papio cynocephalus endogenous retrovirus among old world monkeys: evidence for coevolution and ancient cross-species study the evolutionary history of papio cynocephalus endogenous retrovirus (pcev), we analyzed the distribution and genetic characteristics of pcev among 17 different species of primates. the viral pol-env and long terminal repeat and untranslated region (ltr-utr) sequences could be recovered from all old world species of the papionin tribe, which includes baboons, macaques, geladas, and mangabeys, but not from the new world monkeys and hominoids we tested. the old world genera cercopithecus ...200010627573
partial molecular characterization of two simian immunodeficiency viruses (siv) from african colobids: sivwrc from western red colobus (piliocolobus badius) and sivolc from olive colobus (procolobus verus).in order to study primate lentivirus evolution in the colobinae subfamily, in which only one simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) has been described to date, we screened additional species from the three different genera of african colobus monkeys for siv infection. blood was obtained from 13 west african colobids, and hiv cross-reactive antibodies were observed in 5 of 10 piliocolobus badius, 1 of 2 procolobus verus, and 0 of 1 colobus polykomos specimens. phylogenetic analyses of partial pol se ...200312477880
high variety of different simian t-cell leukemia virus type 1 strains in chimpanzees (pan troglodytes verus) of the taï national park, côte d'ivoire.we found human t-cell leukemia virus type 1- and simian t-cell leukemia virus type 1 (stlv-1)-related infections in 5 of 10 chimpanzees originating from three groups of wild chimpanzees. the new virus isolates showed a surprising heterogeneity not only in comparison to stlv-1 described previously in other primate species but also between the different chimpanzee groups, within a group, or even between strains isolated from an individual animal. the interdisciplinary combination of virology, mole ...200415047848
gastrointestinal parasites of the colobus monkeys of uganda.from august 1997 to july 2003, we collected 2,103 fecal samples from free-ranging individuals of the 3 colobus monkey species of uganda-the endangered red colobus (piliocolobus tephrosceles), the eastern black-and-white colobus (colobus guereza), and the angolan black-and-white colobus (c. angolensis)--to identify and determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites. helminth eggs, larvae, and protozoan cysts were isolated by sodium nitrate flotation and fecal sedimentation. coprocultures ...200516108549
group size in folivorous primates: ecological constraints and the possible influence of social factors.the ecological-constraints model assumes that food items occur in depletable patches and proposes that an increase in group size leads to increased day range due to more rapid patch depletion. smaller groups become advantageous when an increase in travel costs is not repaid by an increase in energy gained or some other fitness advantage. on the other hand, we also know that group size can be influenced by social factors. here we contrast the diet and group size of red colobus (procolobus badius) ...200515197599
significance of color, calories, and climate to the visual ecology of we describe correlations among visual ecology and the physiochemical properties of fruits and leaves consumed by four species of catarrhine primate: cercopithecus ascanius, colobus guereza, pan troglodytes, and piliocolobus badius. collectively, their diet was diverse, with each species relying on fruits and leaves to different extents. the mean chromaticity of both foods, as perceived by the green-red and yellow-blue signals that catarrhines decode, was distinct from background foliage. ho ...200415027092
the single species hypothesis: truly dead and pushing up bushes, or still twitching and ripe for resuscitation?frank livingstone proclaims himself to be the last living proponent of the single species hypothesis. in sharp contrast, a species-rich, bushy phylogeny is favored by most human paleontologists. is livingstone's proclamation merely contrarian posturing, or does closer inspection warrant reconsideration of just how speciose the hominin lineage is? the high-speciation perspective draws on evidence of speciosity in the cercopithecoidea and punctuated equilibria theory for support. if blue monkeys a ...200314655873
functional implications of enamel thickness in the lower molars of red colobus (procolobus badius) and japanese macaque (macaca fuscata).the purpose of this study is to determine whether teeth are likely to retain their functional efficiency throughout an individual's life time. this was done by comparing the enamel volume, the cross-sectional enamel area and the pattern of enamel distribution on unworn m(2)s of folivorous (procolobus badius: red colobus; n=8) and frugivorous (macaca fuscata: japanese macaque; n=6) cercopithecids. the enamel volume of m. fuscata is significantly greater than that of p. badius. as the lower molars ...200212457851
foraging challenges of red colobus monkeys: influence of nutrients and secondary compounds.the diet selection of two groups of red colobus monkeys (procolobus badius) in kibale national park, uganda are considered with respect to protein, fiber, digestibility, alkaloids, total phenolics, tannins, saponins, and cyanogenic glycosides. both groups selected young leaves over mature leaves and young leaves had more protein, were more digestible, and had a higher protein to fiber ratio than mature leaves. young and mature leaves did not differ with respect to secondary compounds. there were ...200212443942
bone geometry in cercopithecoid mandibles.this study explores the relation between cortical bone geometry in the mandibular corpus and in vivo masticatory stress patterns and dietary specialization in cercopithecoid primates. cortical bone distribution in the mandibles of three species of old world monkeys (macaca fascicularis, procolobus badius, lophocebus albigena) was measured by computed tomography. the arrangement of bone within sections was quantified as (1) the ratio of cortical area to the enclosed (total) subperiosteal area; (2 ...200211922874
scale issues in the study of primate foraging: red colobus of kibale national data have been used to address a number of theoretical issues. we often calculate the proportion of time spent eating different foods (e.g., fruits, leaves) to place species into dietary categories and contrast morphological or behavioral traits among categories. yet we have little understanding of how flexible species can be in terms of the plant parts and species consumed. to address this issue, we analyzed data on the diets of red colobus monkeys (procolobus badius) from kibale national ...200211920371
analysis of a bone assemblage made by chimpanzees at gombe national park, tanzania.chimpanzee hunting provides information on prey characteristics and constraints acting on a large-bodied primate lacking a hunting technology, and has important implications for modeling hunting by fossil hominids. analysis of the remains of five red colobus monkeys captured and consumed by gombe chimpanzees in a single hunting bout provides one of the first opportunities to investigate the characteristics of prey bones surviving chimpanzee consumption. four of the five individuals (an older inf ...200010964533
