry1ah was expressed in the host strain bt8. the toxin expressed in hd73(-) exhibited high toxicity against lepidopteran larvae of ostrinia furnacalis, helicoverpa armigera, chilo suppressalis, and plutella xylostella. the ...200818248430
transgenic rice plants expressing a modified cry1ca1 gene are resistant to spodoptera litura and chilo suppressalis.nucleotide sequence encoding the truncated insecticidal cry1ca1 protein from bacillus thuringiensis was extensively modified based on the codon usage of rice genes. the overall g + c contents of the synthetic cry1ca1 coding sequence were raised to 65% with an additional bias of enriching for g and c ending codons as preferred by monocots. the synthetic gene was introduced into the chinese japonica variety, xiushui 11, by agrobacterium-mediated transformation. transgenic rice plants harboring thi ...200919760523
insecticidal activity of camptothecin against nilaparvata lugens, brevicoryne brassicae, and chilo suppressalis.greenhouse tests showed that 0.2% camptothecin emulsifiable concentrate (ec) has strong contact toxicity to three agricultural pests, with lc50 and lc90 values of 0.1-0.6 and 0.4-5.0 mg liter(-1), respectively. the descending order of susceptibility was nilaparvata lugens (ståhl) > brevicoryne brassicae (l.) > chilo suppressalis (walker). field tests showed that the corrected mortality of b. brassicae and n. lugens was 94.6 and 69.1%, respectively, which was not significantly different from that ...201020429466
screen of bacillus thuringiensis toxins for transgenic rice to control sesamia inferens and chilo suppressalis.transgenic rice to control stem borer damage is under development in china. to assess the potential of bacillus thuringiensis (bt) transgenes in stem borer control, the toxicity of five bt protoxins (cry1aa, cry1ab, cry1ac, cry1ba and cry1ca) against two rice stem borers, sesamia inferens (pink stem borer) and chilo suppressalis (striped stem borer), was evaluated in the laboratory by feeding neonate larvae on artificial diets containing bt protoxins. the results indicated that cry1ca exhibited ...201020452358
transgenic rice plants expressing a fused protein of cry1ab/vip3h has resistance to rice stem borers under laboratory and field conditions.six transgenic rice, oryza sativa l., lines (g6h1, g6h2, g6h3, g6h4, g6h5, and g6h6) expressing a fused cry1ab/vip3h protein, were evaluated for resistance against the asiatic rice borer, chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: crambidae), and the stem borer sesamia inferens (walker) (lepidoptera: noctuidae) in the laboratory and field. the bioassay results indicated that the mortality of asiatic rice borer and s. inferens neonate larvae on six transgenic lines from seedling to filling stage w ...201020857760
characterization of vegetative insecticidal protein vip genes of bacillus thuringiensis from sichuan basin in china.vegetative insecticidal proteins (vip), the second generation of insecticides, are produced during the vegetative growth stage of bacillus thuringiensis (bt). to perform a systematic study of vip genes in bt strains from different ecological regions of sichuan basin, 1,789 soil samples were collected from this basin, which is situated in the western region of china. the basin has a complicated geomorphology and contains mountains, forests, highlands, hursts, and plains. a total of 2,134 bt strai ...201020963416
relationships between exogenous-toxin quantity and increased biomass of transgenic bt crops under elevated carbon dioxide.field-otc experiments were conducted with the goals of ascertaining if increased biomass in bt transgenic cotton and rice grown under elevated co(2) results in diminished exogenous-bt toxin, and assessing the effectiveness of bt transgenes against lepidopteran pests. bt cotton responded differently, in terms of bt-toxin quantity, than bt rice, and both indicated differences among developmental stages. dramatic biomass increase significantly diluted bt-toxin content in 45-das ("days after seedlin ...201121349582
Rapid detection of vip1-type genes from Bacillus cereus and characterization of a novel vip binary toxin gene.A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method for identifying vegetative insecticidal protein (vip) 1-type genes from Bacillus cereus was developed by designing specific primers based on the conserved regions of the genes to amplify vip1-type gene fragments. PCR products were digested with endonuclease AciI, and four known vip1-type genes were identified. Vip1Ac and vip1Aa-type genes appeared in 17 of 26 B. cereus strains. A novel vip1-type gene, vip1Ac1, was identified from B ...201122092859
