life cycle of amblyospora indicola (microspora: amblyosporidae), a parasite of the mosquito culex sitiens and of apocyclops sp. copepods.the life cycle of amblyospora indicola, a parasite of the mosquito culex sitiens, was revealed by field observations and laboratory infection experiments conducted in australia. in northern queensland, infected c. sitiens larvae were often found breeding in association with two cyclopoid copepods: apocyclops dengizicus and an undescribed species of the same genus. the latter species was found to be an intermediate copepod host of this microsporidium whereas a. dengizicus was not. one complete cy ...19901972171
relative repellency of two formulations of n,n-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) and permethrin-treated clothing against culex sitiens and aedes vigilax in thailand.field tests were conducted to compare the effectiveness of 2 repellent formulations of n,n-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) in combination with permethrin-impregnated military uniforms against culex sitiens and aedes vigilax in thailand. repellency was determined during a 2 h crepuscular period using volunteers who had been treated with repellents 6, 8, 10, and 12 h prior to the end of each test period. an extended-duration repellent formulation (edrf) containing 35% deet repelled significantly ...19902098470
biology of the malaysian strain of plasmodium juxtanucleare versiani and gomes, 1941. ii. the sporogonic stages in culex (culex) sitiens wiedmann. 19665969102
isolation of japanese encephalitis virus from mosquitoes collected in sabak bernam, selangor, malaysia in 1992.detection and isolation of japanese encephalitis (je) virus were attempted from female mosquitoes collected in kampong pasir panjang, sabak bernam, selangor, from may to november 1992. a total of 7,400 mosquitoes consisting of 12 species in 148 pools were processed and inoculated into aedes albopictus clone c6/36 cell cultures. of these, 26 pools showed the presence of viral antigens in the infected c6/36 cells by specific immunoperoxidase staining using an anti-je virus polyclonal antibody. pre ...19957616198
urbanization and its effects on the ecology of mosquitoes in macau, southeast asia.recent urbanization in macau has resulted in the precipitous decline to zero in populations of several anopheline vectors of malaria while providing optimal habitat for the population increase in culicines. of 18 species of mosquitoes reported in macau in recent years, 15 species are included here. culex quinquefasciatus, culex sitiens, and aedes albopictus were the most abundant species. notes are provided for anopheles sinensis, armigeres magnus, armigeres subalbatus, culex foliatus, culex fus ...19947707061
effect of bacillus thuringiensis beta exotoxin on ultrastructures of midgut cells of culex midgut cells of culex sitiens intoxicated with beta exotoxin of bacillus thuringiensis, the microvilli are greatly reduced. in the cytoplasm there is progressive disarrangement of the membranes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, first to spherules, and later to a granular mass. minute vacuoles appearing in the cytoplasm are parts of the distorted labyrinth and remains of the golgi membranes. there is no disintegration of the outer cell membrane, and no hypertrophy of goblet cells. nuclei rem ...19948005002
isolation of japanese encephalitis virus from culex sitiens mosquitoes in selangor, malaysia.isolation of japanese encephalitis virus (jev) from mosquitoes in sabak bernam, selangor, malaysia, was attempted. an aliquot of homogenate from each pool of mosquitoes, 50 per tube, was inoculated into aedes albopictus clone c6/36 cells for virus isolation. each cell culture was tested for the presence of viral antigen by immunoperoxidase staining using an anti-jev polyclonal antibody. out of 4 culex sitiens mosquito pools, 2 pools were positive for jev by cell culture. presence of jev genome i ...19948965071
brackish water mosquito problem of vypeen island, cochin, kerala.a preliminary study has shown that the marshy terrain and brackish water bodies associated with mangrove forests contributed profuse breeding of mosquitos in vypeen island, causing a severe menace to the island population. a total of 14 species belonging to four genera viz, aedes, anopheles, armigeres and culex was recorded from different habitats. culex sitiens was found to be the predominant mosquito in all the perennial breeding habitats. the extent of different habitats in the production of ...19969031417