catarrhine photopigments are optimized for detecting targets against a foliage background.the colour vision of many primates is trichromatic, whereas that of all other mammals is thought to be dichromatic or monochromatic. moreover, the triplets of cone pigments in different catarrhines (old world apes and monkeys) are strikingly similar in their spectral positions. we ask whether the selective advantage of trichromacy lies in an enhanced ability to find edible leaves or fruit. further, we ask whether any factor in these two search tasks has constrained the particular set of cone spe ...200010851115
demographic influences on the hunting behavior of chimpanzees.we investigated hunting in an unusually large community of wild chimpanzees at ngogo in the kibale national park, uganda. aspects of predation were recorded with respect to the prey, the predators, and hunting episodes. during 23 months of observation, the ngogo chimpanzees caught 128 prey items from four primate and three ungulate species. chimpanzees preyed selectively on immature red colobus primarily during group hunts, with adult males making the majority of kills. party size and compositio ...199910423261
within-group vigilance in red colobus and redtail theory, animals are expected to relax vigilance in the safety of large groups. four controlled studies of primates have failed to detect relaxed vigilance as group size increases. the counter-intuitive behavior of primates might arise if another component of vigilance increases with group size, masking any decrease in outward, anti-predator vigilance. surveillance of associates is a major component of primate vigilance and might be expected to increase with group size due to an increase in co ...199910333431
prevalence and genetic diversity of simian immunodeficiency virus infection in wild-living red colobus monkeys (piliocolobus badius badius) from the taï forest, côte d'ivoire sivwrc in wild-living western red colobus monkeys.numerous african primates are infected with simian immunodeficiency viruses (sivs). it is now well established that the clade of sivs infecting west-central african chimpanzees (pan troglodytes troglodytes) and western gorillas (gorilla gorilla gorilla) represent the progenitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1), whereas hiv-2 results from different cross-species transmissions of sivsmm from sooty mangabeys (cercocebus atys atys). we present here the first molecular epidemiological ...200817916449
red colobus and diana monkeys provide mutual protection against predators.we tested the hypothesis that red colobus monkeys, procolobus badius and diana monkeys, cercopithecus diana in taï national park, ivory coast, associate to increase safety from predation. we recorded stratum use, exposure and vigilance of each species in the presence and in the absence of the partner species. in the presence of diana monkeys, red colobus used lower strata more often, were more exposed to the forest floor and looked down less often while foraging. this suggests that red colobus r ...19979794772
serologic evidence for novel poxvirus in endangered red colobus monkeys, western uganda.enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blot, and virus neutralization assays indicated that red colobus monkeys in kibale national park, western uganda, had antibodies to a virus that was similar, but not identical, to known orthopoxviruses. the presence of a novel poxvirus in this endangered primate raises public health and conservation concerns.200818439366
the formation of red colobus-diana monkey associations under predation pressure from is generally assumed that most primates live in monospecific or polyspecific groups because group living provides protection against predation, but hard evidence is scarce. we tested the antipredation hypothesis with observational and experimental data on mixed-species groups of red colobus (procolobus badius) and diana monkeys (cercopithecus diana) in the taï national park, ivory coast. red colobus, but not diana monkeys, are frequently killed by cooperatively hunting chimpanzees. associatio ...19979061972
cercopithecid locomotion, support use, and support availability in the tai forest, ivory coast.habitat heterogeneity is widely theorized to be important in the evolution of old world monkeys, yet the impact of architecturally distinct forest types on the positional repertoires of african monkeys is largely unknown. as part of a wider project, this study investigates how the locomotor behavior of five sympatric cercopithecids varies in structurally distinct forest areas. fieldwork took place in the tai forest, ivory coast, from june 1993 to august 1994. data were collected on colobus badiu ...19968842324
patterns of predation by chimpanzees on red colobus monkeys in gombe national park, 1982-1991.predatory patterns in wild chimpanzees are important evidence in the continuing debate about the role of hunting in the behavior of early hominids. data are presented on the predator-prey ecology of red colobus monkeys colobus badius tephrosceles) and chimpanzees (pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in gombe national park, tanzania, from 1982 through 1991. during this period chimpanzees were observed to kill 429 mammalian prey items, 350 of which were red colobus. hunts were undertaken by chimpanzee ...19948085613
habitat, annual, and seasonal effects on positional behavior in red colobus monkeys.positional behavior in adult red colobus monkeys (colobus badius) was examined in a variety of ecological contexts. using a focal-animal methodology, we assessed how data collected by different observers, in different years, in different seasons, and in different forests affected estimates of positional behavior. in all, 23,000 bouts were recorded. variation in frequency is greatest in the common behaviors, especially arboreal quadrupedalism. significant behavioral differences occur more often i ...19957726298
positional behavior in five sympatric old world monkeys.observations of positional behavior and habitat use were recorded on focal individuals of five species of old world monkeys at kibale forest, uganda, through the dry season of 1990 and 1991. cercopithecus ascanius, cercopithecus mitis, cercocebus albigena, colobus badius, and colobus guereza commonly utilize five similar types of positional behavior (i.e., quadrupedalism, leaping, climbing, sitting, and standing), but in varying frequencies and situations. as a group, colobines use oblique suppo ...19957645673
[ontogenesis of facial muscles in primates].1. the development of facial muscles is studied in embryos of tupaia belangeri, tupaia javanica, nycticebus coucang, galago dimidovii, tarsius bancanus, callithrix jacchus, colobus badius, colobus verus, nasalis larvatus, and homo sapiens. 2. the facial muscles derive from a superficial blastema (anlage of platysma myoides) and another blastema laying beneath the first one (anlage of sphincter colli muscle). both blastemas grow out from mesenchymal cells of the head after the anlagen of all othe ...19807215749
time budget of tana river red on the activity pattern of a group of red colobus monkeys (colobus badius rufomitratus) living along the tana river, kenya, were collected during monthly 5-day observation periods between october 1973 and december 1974. the two most important activities were feeding and resting which occupy about one-third and one-half of daytime, respectively. these proportions vary considerably, however, according to age-sex class, time of day and month of year. compared to a group studied at a rain-fores ...19817194843
vocalizations of east african monkeys. i. red colobus. 19704992329