co-expression and synergism analysis of vip3aa29 and cyt2aa3 insecticidal proteins from bacillus thuringiensis.vegetative insecticidal protein (vip3) from bacillus thuringiensis shows high activity against lepidopteran insects. cytolytic δ-endotoxin (cyt) also has high toxicity to dipteran larvae and synergism with other crystal proteins (cry), but synergism between cyt and vip3 proteins has not been tested. we analyzed for synergism between cyt2aa3 and vip3aa29. both cyt2aa3 and vip3aa29 genes were co-expressed in escherichia coli strain bl21 carried on vector pcoladuet-1. vip3aa29 showed insecticidal a ...201222218570
molecular cloning and characterization of the first caspase in the striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis.apoptosis is executed through the activity of the caspases that are aspartyl-specific proteases. in this study, we isolated the caspase gene (cscaspase-1) of chilo suppressalis (one of the leading pests responsible for destruction of rice crops). it possesses the open reading frame (orf) of 295 amino acids including prodomain, large subunit and small subunits, and two cleavage sites (asp23 and asp194) were found to be located among them. in addition to these profiles, cscaspase-1 contains two ac ...201323676354
parasitization by cotesia chilonis influences gene expression in fatbody and hemocytes of chilo suppressalis.during oviposition many parasitoid wasps inject various factors, such as polydnaviruses (pdvs), along with eggs that manipulate the physiology and development of their hosts. these manipulations are thought to benefit the parasites. however, the detailed mechanisms of insect host-parasitoid interactions are not fully understood at the molecular level. based on recent findings that some parasitoids influence gene expression in their hosts, we posed the hypothesis that parasitization by a braconid ...201324086331
molecular characterization of the piggybac-like element, a candidate marker for phylogenetic research of chilo suppressalis (walker) in china.transposable elements (tes, transposons) are mobile genetic dna sequences. tes can insert copies of themselves into new genomic locations and they have the capacity to multiply. therefore, tes have been crucial in the shaping of hosts' current genomes. tes can be utilized as genetic markers to study population genetic diversity. the rice stem borer chilo suppressalis walker is one of the most important insect pests of many subtropical and tropical paddy fields. this insect occurs in all the rice ...201425515331
identification of putative carboxylesterase and glutathione s-transferase genes from the antennae of the chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae).in insects, rapid degradation of odorants in antennae is extremely important for the sensitivity of olfactory receptor neurons. odorant degradation in insect antennae is mediated by multiple enzymes, especially the carboxylesterases (cxes) and glutathione s-transferases (gsts). the asiatic rice borer, chilo suppressalis, is an economically important lepidopteran pest which causes great economic damage to cultivated rice crops in many asian countries. in this study, we identified 19 putative cxe ...201526198868
exploring the midgut transcriptome and brush border membrane vesicle proteome of the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis (walker).the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: pyralidae), is one of the most detrimental pests affecting rice crops. the use of bacillus thuringiensis (bt) toxins has been explored as a means to control this pest, but the potential for c. suppressalis to develop resistance to bt toxins makes this approach problematic. few c. suppressalis gene sequences are known, which makes in-depth study of gene function difficult. herein, we sequenced the midgut transcriptome of the rice stem ...201222666467
five small heat shock protein genes from chilo suppressalis: characteristics of gene, genomic organization, structural analysis, and transcription profiles.small heat shock proteins (shsps) are the most diverse but also the most poorly known family of molecular chaperones, and they play essential roles in various biological processes. the striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis (insecta: lepidoptera: pyralidae), is one of the most serious pests of rice, causing extensive damage and yield loss. in this study, we isolated and characterized five members of the shsps family-cshsp19.8, cshsp21.4, cshsp21.5, cshsp21.7a, and cshsp21.7b-from c. suppressalis ...201323702967