ross river virus in mosquitoes (diptera:culicidae) during the 1994 epidemic around brisbane, australia.during the summer 1994 outbreak of epidemic polyarthritis in suburban brisbane, 29,931 adult female mosquitoes were collected by octenol-co2 light traps and tested for virus by species in pools of approximately 20 using an in situ enzyme-linked immunoassay. overall, 63 isolations of ross river (rr) virus were made from 7 different mosquito species, including 23 from freshwater-breeding culex annulirostris skuse, 13 from peridomestic aedes notoscriptus (skuse), 4 from aedes procax (skuse), 12 fro ...19979103757
acute and sublethal effects of (s)-methoprene on some australian mosquitoes.laboratory bioassays were used to determine the efficacy of (s)-methoprene against 7 species of australian mosquitoes. the 90% lethal concentration (lc90) ranged from 0.17 ppb for aedes vigilax to 6.54 ppb for culex sitiens. the survival of adults exposed as larvae to 2 sublethal dosages of (s)-methoprene was compared to a control group. little effect was noted for cx. sitiens and culex annulirostris. however, survival of male and female ae. vigilax was significantly reduced and appeared to be d ...19979249653
laboratory and field evaluation of efficacy of vectobac 12as against culex sitiens (diptera: culicidae) larvae.laboratory bioassay studies of the efficacy of vectobac 12as (active ingredient: 1,200 international toxic units [itu]/mg bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis) against field-collected late 3rd/early 4th-instar larvae of culex sitiens indicated excellent control potential. a 95% lethal concentration (lc95) value of 1.381 x 10(7) itu was calculated, which equated to a dosage of 0.011 liters/ha. this dosage represented 1.8% of the recommended lowest dosage rate for the product. a field trial of ...19989673920
towards management of mosquitoes at homebush bay, sydney, australia. i. seasonal activity and relative abundance of adults of aedes vigilax, culex sitiens, and other salt-marsh species, 1993-94 through 1997-98.the mosquitoes associated with 2 saline wetlands at homebush bay, sydney, australia, were investigated over 5 consecutive seasons. twenty-one species were collected in adult traps at the 2 sites but the saline wetlands supported larvae of only 4 species: aedes alternans, aedes camptorhynchus, aedes vigilax, and culex sitiens. of these, ae. vigilax and cx. sitiens were the most common, and their peak abundances generally occurred during february and april, respectively. both wetlands were influen ...199910412120
vector competence of aedes aegypti, culex sitiens, culex annulirostris, and culex quinquefasciatus (diptera: culicidae) for barmah forest virus.aedes aegypti (l.), culex sitiens weidemann, culex annulirostris skuse, and culex quinquefasciatus say mosquitoes colonized at the queensland institute of medical research, brisbane australia, were fed on blood containing barmah forest virus (bf). only cx. annulirostris was susceptible to infection, with a median cell culture infectious dose (ccid50) of 10(3.36) per mosquito. ae. aegypti and cx. quinquefasciatus were infected experimentally, but at rates of < 9%. cx. sitiens did not become infec ...200011004776
definition of species in the culex sitiens subgroup (diptera: culicidae) from papua new guinea and australia.japanese encephalitis is a disease of major importance in asia, which from 1995 has extended its range into the north of australia. culex annulirostris skuse of the culex sitiens subgroup of culex was incriminated as the most likely mosquito vector. because misidentifications previously have occurred within this subgroup, our paper defines electrophoretic methods to identify culex specimens from queensland and the northern territory in australia and from western province in papua new guinea. in ...200011004787
susceptibility of ten species of mosquito larvae to the parasitic nematode romanomermis iyengari and its development.ten species of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) from five genera were exposed to preparasites of the tropical mermithid nematode species romanomermis iyengari (welch) (nematoda: mermithidae), a strain isolated in 1978 from pondicherry. by exposing mosquito larvae during the second instar, nematode infection was invariably lethal, the rate being highest in culex sitiens wiedemann (95%) followed by cx. quinquefasciatus say (90%), aedes aegypti (l.) (79%), anopheles subpictus grassi (64%), ae. albop ...200011129707