killing of a pearl-spotted owlet (glaucidium perlatum) by male red colobus monkeys (procolobus tephrosceles) in a forest fragment near kibale national park, male red colobus (procolobus tephrosceles) were observed capturing and killing an owl (glaucidium perlatum) in the rurama forest fragment near kibale national park in western uganda. the owl was not subsequently eaten by the colobus, their conspecifics, or the other primates present during the attack. because the incident was preceded by an agonistic encounter with a raptor, the event is best interpreted as a misdirected antipredator behavior. although antipredator behaviors are not unknow ...200616892411
life on the edge: gastrointestinal parasites from the forest edge and interior primate groups.humans are responsible for massive changes to primate habitats, and one unanticipated consequence of these alterations may be changes in host-parasite interactions. edges are a ubiquitous aspect of human disturbance to forest landscapes. here we examine how changes associated with the creation of edges in kibale national park, uganda, alter the parasite community that is supported by two species of african colobines: the endangered red colobus (piliocolobus tephrosceles) and the black-and-white ...200616534810
spatial distribution of primates in a mosaic of colonizing and old growth forest at ngogo, kibale national park, uganda.primate censuses were conducted in a mosaic of colonizing (two locations) and old-growth forests using line transect methods at the ngogo study site, kibale national park, uganda. black and white colobus monkeys (colobus guereza) were encountered more frequently in the colonizing forests than in the old growth forest, while chimpanzees (pan troglodytes) were encountered more frequently in the old growth forest than in colonizing forests. although not significant, results suggest that blue monkey ...200616479411
parasite prevalence and richness in sympatric colobines: effects of host density.factors that influence proximity and the number and duration of contacts among individuals can influence parasite transmission among hosts, and thus parasite prevalence and species richness are expected to increase with increasing host density. to examine this prediction we took advantage of a unique situation. following the clearing of a forest fragment that supported red colobus (piliocolobus tephrosceles) and black-and-white colobus (colobus guereza), the animals moved into a neighboring frag ...200516229007
coinfection of ugandan red colobus (procolobus [piliocolobus] rufomitratus tephrosceles) with novel, divergent delta-, lenti-, and spumaretroviruses.nonhuman primates host a plethora of potentially zoonotic microbes, with simian retroviruses receiving heightened attention due to their roles in the origins of human immunodeficiency viruses type 1 (hiv-1) and hiv-2. however, incomplete taxonomic and geographic sampling of potential hosts, especially the african colobines, has left the full range of primate retrovirus diversity unexplored. blood samples collected from 31 wild-living red colobus monkeys (procolobus [piliocolobus] rufomitratus te ...200919692478
red colobus as prey: the leaping habits of five sympatric old world monkeys.this study explored the leaping habits of five sympatric old world monkeys (colobus badius, colobus guereza, cercopithecus ascanius, cercopithecus mitis and cercocebus albigena) in an attempt to determine why chimpanzees prefer to hunt red colobus. we videotaped the leaps of the monkeys for 3 months in uganda's kibale national park. data were collected on leap preparation time as well as several other variables of the leaps. the leap preparation time of red colobus was found to be about double t ...200515775681
prediction of parasite infection dynamics in primate metapopulations based on attributes of forest fragmentation.although the effects of forest fragmentation on species and ecological processes have been the focus of considerable research in conservation biology, our capacity to predict how processes will be altered and which taxonomic or functional groups will be most affected by fragmentation is still poor. this problem is exacerbated by inherent temporal and spatial variability in fragment attributes. to improve our understanding of this interplay, we examined how various fragment attributes affect one ...200616903105
molecular epidemiology of cross-species giardia duodenalis transmission in western uganda.giardia duodenalis is prevalent in tropical settings where diverse opportunities exist for transmission between people and animals. we conducted a cross-sectional study of g. duodenalis in people, livestock, and wild primates near kibale national park, uganda, where human-livestock-wildlife interaction is high due to habitat disturbance. our goal was to infer the cross-species transmission potential of g. duodenalis using molecular methods and to investigate clinical consequences of infection.201020485494
play behavior of red colobus monkeys in kibale national park, is a conspicuous behavior in primates, yet there are few detailed species-specific accounts of primate play. this article presents the results of a 1-year study of play in red colobus monkeys (procolobus rufomitratus). descriptions of play frequencies and types of play are provided from infancy through adulthood. age and sex comparisons are discussed in light of other research and hypotheses that may explain these observations.201020881405
the presence of a vpu gene and the lack of nef-mediated downmodulation of t cell receptor-cd3 are not always linked in primate lentiviruses.nef is an accessory protein critical for the ability of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (hiv and siv) to replicate efficiently in their respective hosts. previous analyses of members of 15 different primate lentivirus lineages revealed a link between nef function and the presence of a vpu gene. in particular, nef proteins of all vpu-containing viruses had lost their ability to downmodulate the t cell (tcr-cd3) receptor. here we examined nef proteins from eight additional siv lineages, ...201021068258
do food availability, parasitism, and stress have synergistic effects on red colobus populations living in forest fragments?identifying factors that influence animal density is a fundamental goal in ecology that has taken on new importance with the need to develop informed management plans. this is particularly the case for primates as the tropical forest that supports many species is being rapidly converted. we use a system of forest fragments adjacent to kibale national park, uganda, to examine if food availability and parasite infections have synergistic affects on red colobus (piliocolobus tephrosceles) abundance ...200616958077
gastrointestinal parasites of critically endangered primates endemic to tana river, kenya: tana river red colobus (procolobus rufomitratus) and crested mangabey (cercocebus galeritus).we conducted fecal egg counts of gastrointestinal parasites of 2 critically endangered primates endemic to the forest of tana river, kenya. we aimed to use the fecal egg counts as proxies to quantify the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites between the 2 primates. the tana river red colobus (procolobus rufomitratus) and crested mangabey (cercocebus galeritus) are of similar body size, but their behavioral ecology is very different. we predicted that mangabeys would have a higher prevalence o ...200617152930