development of marker-free insect-resistant indica rice by agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated co-transformation.agrobacterium-mediated co-transformation is an efficient strategy to generate marker-free transgenic plants. in this study, the vectors pmf-2a(∗) containing a synthetic cry2a(∗) gene driven by maize ubiquitin promoter and pcambia1301 harboring hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt) were introduced into minghui86 (oryza sativa l. ssp. indica), an elite indica restorer line. two independent transformants containing both the cry2a(∗) gene and hpt gene were regenerated. several homozygous marker-f ...201627833629
rna interference knockdown of aminopeptidase n genes decrease the susceptibility of chilo suppressalis larvae to cry1ab/cry1ac and cry1ca-expressing transgenic rice.transgenic rice expressing bacillus thuringiensis (bt) cry toxins are resistant to lepidopteran pests, such as chilo suppressalis, a major insect pest of rice in asia. understanding how these toxins interact with their hosts is crucial to understanding their insecticidal action. in this study, knockdown of two aminopeptidase n genes (apn1 and apn2) by rna interference resulted in decreased susceptibility of c. suppressalis larvae to the bt rice varieties tt51 (cry1ab and cry1ac fusion genes) and ...201728274717
knockdown of the mapk p38 pathway increases the susceptibility of chilo suppressalis larvae to bacillus thuringiensis cry1ca toxin.the bacterium bacillus thuringiensis (bt) produces a wide range of toxins that are effective against a number of insect pests. identifying the mechanisms responsible for resistance to bt toxin will improve both our ability to control important insect pests and our understanding of bacterial toxicology. in this study, we investigated the role of mapk pathways in resistance against cry1ca toxin in chilo suppressalis, an important lepidopteran pest of rice crops. we first cloned the full-length of ...201728262736
rnai in the striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis, establishes a functional role for aminopeptidase n in cry1ab intoxication.the striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis, is a major target pest of transgenic rice expressing the cry1ab protein from the bacterium bacillus thuringiensis (bt) in china. evolution of resistance in this pest is a major threat to the durability of bt rice. since bt exerts its activity through binding to specific receptors in the midgut of target insects, identification of functional cry1ab receptors in the midgut of c. suppressalis larvae is crucial to evaluate potential resistance mechanisms a ...201727823898
seasonal changes in supercooling points and glycerol content in overwintering larvae of the asiatic rice borer from rice and water-oat plants.the asiatic rice borer chilo suppressalis (walker) occurs mainly on rice oryza sativa l. and water-oat zizania latifolia (turcz). certain ecological and physiological differentiations between rice and water-oat populations have been shown. to determine whether there is host-associated differentiation in supercooling capacity, seasonal changes in supercooling points, glycerol content, and other physiological parameters of naturally occurring c. suppressalis larvae overwintering in rice and water- ...200919689898
development of bt rice and bt maize in china and their efficacy in target pest control.rice and maize are important cereal crops that serve as staple foods, feed, and industrial material in china. multiple factors constrain the production of both crops, among which insect pests are an important one. lepidopteran pests cause enormous yield losses for the crops annually. in order to control these pests, china plays an active role in development and application of genetic engineering (ge) to crops, and dozens of ge rice and ge maize lines expressing insecticidal proteins from the soi ...201627763554
comparison of susceptibility of chilo suppressalis and bombyx mori to five bacillus thuringiensis proteins.transformation of rice with genes encoding insecticidal cry proteins from bacillus thuringiensis (bt) should confer high resistance to target lepidopteran pests, such as chilo suppressalis, and low toxicity to non-target organisms, such as silkworm bombyx mori. five purified cry proteins that have been used for plant transformation were tested using dietary exposure assays. the susceptibility of c. suppressalis larvae to the five insecticidal proteins in the decreasing order was: cry1ca>cry1ab>c ...201626994840
a 90-day subchronic feeding study of genetically modified rice expressing cry1ab protein in sprague-dawley rats.bacillus thuringiensis (bt) transgenic rice line (mfb-mh86) expressing a synthetic cry1ab gene can be protected against feeding damage from lepidopteran insects, including sesamia inferens, chilo suppressalis, tryporyza incertulas and cnaphalocrocis medinalis. rice flour from mfb-mh86 and its near-isogenic control mh86 was separately formulated into rodent diets at concentrations of 17.5, 35 and 70 % (w/w) for a 90-day feeding test with rats, and all of the diets were nutritionally balanced. in ...201525367203