primate abundance along five transect lines at ngogo, kibale national park, uganda.using the line transect methods, i studied the primate density at ngogo, kibale national park, uganda for 18 months. comparisons with other studies show that the population of red colobus monkeys (procolobus rufomitratus) and blue monkeys (cercopithecus mitis) is declining, whereas the populations of black-and-white colobus (colobus guereza), red-tailed monkeys (cercopithecus ascanius), grey-cheeked mangabeys (lophocebus albigena), baboons (papio anubis), and chimpanzees (pan troglodytes) remain ...200717330309
taphonomic analysis of skeletal remains from chimpanzee hunts at ngogo, kibale national park, uganda.this study provides a taphonomic analysis of the largest known sample of bone fragments collected from chimpanzee hunts. the entire sample consists of 455 bone fragments from 57 chimpanzee hunting episodes of 65 prey individuals at ngogo, kibale national park, uganda. it has low taxonomic diversity, consisting overwhelmingly of primates, especially red colobus monkeys. the age distribution of the prey remains is skewed towards pre-adults. cranial bones are the dominant element, followed by long ...200717346774
giardia sp. and cryptosporidium sp. infections in primates in fragmented and undisturbed forest in western june 2005, we collected 115 fecal samples from wild primates in western uganda and examined them for cryptosporidium sp. and giardia sp. with the use of immunofluorescent antibody (ifa) detection. we sampled primates from an undisturbed forest in kibale national park and from 3 highly disturbed forest fragments outside the park. of disturbed forest samples, red colobus (pilocolobus tephrosceles) and red-tailed guenons (cercopithecus ascanius) harbored species of cryptosporidium or giardia, bu ...200717539436
novel, divergent simian hemorrhagic fever viruses in a wild ugandan red colobus monkey discovered using direct pyrosequencing.simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv) has caused lethal outbreaks of hemorrhagic disease in captive primates, but its distribution in wild primates has remained obscure. here, we describe the discovery and genetic characterization by direct pyrosequencing of two novel, divergent shfv variants co-infecting a single male red colobus monkey from kibale national park, uganda.201121544192
temporal dynamics of nutrition, parasitism, and stress in colobus monkeys: implications for population regulation and conservation.the need to develop conservation plans calls for the ability to identify ecological factors that influence population density. because stress is known to affect fecundity and mortality, increasing stress may provide a warning of potential population declines. we examined the effects of temporal variation in nutrition and parasitism on stress in endangered red colobus monkeys in kibale national park, uganda. first, we tested the hypothesis that parasitism and nutrition would individually affect s ...200717596853
forest fragmentation, the decline of an endangered primate, and changes in host-parasite interactions relative to an unfragmented forest.forest fragmentation may alter host-parasite interactions in ways that contribute to host population declines. we tested this prediction by examining parasite infections and the abundance of infective helminths in 20 forest fragments and in unfragmented forest in kibale national park, uganda. over 4 years, the endangered red colobus (procolobus rufomitratus) declined by 20% in fragments, whereas the black-and-white colobus (colobus guereza) in fragments and populations of both colobines in unfra ...200817879941
scavenging by chimpanzees at ngogo and the relevance of chimpanzee scavenging to early hominin behavioral ecology.chimpanzees regularly hunt a variety of prey species. however, they rarely scavenge, which distinguishes chimpanzee carnivory from that of some modern hunter-gatherers and, presumably, at least some plio-pleistocene hominins. i use observations made over an 11-year period to document all known opportunities for scavenging encountered by chimpanzees at ngogo, kibale national park, uganda, and describe all cases of scavenging. i also review data on scavenging from other chimpanzee research sites. ...200817900659
influence of chimpanzee predation on the red colobus population at ngogo, kibale national park, uganda.frequent hunting of red colobus monkeys (procolobus rufomitratus) takes place at all long-term chimpanzee (pan troglodytes) study sites where both species are present. red colobus are the most commonly selected prey of chimpanzees even when other monkey species are more abundant. in particular, the chimpanzee community at ngogo, kibale national park, uganda, preys heavily on red colobus monkeys: the chimpanzee hunting success rate is extremely high, and chimpanzees kill many individuals per succ ...200817906844
mitochondrial relationships and divergence dates of the african colobines: evidence of miocene origins for the living colobus monkeys.the african colobines represent a neglected area of cercopithecid systematics. resolving the phylogenetic relationships and estimating divergence dates among the living forms will provide insight into the evolution of this group and may shed light upon the evolution of other african primates as well. this is the first molecular assessment of the evolutionary relationships among the modern colobus monkeys, which are comprised of the black-and-white, olive, and red colobus groups. over 4,000 base ...200818423802
full molecular characterization of a simian immunodeficiency virus, sivwrcpbt from temminck's red colobus (piliocolobus badius temminckii) from abuko nature reserve, the gambia.simian immunodeficiency viruses (sivs) are found in an extensive number of african primates, and humans continue to be exposed to these viruses by hunting and handling of primate bushmeat. the purpose of our study was to examine to what extent piliocolobus badius subspecies are infected with siv in order to better characterize sivwrc in general and to gain further insight into the impact of geographic barriers and subspeciation on the evolution of sivwrc. we analysed sixteen faecal samples and t ...200818442839
frequent water drinking by zanzibar red colobus (procolobus kirkii) in a mangrove forest refuge.isolated populations of procolobus kirkii on uzi island, zanzibar, use rhizophora mucronata-dominated mangrove forest for refuge. three groups, observed over 14 months, spent up to 85% of total observation time in mangroves with brief excursions to adjacent upland coral rag forest, habitat degraded by human cutting. a large proportion of monkeys' diets consisted of plant parts of five mangrove species. water drinking was common and 326 water-drinking events were recorded at a rate of up to 0.87 ...200818651613
bigger groups have fewer parasites and similar cortisol levels: a multi-group analysis in red colobus monkeys.if stress and disease impose fitness costs, and if those costs vary as a function of group size, then stress and disease should exert selection pressures on group size. we assessed the relationships between group size, stress, and parasite infections across nine groups of red colobus monkeys (procolobus rufomitratus) in kibale national park, uganda. we used fecal cortisol as a measure of physiological stress and examined fecal samples to assess the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal he ...200818666135