creation of bt rice expressing a fusion protein of cry1ac and cry1i-like using a green tissue-specific promoter.the insecticidal genes from bacillus thuringiensis berliner (bt) have long been successfully used for development of insect-resistant rice. however, commercial planting of bt rice has been delayed by the concern over food safety, although no scientific evidence is ever found to justify the concern. to address this safety concern, we developed a transgenic insect-resistant rice line using a green tissue promoter to minimize the bt protein expression in the rice seeds. the bt protein expressed in ...201425195461
inducible expression of a fusion gene encoding two proteinase inhibitors leads to insect and pathogen resistance in transgenic rice.plant proteinase inhibitors (pis) are considered as candidates for increased insect resistance in transgenic plants. insect adaptation to pi ingestion might, however, compromise the benefits received by transgenic expression of pis. in this study, the maize proteinase inhibitor (mpi), an inhibitor of insect serine proteinases, and the potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor (pci) were fused into a single open reading frame and introduced into rice plants. the two pis were linked using either the proce ...201424237606
an improved pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) method for the identification of cry1-type genes.the cry1-type genes of bacillus thuringiensis represent the largest cry gene family, which contains 50 distinct holotypes. it is becoming more and more difficult to identify cry1-type genes using current methods because of the increasing number of cry1-type genes. in the present study, an improved pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism (pcr-rflp) method which can distinguish 41 holotypes of cry1-type genes was developed. this improved method was used to identify cry1-type genes in 20 b. th ...201323995930
[comparison of codon optimizations of cry1ah1 gene in rice].cry1ah1, one of holo-type cry genes, cloned in this laboratory from bacillus thuringiensis strain has been patented in china, and it encoded a protein with strong insecticidal activity against certain lepidopteran insect pests, such as chilo suppressalis. cry1ah1 gene is exhibiting good application prospects. in order to improve the expression level of cry1ah1 gene in rice, and investigate the effect of codon usage preference of gene expression, we designed five different optimized schemes for c ...201223311133
binding site concentration explains the differential susceptibility of chilo suppressalis and sesamia inferens to cry1a-producing rice.chilo suppressalis and sesamia inferens are two important lepidopteran rice pests that occur concurrently during outbreaks in paddy fields in the main rice-growing areas of china. previous and current field tests demonstrate that the transgenic rice line huahui 1 (hh1) producing a cry1ab-cry1ac hybrid toxin from the bacterium bacillus thuringiensis reduces egg and larval densities of c. suppressalis but not of s. inferens. this differential susceptibility to hh1 rice correlates with the reduced ...201424928872
large-scale identification of differentially expressed genes during pupa development reveals solute carrier gene is essential for pupal pigmentation in chilo suppressalis.insects undergo metamorphosis, involving an abrupt change in body structure through cell growth and differentiation. rice stem stripped borer (ssb), chilo suppressalis, is one of the most destructive rice pests. however, little is known about the regulation mechanism of metamorphosis development in this notorious insect pest. here, we studied the expression of 22,197 ssb genes at seven time points during pupa development with a customized microarray, identifying 622 differentially expressed gene ...201728041944
the overexpression of insect endogenous small rnas in transgenic rice inhibits growth and delays pupation of striped stem borer (chilo suppressalis).the striped stem borer (ssb), chilo suppressalis walker, is a major rice insect pest worldwide. rna interference (rnai) has become a promising strategy for developing insect-resistant crops. in a previous study, five double-stranded rnas (dsrnas) targeting important ssb housekeeping genes were overexpressed in rice, but none of the acquired dsrna-transgenic rice plants showed significant effects on ssb.201627862861