measuring physical traits of primates remotely: the use of parallel lasers.physical traits, such as body size, and processes like growth can be used as indices of primate health and can add to our understanding of life history and behavior. accurately measuring physical traits in the wild can be challenging because capture is difficult, disrupts animals, and may cause injury. to measure physical traits of arboreal primates remotely, we adapted a parallel laser technique that has been used with terrestrial and marine mammals. two parallel lasers separated by a known dis ...200818767123
dental topography and diets of four old world monkey topographic analysis allows comparisons of variably worn teeth within and between species to infer relationships between dental form and diet in living primates, with implications for reconstructing feeding adaptations of fossil forms. although analyses to date have been limited mainly to the m(2)s of a few primate taxa, these suggest that dental topographic analysis holds considerable promise. still, larger samples including a greater range of species and different tooth types are needed ...200919367586
craniofacial variation and dietary adaptations of african colobines.african colobine monkeys show considerable craniofacial variation among species, although the evolutionary causes of this diversity are unclear. in light of growing evidence that diet varies considerably among colobine species, we investigated whether colobine craniofacial morphology varies as a function of their diet. we compared craniofacial morphology among five african species: colobus angolensis, c. guereza, c. polykomos, piliocolobus badius, and p. verus. matrix correlation analysis indica ...200919447469
the primates of the udzungwa mountains: diversity, ecology and conservation.the udzungwa mountains are one of the most important areas in africa for primate diversity and conservation, with two endemic monkeys (udzungwa red colobus procolobus gordonorum and sanje mangabey cercocebus [galeritus] sanjei), and the near-endemic kipunji monkey rungwecebus kipunji, a new genus and species discovered in 2004 and found in udzungwa and southern highlands. with six species of galagos, or bushbabies, the area is also of exceptional importance for nocturnal primates. the form of mo ...200919663171
understanding long-term primate community dynamics: implications of forest change.understanding the causes of population declines often involves comprehending a complex set of interactions linking environmental and biotic changes, which in combination overwhelm a population's ability to persist. to understand these relationships, especially for long-lived large mammals, long-term data are required, but rarely available. here we use 26-36 years of population and habitat data to determine the potential causes of group density changes for five species of primates in kibale natio ...201020349839
high prevalence, coinfection rate, and genetic diversity of retroviruses in wild red colobus monkeys (piliocolobus badius badius) in tai national park, cote d'ivoire.simian retroviruses are precursors of all human retroviral pathogens. however, little is known about the prevalence and coinfection rates or the genetic diversity of major retroviruses-simian immunodeficiency virus (siv), simian t-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (stlv-1), and simian foamy virus (sfv)-in wild populations of nonhuman primates. such information would contribute to the understanding of the natural history of retroviruses in various host species. here, we estimate these parameters for ...201020484508
characterization of the fecal microbiome from non-human wild primates reveals species specific microbial microbes comprise an integral part of animal digestive systems and these interactions have a long evolutionary history. it has been hypothesized that the gastrointestinal microbiome of humans and other non-human primates may have played significant roles in host evolution by facilitating a range of dietary adaptations. we have undertaken a comparative sequencing survey of the gastrointestinal microbiomes of several non-human primate species, with the goal of better understanding ...201021103066
reduced stiffness of alveolar bone in the colobine mandible.alveolar bone has several mechanical functions, including tooth support and accommodation of occlusal and other masticatory forces. its unique functional-mechanical environment is reflected by its structural characteristics, but whether alveolar bone is materially distinct from bone elsewhere in the primate facial skeleton is uncertain. this uncertainty is attributable not only to a limited amount of data but also to conflicting findings among these data. we evaluated elastic modulus variation i ...201021302268
joint inference of microsatellite mutation models, population history and genealogies using transdimensional markov chain monte carlo.we provide a framework for bayesian coalescent inference from microsatellite data that enables inference of population history parameters averaged over microsatellite mutation models. to achieve this we first implemented a rich family of microsatellite mutation models and related components in the software package beast. beast is a powerful tool that performs bayesian mcmc analysis on molecular data to make coalescent and evolutionary inferences. our implementation permits the application of exi ...201121385725
long-term research sites as refugia for threatened and over-harvested species.the presence of researchers, ecotourists or rangers inside protected areas is generally assumed to provide a protective effect for wildlife populations, mainly by reducing poaching pressure. however, this assumption has rarely been empirically tested. here, we evaluate and quantify the conservation benefits of the presence of a long-term research area in taï national park, côte d'ivoire. a wildlife survey following 225 km of line transects revealed considerably higher primate and duiker encounte ...201121450724
[studies on the dermatoglyphic patterns in the palm and sole of colobus polykomos, colobus badius, colobus verus and nasalis larvatus]. 20164965011
habitat fragmentation is associated to gut microbiota diversity of an endangered primate: implications for conservation.the expansion of agriculture is shrinking pristine forest areas worldwide, jeopardizing the persistence of their wild inhabitants. the udzungwa red colobus monkey (procolobus gordonorum) is among the most threatened primate species in africa. primarily arboreal and highly sensitive to hunting and habitat destruction, they provide a critical model to understanding whether anthropogenic disturbance impacts gut microbiota diversity. we sampled seven social groups inhabiting two forests (disturbed v ...201526445280
fecal microbiomes of non-human primates in western uganda reveal species-specific communities largely resistant to habitat perturbation.primate gastrointestinal microbial communities are becoming increasingly appreciated for their relevance to comparative medicine and conservation, but the factors that structure primate "microbiomes" remain controversial. this study examined a community of primates in kibale national park, uganda, to assess the relative importance of host species and location in structuring gastrointestinal microbiomes. fecal samples were collected from primates in intact forest and from primates in highly distu ...201324285224
full-length genome characterization of a novel simian immunodeficiency virus lineage (sivolc) from olive colobus (procolobus verus) and new sivwrcpbb strains from western red colobus (piliocolobus badius badius) from the tai forest in ivory coast.simian immunodeficiency viruses (sivs) are found in an extensive number of african primates and humans continue to be exposed to these viruses by hunting and handling of primate bushmeat. full-length genome sequences were obtained from sivs derived from two colobinae species inhabiting the taï forest, ivory coast, each belonging to a different genus: sivwrc from western red colobus (piliocolobus badius badius) (sivwrcpbb-98ci04 and sivwrcpbb-97ci14) and sivolc (sivolc-97ci12) from olive colobus ...200918922864
material property variation of mandibular symphyseal bone in colobine monkeys.the anterior mandibular corpus of anthropoid primates is routinely subjected to masticatory loads that result in relatively high local levels of stress and strain. while structural morphological responses to these loads have been extensively explored, relatively little is known about material property variation in mandibular bone of nonhuman primates. consequently, the role of regional and local variation in bone stiffness in conditioning stress and strain gradients is poorly understood. we samp ...200918946868
morphology of enterobius (colobenterobius) colobis vuylstéke, 1964 (nematoda: oxyuridae: enterobiinae) collected from an ashy red colobus, procolobus rufomitratus tephrosceles (elliot, 1907) (primates: cercopithecidae: colobinae), in uganda.enterobius (colobenterobius) colobis vuylstéke, 1964 (nematoda: oxyuridae) is redescribed based on males and females collected from an ashy red colobus, procolobus rufomitratus tephrosceles (elliot, 1907) (primates: cercopithecidae: colobinae), in uganda. two morphotypes are recognized among females, which are readily distinguished by tail length, termination level of lateral alae, and egg size. the relative position of cellular wall greatly varied in the ovijector, indicating its limited system ...200818973417
species, age and sex differences in type and frequencies of injuries and impairments among four arboreal primate species in kibale national park, uganda.animals in the wild often have physical impairments that can affect their fitness. the aim of this study was to compare injuries and impairments of four different primate species (black-and-white colobus, red colobus, red-tailed monkeys, and grey-cheeked mangabeys) living in kibale national park (uganda), and estimate the proportion of injured and impaired individuals among the sexes and age classes. the species differed in the proportion of individuals with injuries and impairments, with 16.7% ...200919067112
host density and human activities mediate increased parasite prevalence and richness in primates threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation.1. habitat loss and fragmentation are the principal causes of the loss of biological diversity. in addition, parasitic diseases are an emerging threat to many animals. nevertheless, relatively few studies have tested how habitat loss and fragmentation influence the prevalence and richness of parasites in animals. 2. several studies of nonhuman primates have shown that measures of human activity and forest fragmentation correlate with parasitism in primates. however, these studies have not tested ...200919120603
lack of evidence of simian immunodeficiency virus infection among nonhuman primates in taï national park, côte d'ivoire: limitations of noninvasive methods and siv diagnostic tools for studies of primate is now well established that the human immunodeficiency viruses, hiv-1 and hiv-2, are the results of cross-species transmissions of simian immunodeficiency viruses (siv) naturally infecting nonhuman primates in sub-saharan africa. sivs are found in many african primates, and humans continue to be exposed to these viruses by hunting and handling primate bushmeat. sooty mangabeys (cercocebus atys) and western red colobus (piliocolobus badius badius) are infected with siv at a high rate in the t ...201123950618
nodule worm infection in humans and wild primates in uganda: cryptic species in a newly identified region of human transmission.soil-transmitted helminths (sths) are a major health concern in tropical and sub-tropical countries. oesophagostomum infection is considered endemic to west africa but has also been identified in uganda, east africa, among primates (including humans). however, the taxonomy and ecology of oesophagostomum in uganda have not been studied, except for in chimpanzees (pan troglodytes), which are infected by both o. bifurcum and o. stephanostomum.201424421915
discovery and characterization of distinct simian pegiviruses in three wild african old world monkey species.within the flaviviridae, the recently designated genus pegivirus has expanded greatly due to new discoveries in bats, horses, and rodents. here we report the discovery and characterization of three simian pegiviruses (spgv) that resemble human pegivirus (hpgv) and infect red colobus monkeys (procolobus tephrosceles), red-tailed guenons (cercopithecus ascanius) and an olive baboon (papio anubis). we have designated these viruses spgvkrc, spgvkrtg and spgvkbab, reflecting their host species' commo ...201424918769
oesophagostomiasis in non-human primates of gombe national park, tanzania.oesophagostomum sp. is a parasitic nematode that frequently infects wild chimpanzees. although nodular lesions are commonly associated with infection, some wild chimpanzee populations seem to tolerate oesophagostomum nodular lesions while those at gombe and other sites suffer from associated morbidity and mortality. from august 2004 to december 2013, we examined demographic (i.e., age, sex) and individual correlates (i.e., fecal consistency, oesophagostomum egg production) to oesophagostomum-ass ...201627309976
within-host evolution of simian arteriviruses in crab-eating macaques.simian arteriviruses are a diverse clade of viruses infecting captive and wild nonhuman primates. we recently reported that kibale red colobus virus 1 (krcv-1) causes a mild and self-limiting disease in experimentally infected crab-eating macaques, while simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv) causes lethal viral hemorrhagic fever. here we characterize how these viruses evolved during replication in cell culture and in experimentally infected macaques. during passage in cell culture, 68 substituti ...201727974564
specific detection of two divergent simian arteriviruses using rnascope in situ hybridization.simian hemorrhagic fever (shf) is an often lethal disease of asian macaques. simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv) is one of at least three distinct simian arteriviruses that can cause shf, but pathogenesis studies using modern methods have been scarce. even seemingly straightforward studies, such as examining viral tissue and cell tropism in vivo, have been difficult to conduct due to the absence of standardized shfv-specific reagents. here we report the establishment of an in situ hybridizatio ...201626963736
divergent simian arteriviruses cause simian hemorrhagic fever of differing severities in macaques.simian hemorrhagic fever (shf) is a highly lethal disease in captive macaques. three distinct arteriviruses are known etiological agents of past shf epizootics, but only one, simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv), has been isolated in cell culture. the natural reservoir(s) of the three viruses have yet to be identified, but african nonhuman primates are suspected. eleven additional divergent simian arteriviruses have been detected recently in diverse and apparently healthy african cercopithecid ...201626908578