sublethal effects of chlorantraniliprole on development, reproduction and vitellogenin gene (csvg) expression in the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis.the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis (walker), is one of the most damaging rice pests in the world. the sublethal effects of chlorantraniliprole on development,reproduction and mrna expression levels of vitellogenin gene (csvg) in c. suppressalis were investigated.201626939546
variability in development of the striped rice borer, chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae), due to instar number and last instar duration.the striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis (walker), is an important insect pest of rice which shows substantial variation in developmental duration among individuals. this variation is currently poorly characterized but it is important from a control perspective because pesticides can only target early sensitive instars. it is unclear whether there are key stages that determine the length of developmental duration of individuals and/or whether variation in instar number contributes to this vari ...201627731388
antixenosis and antibiosis resistance in rice cultivars against chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: crambidae).the striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: crambidae), is an important pest afflicting rice in most rice-growing countries in the world. deliniating the categories of resistance in rice genotypes under field conditions could be helpful in managment of this pest. two categories of resistance, antixenosis and antibiosis, were examined in ten popular and diverse rice genotypes of different origin that had been selected for their resistance to the striped stem borer in a previ ...201628039677
thermal effects on development and adult longevity of endoparasitoid chelonus murakatae munakata (hymenoptera: braconidae).the effects of temperature on the development duration and longevity of adult of chelonus murakatae were studied under five constant temperatures including 22.5, 25, 27.5, 30 and 32.5 ± 0.5 °c under laboratory conditions. it was observed that the development time was inversely proportional to the temperature within the range of 22.5 to 32.5 °c. the results indicated that the optimum temperature for development ranged from 25 to 30 °c. thermal threshold was estimated by a linear model which was r ...201727988903
immune response of chilo suppressalis walker (lepidoptera: crambidae) larvae to different entomopathogenic fungi.the current study reports mortality and effects on cellular immune response of several entomopathogenic fungi including isoleates bb1, bb2 and bb3 of beauveria bassiana, metarhizium anisopliae, isaria fumosoroseus and lecanicilium lecanii against larvae of chilo suppressalis. prohemocytes, granulocytes, plasmatocytes and oenocytoids were identified as the main circulating hemocytes in the hemolymph of larvae using giemsa staining solution. entomopathogenic fungi caused differential mortality on ...201424447729
the rice hydroperoxide lyase oshpl3 functions in defense responses by modulating the oxylipin important signal molecules, jasmonates (jas) and green leaf volatiles (glvs) play diverse roles in plant defense responses against insect pests and pathogens. however, how plants employ their specific defense responses by modulating the levels of ja and glvs remains unclear. here, we describe identification of a role for the rice hpl3 gene, which encodes a hydroperoxide lyase (hpl), oshpl3/cyp74b2, in mediating plant-specific defense responses. the loss-of-function mutant hpl3-1 produced dise ...201222519706
construction and analysis of antennal cdna library from rice striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: pyralidae), and expression profiles of putative odorant-binding protein and chemosensory protein this study, we constructed a high-quality cdna library from the antennae of the chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: pyralidae). a total of 1,235 colonies with inserts greater than 0.7 kb were sequenced and analyzed. homology searching coupled with bioinformatics analysis identified 15 and 7 cdna sequences, respectively, encoding putative odorant-binding proteins (obps) and chemosensory proteins (csps). a phylogenetic tree of csupcsps showed that each csupcsp has orthologs in manduca sex ...201525639603
high-throughput screening of ecdysone agonists using a reporter gene assay followed by 3-d qsar analysis of the molting hormonal this study, 172 diacylhydrazine analogs were examined for their ability to activate an ecdysone (molting hormone)-dependent reporter gene in a silkworm (bombyx mori) cell-based high-throughput screening assay. the measured ec(50) values (concentration required to cause an effect in 50% of the cells) were used to construct a 3-d qsar model that describes the ecdysone agonist activities of the diacylhydrazine analogs. of these compounds, 14 exhibited no activity and were excluded from the 3-d q ...200616249087