no evidence for transmission of sivwrc from western red colobus monkeys (piliocolobus badius badius) to wild west african chimpanzees (pan troglodytes verus) despite high exposure through hunting.simian immunodeficiency viruses (sivs) are the precursors of human immunodeficiency viruses (hivs) which have led to the worldwide hiv/aids pandemic. by studying sivs in wild primates we can better understand the circulation of these viruses in their natural hosts and habitat, and perhaps identify factors that influence susceptibility and transmission within and between various host species. we investigated the siv status of wild west african chimpanzees (pan troglodytes verus) which frequently ...201121284842
high genetic diversity and adaptive potential of two simian hemorrhagic fever viruses in a wild primate population.key biological properties such as high genetic diversity and high evolutionary rate enhance the potential of certain rna viruses to adapt and emerge. identifying viruses with these properties in their natural hosts could dramatically improve disease forecasting and surveillance. recently, we discovered two novel members of the viral family arteriviridae: simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv)-krc1 and shfv-krc2, infecting a single wild red colobus (procolobus rufomitratus tephrosceles) in kibale ...201424651479
exceptional simian hemorrhagic fever virus diversity in a wild african primate community.simian hemorrhagic fever virus (shfv) is an arterivirus that causes severe disease in captive macaques. we describe two new shfv variants subclinically infecting wild african red-tailed guenons (cercopithecus ascanius). both variants are highly divergent from the prototype virus and variants infecting sympatric red colobus (procolobus rufomitratus). all known shfv variants are monophyletic and share three open reading frames not present in other arteriviruses. our data suggest a need to modify t ...201323077302
the role of the antiviral apobec3 gene family in protecting chimpanzees against lentiviruses from monkeys.cross-species transmissions of viruses from animals to humans are at the origin of major human pathogenic viruses. while the role of ecological and epidemiological factors in the emergence of new pathogens is well documented, the importance of host factors is often unknown. chimpanzees are the closest relatives of humans and the animal reservoir at the origin of the human aids pandemic. however, despite being regularly exposed to monkey lentiviruses through hunting, chimpanzees are naturally inf ...201526394054
primate population dynamics over 32.9 years at ngogo, kibale national park, uganda.we present census data for eight primate species spanning 32.9 years along the same transect at ngogo, kibale national park, uganda, demonstrating major changes in the composition of the primate community. correlated with an estimated decline of ∼89% in the red colobus population was an increase in encounter rates with chimpanzee parties. our data, along with the unusually high rates of predation by chimpanzees on red colobus at ngogo and the fact that the chimpanzee community at ngogo is the la ...201121557287
Novel Multiplexed HIV/Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Antibody Detection Assay.Like most emerging infectious disease viruses, HIV is also of zoonotic origin. To assess the risk for cross-species transmission of simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) from nonhuman primates to humans in the Democratic Republic of Congo, we collected 330 samples derived from nonhuman primate bushmeat at 3 remote forest sites. SIV prevalences were estimated by using a novel high-throughput assay that included 34 HIV and SIV antigens in a single well. Overall, 19% of nonhuman primate bushmeat w ...201122172157
primate vaginal microbiomes exhibit species specificity without universal lactobacillus dominance.bacterial communities colonizing the reproductive tracts of primates (including humans) impact the health, survival and fitness of the host, and thereby the evolution of the host species. despite their importance, we currently have a poor understanding of primate microbiomes. the composition and structure of microbial communities vary considerably depending on the host and environmental factors. we conducted comparative analyses of the primate vaginal microbiome using pyrosequencing of the 16s r ...201425036926
spatial variation in mandibular bone elastic modulus and its effect on structural bending stiffness: a test case using the taï forest monkeys.we investigated how heterogeneity in material stiffness affects structural stiffness in the cercopithecid mandibular cortical bone. we assessed (1) whether this effect changes the interpretation of interspecific structural stiffness variation across four primate species, (2) whether the heterogeneity is random, and (3) whether heterogeneity mitigates bending stress in the jaw associated with food processing.201727858979
humeral correlates of forelimb elevation in four west african cercopithecid monkeys.we previously found that differing degrees of forelimb flexion, elevation, and abduction during nonlocomotor foraging activities covaried with scapular morphology among four sympatric cercopithecids. the purpose of this study is to investigate whether features of the proximal humerus are similarly related to forelimb elevation during foraging.201727804125
beyond bushmeat: animal contact, injury, and zoonotic disease risk in western uganda.zoonotic pathogens cause an estimated 70% of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in humans. in sub-saharan africa, bushmeat hunting and butchering is considered the primary risk factor for human-wildlife contact and zoonotic disease transmission, particularly for the transmission of simian retroviruses. however, hunting is only one of many activities in sub-saharan africa that bring people and wildlife into contact. here, we examine human-animal interaction in western uganda, identifyin ...201424845574
competing pressures on populations: long-term dynamics of food availability, food quality, disease, stress and animal abundance.despite strong links between sociality and fitness that ultimately affect the size of animal populations, the particular social and ecological factors that lead to endangerment are not well understood. here, we synthesize approximately 25 years of data and present new analyses that highlight dynamics in forest composition, food availability, the nutritional quality of food, disease, physiological stress and population size of endangered folivorous red colobus monkeys (procolobus rufomitratus). t ...025870398
parasitology of five primates in mahale mountains national park, tanzania.parasitological surveillance in primates has been performed using coprological observation and identification of specimens from chimpanzees (pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in mahale mountains national park, tanzania (mahale). in this study, we conducted coprological surveillance to identify the fauna of parasite infection in five primate species in mahale: red colobus (procolobus badius tephrosceles), red-tailed monkeys (cercopithecus ascanius schmidti), vervet monkeys (cercopithecus aethiops p ...201222661394