establishment and characterization of a new cell line of chilo suppressalis walker (lepidoptera: pyralididae).a new cell line, designated as zjbiq-chsu-i, was initiated from the fat body of larval chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: pyralididae) in tnm-fh insect medium containing 15% fetal bovine serum. the polygonal cells (65.6%) were predominant among various cell types, and the diameter range was from 12.63 to 22.50 μm. the cell line showed a typical lepidopteran chromosome pattern ranging from 108 to 136 chromosomes in the majority of the cells. the population doubling time (pdt) of the cell l ...201525381037
sublethal effects of chlorantraniliprole on juvenile hormone levels and mrna expression of jhamt and fpps genes in the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis.juvenile hormone (jh) regulates development and reproduction of insects. the sublethal effects of chlorantraniliprole on jh levels and mrna expression of jh acid methyltransferase gene (csjhamt) and farnesyl diphosphate synthase genes (csfpps1 and csfpps2 ) in chilo suppressalis (walker) were investigated.201728382786
expression of lima bean terpene synthases in rice enhances recruitment of a beneficial enemy of a major rice pest.volatile terpenoids play a key role in plant defence against herbivory by attracting parasitic wasps. we identified seven terpene synthase genes from lima bean, phaseolus lunatus l. following treatment with either the elicitor alamethicin or spider mites, tetranychus cinnabarinus. four of which (pltps2, pltps3, pltps4 and pltps5) were upregulated, and their derived proteins are phylogenetically clustered in the tps-g subfamily, with pltps3 positioned at the base of this cluster. recombinant pltp ...201728370092
difference in diel mating time contributes to assortative mating between host plant-associated populations of chilo suppressalis.behavioral isolation in animals can be mediated by inherent mating preferences and assortative traits, such as divergence in the diel timing of mating activity. although divergence in the diel mating time could, in principle, promote the reproductive isolation of sympatric, conspecific populations, there is currently no unequivocal evidence of this. we conducted different mate-choice experiments to investigate the contribution of differences in diel mating activity to the reproductive isolation ...201728338099
pharmacological characterization of dopamine receptors in the rice striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis.dopamine is an important neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in both vertebrates and invertebrates and is the most abundant monoamine present in the central nervous system of insects. a complement of functionally distinct dopamine receptors mediate the signal transduction of dopamine by modifying intracellular ca(2+) and camp levels. in the present study, we pharmacologically characterized three types of dopamine receptors, csdop1, csdop2 and csdop3, from the rice striped stem borer, chilo suppr ...201728302436
selection and evaluation of reference genes for expression analysis using qrt-pcr in chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae).quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qrt-pcr) is a valuable tool for estimating gene expression; however, the validity is largely dependent on the selection of stable reference genes. the suitability of various reference genes for qrt-pcr analysis was evaluated in, chilo suppressalis (walker). the δct method, genorm, normfinder, and bestkeeper were used to evaluate the suitability of nine candidate reference genes for normalizing gene expression in larval tissues and organs and duri ...201728115499
ryanodine receptor genes of the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis: molecular cloning, alternative splicing and expression profiling.the ryanodine receptor (ryr) of the calcium release channel is the main target of anthranilic and phthalic diamide insecticides which have high selective insecticidal activity relative to mammalian toxicity. in this study, the full-length cdna of chilo suppressalis ryr (csryr) was isolated and characterized. the csryr mrna has an open reading frame (orf) of 15,387bp nucleotides, which encodes 5128 amino acids with genbank id: kr088972. comparison of protein sequences showed that csryr shared hig ...201728043334