diversity and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in seven non-human primates of the taï national park, côte d'ivoire.parasites and infectious diseases are well-known threats to primate populations. the main objective of this study was to provide baseline data on fecal parasites in the cercopithecid monkeys inhabiting côte d'ivoire's taï national park. seven of eight cercopithecid species present in the park were sampled: cercopithecus diana, cercopithecus campbelli, cercopithecus petaurista, procolobus badius, procolobus verus, colobus polykomos, and cercocebus atys. we collected 3142 monkey stool samples betw ...201525619957
occurrence of giardia and cryptosporidium in captive chimpanzees (pan troglodytes), mandrills (mandrillus sphinx) and wild zanzibar red colobus monkeys (procolobus kirkii).the aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of giardia duodenalis and cryptosporidium spp. in primates and determine their zoonotic or anthropozoonotic potential.201525612000
bone remodeling is reduced in high stress regions of the cercopithecoid mandible.independent lines of evidence suggest that osteonal bone remodeling is a function of both mechanical (i.e., changes in stress) and non-mechanical (i.e., metabolic needs related to calcium liberation) factors. the degree to which secondary bone reflects mechanical factors, however, is incompletely understood despite the common assumption that the stress environment mediates remodeling activity. here, we investigate whether there are remodeling differences between regions of primate mandibular bon ...201627348341
redtail and red colobus monkeys show intersite urinary cortisol concentration variation in kibale national park, uganda.non-invasive measurement of urinary cortisol is a proven method of evaluating the impact of environmental stressors on wild primates. variation in cortisol concentrations can reflect physiological stress, and prolonged elevation of circulating cortisol can significantly affect individual and population-level health. in a previous study, we found that urinary cortisol concentrations in grey-cheeked mangabeys (lophocebus albigena) were higher at a highly disturbed site (mainaro) in kibale national ...201527293691
chimpanzee-red colobus encounter rates show a red colobus population decline associated with predation by chimpanzees at ngogo.chimpanzees (pan troglodytes) hunt various primates, but concentrate on red colobus monkeys (piliocolobus spp.) wherever the two species are sympatric. the extraordinarily large ngogo chimpanzee community in kibale national park, uganda, preys heavily on the local population of red colobus (p. tephrosceles). census data showed a steep decline in this population in the center of the chimpanzees' home range between 1975 and 2007 [lwanga et al., 2011; teelen, 2007b]. given no obvious change in food ...201323775942
co-infection and cross-species transmission of divergent hepatocystis lineages in a wild african primate community.hemoparasites of the apicomplexan family plasmodiidae include the etiological agents of malaria, as well as a suite of non-human primate parasites from which the human malaria agents evolved. despite the significance of these parasites for global health, little information is available about their ecology in multi-host communities. primates were investigated in kibale national park, uganda, where ecological relationships among host species are well characterized. blood samples were examined for ...201323603520
hunting, law enforcement, and african primate conservation.primates are regularly hunted for bushmeat in tropical forests, and systematic ecological monitoring can help determine the effect hunting has on these and other hunted species. monitoring can also be used to inform law enforcement and managers of where hunting is concentrated. we evaluated the effects of law enforcement informed by monitoring data on density and spatial distribution of 8 monkey species in taï national park, côte d'ivoire. we conducted intensive surveys of monkeys and looked for ...201222394275
absence of frequent herpesvirus transmission in a nonhuman primate predator-prey system in the wild.emergence of viruses into the human population by transmission from nonhuman primates (nhps) represents a serious potential threat to human health that is primarily associated with the increased bushmeat trade. transmission of rna viruses across primate species appears to be relatively frequent. in contrast, dna viruses appear to be largely host specific, suggesting low transmission potential. herein, we use a primate predator-prey system to study the risk of herpesvirus transmission between dif ...201323885068
feeding behaviour of red colobus and black and white colobus in east africa.the feeding behaviour of one troop of red colobus (colobus badius tephrosceles) was observed between august 1969 and june 1970 in the gombe national park. similar observations were made on two troops of red colobus and two of black and white colobus (c. guereza uellensis) in kibale forest reserve, uganda, between august and october 1970. the red colobus at gombe were highly selective in their choice of food, feeding on the leaves, shoots, flowers and fruit of a wide variety of tree species. the ...1975805763
mites of the genus paracoroptes lavoipierre, 1955 (acariformes: psoroptidae)--skin parasites of the african monkeys of the family cercopithecidae (primates).two new species of paracoroptes lavoipierre, 1955 (acariformes: psoroptidae: paracoroptinae) are described: paracoroptes miopithecus sp. n. from miopithecus talapoin (schreber) and paracoroptes piliocolobus sp. n. from piliocolobus badius (kerr) (primates: cercopithecidae)--both are from the democratic republic of the congo. a key to all 6 species of the genus is provided and host-parasite relationships of its representatives are discussed.201425543932
estrogenic plant foods of red colobus monkeys and mountain gorillas in uganda.phytoestrogens, or naturally occurring estrogen-mimicking compounds, are found in many human plant foods, such as soybeans (glycine max) and other legumes. because the consumption of phytoestrogens may result in both health benefits of protecting against estrogen-dependent cancers and reproductive costs of disrupting the developing endocrine system, considerable biomedical research has been focused on the physiological and behavioral effects of these compounds. despite this interest, little is k ...201222460223
scapular morphology and forelimb use during foraging in four sympatric cercopithecids.most investigations of primate scapular morphology use differences in locomotion to explain variation; less is known about how scapular geometry covaries with nonlocomotor behavior. we examined forelimb use during foraging in 4 cercopithecids ranging throughout the ivory coast's tai forest. during 5-min feeding bouts, we recorded the frequency individuals of piliocolobus badius, colobus polykomos, cercocebus atys and cercopithecus diana performed 5 forelimb behaviors involved in the acquisition ...201526745141
mandibular bone mineral density variation in three west african cercopithecoid monkey species: associations with diet and feeding behavior.procolobus badius, colobus polykomos, and cercocebus atys are three west african primate species known to have distinctive feeding behaviors. our objectives were (1) to test whether intra-taxon variation in bone mineral content exists between anterior and posterior regions of the mandible and (2) to determine if interspecific differences are interpretable via feeding and dietary idiosyncracies among the three taxa.201526431828
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