life-history responses of the rice stem borer chilo suppressalis to temperature change: breaking the temperature-size rule.temperature is a key environmental factor for ectotherms and affects a large number of life history traits. in the present study, development time from hatching to pupation and adult eclosion, pupal and adult weights of the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis were examined at 22, 25, 28 and 31°c under l18:d 6. larval and pupal times were significantly decreased with increasing rearing temperature and growth rate was positively correlated with temperature. larval and pupal developmental times wer ...201627712652
transition and transversion mutations are biased towards gc in transposons of chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae).transposons are often regulated by their hosts, and as a result, there are transposons with several mutations within their host organisms. to gain insight into the patterns of the variations, nucleotide substitutions and indels of transposons were analysed in chilo suppressalis walker. the csuple1.1 is a member of the piggybac-like element (ple) family, which belongs to the dna transposons, and the csu-ty3 is a member of the ty3/gypsy family, which belongs to the rna transposons. copies of csupl ...201627669309
monitoring and mechanisms of insecticide resistance in chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: crambidae), with special reference to diamides.the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis walker (lepidoptera: crambidae), is one of the most economically important pests of rice in asia. chemical control remains the most efficient primary means for controlling this pest.201627624654
pheromone binding proteins enhance the sensitivity of olfactory receptors to sex pheromones in chilo suppressalis.sexual communication in moths offers a simplified scenario to model and investigate insect sensory perception. both pbps (pheromone-binding proteins) and prs (pheromone receptors) are involved in the detection of sex pheromones, but the interplay between them still remains largely unknown. in this study, we have measured the binding affinities of the four recombinant pbps of chilo suppressalis (csuppbps) to pheromone components and analogs and characterized the six prs using the xenopus oocytes ...201526310773
immune and metabolic responses of chilo suppressalis walker (lepidoptera: crambidae) larvae to an insect growth regulator, hexaflumuron.efficient control of chilo suppressalis walker is always controversial due to highly economic damage, resistance to insecticides and environmental pollutions. so, combination of safe pest controls e.g. biocontrol agents and insect growth regulators seems to be promising via integrated pest management program. bioassay of hexaflumuron on 4th larval instars revealed concentrations of 44.34, 179.74 and 474.94µg/ml as lc10-50 values. numbers of total hemocytes, plasmatocytes and granulocytes as well ...201526615153
loss of genetic variation in laboratory colonies of chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: crambidae) revealed by mitochondrial and microsatellite dna markers.the asiatic rice borer, chilo suppressalis (walker), is an important insect pest of rice in china. the genetic variation of a set of laboratory colonies of c. suppressalis was compared with their source populations in the wild (laboratory colonies bjck, bj1ab, and bj1ac versus wild population bjw; laboratory colonies fzck and fz1ca versus wild population fzw) and was analyzed using eight microsatellite markers and two partial mitochondrial dna (mtdna) regions (coi and coii). results from both an ...201526308808
dopamine modulates hemocyte phagocytosis via a d1-like receptor in the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis.dopamine (da) is a signal moiety bridging the nervous and immune systems. da dysregulation is linked to serious human diseases, including addiction, schizophrenia, and parkinson's disease. however, da actions in the immune system remain incompletely understood. in this study, we found that da modulates insect hemocyte phagocytosis using hemocytes prepared from the rice stem borer (rsb), chilo suppressalis. we investigated whether insect hemocytes are capable of de novo da production. here we sho ...201526179416
human health risk assessment of organophosphorus pesticide in rice crop from selected districts of anzali international wetland basin, iran.low fertility in rice caused by chilo suppressalis has led to the use of diazinon to control this pest. residue of pesticide could penetrate products and also food which can affect public health. the aim of this research was to determine health risk assessment of organophosphorus (op) pesticide in rice, a strategic crop in iran. ninety rice samples were collected from 30 points during harvesting seasons from rasht area, guilan province, iran from which 30 samples were prepared. the concentration ...201627417637
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