entomological investigations of an outbreak of japanese encephalitis virus in the torres strait, australia, in 1998.japanese encephalitis (je) virus first appeared in australia in 1995, when three clinical cases (two fatal) were diagnosed in residents on badu island in the torres strait, northern queensland. more recently, two confirmed human je cases were reported in the torres strait islands and cape york peninsula, in northern queensland in 1998. shortly after je virus activity was detected in humans and sentinel pigs on badu island in 1998, adult mosquitoes were collected using co2 and octenol-baited cdc ...200111476340
isolation of japanese encephalitis virus from mosquitoes collected in northern taiwan between 1995 and 1996.mosquito collections were carried out from may to october in 1995 and 1996 at yingko and sanhsia of taipei county and chunan of miaoli county. a grand total of 13,576 mosquitoes consisting of 13 species in 407 pools were processed and inoculated into aedes albopictus clone c6/36 cell cultures. one hundred thirty seven pools of these showed the presence of viral antigens in the infected c6/36 cell lysates which were identified by the indirect fluorescent antibody test using a monoclonal antibody ...199911561572
development and evaluation of a species diagnostic polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism procedure for cryptic members of the culex sitiens (diptera: culicidae) subgroup in australia and the southwest pacific.members of the culex sitiens subgroup are important vectors of arboviruses, including japanese encephalitis virus, murray valley encephalitis virus and ross river virus. of the eight described species, cx. annulirostris skuse, cx. sitiens wiedemann, and cx. palpalis taylor appear to be the most abundant and widespread throughout northern australia and papua new guinea (png). recent investigations using allozymes have shown this subgroup to contain cryptic species that possess overlapping adult m ...200211931037
susceptibility of culex sitiens to japanese encephalitis virus in peninsular malaysia.the susceptibility of culex sitiens to japanese encephalitis (je) virus was examined in the laboratory. cx. sitiens became infected with je virus on day 8 and subsequently it is able to transmit the virus when it takes a blood meal. both parts of the experiment were carried out using artificial membrane feeding technique.200212031077
isolation of arboviruses from mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) collected from the gulf plains region of northwest queensland, part of investigations into japanese encephalitis (je) virus and related flaviviruses in northern australia, 153,529 mosquitoes were collected and processed for virus isolation from the gulf plains region of northwest queensland. collections from within 30 km of each of the townships of croydon, normanton and karumba yielded 3,087 (2.0%), 66,009 (43.0%), and 84,433 (55.0%) mosquitoes, respectively, from which 16 viruses were isolated. four isolates of murray valley encephalitis (mve), two of ...200212349863
vector competence of australian mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) for japanese encephalitis virus.australian mosquitoes were evaluated for their ability to become infected with and transmit a torres strait strain of japanese encephalitis virus. mosquitoes, which were obtained from either laboratory colonies and collected using centers for disease control and prevention light traps baited with co2 and octenol or reared from larvae, were infected by feeding on a blood/sucrose solution containing 10(4.5 +/- 0.1) porcine stable-equine kidney (ps-ek) tissue culture infectious dose50/mosquito of t ...200312597658
isolation of viruses from mosquitoes collected at lumbo, mozambique. ii. mossuril virus, a new virus isolated from the culex (culex) sitiens wiedemann group. 196214034312
flavivirus isolations from mosquitoes collected from western cape york peninsula, australia, 1999-2000.after the 1st appearance of japanese encephalitis virus (je) on mainland australia in 1998, a study was undertaken to investigate whether je had become established in enzootic transmission cycles on western cape york peninsula. adult mosquitoes were collected during the late wet season from kowanyama and pormpuraaw in april 1999, and pormpuraaw and barr's yard in april 2000. despite processing 269,270 mosquitoes for virus isolation, no isolates of je were obtained. however, other flaviviruses co ...200314710742
efficacy of vectobac (bacillus thuringiensis variety israelensis) formulations for mosquito control in australia.laboratory bioassays were conducted on the efficacy of a water-dispersible granule (wg) formulation of bacillus thuringiensis variety israelensis (vectobac wg; active ingredient [ai]: 3,000 bti international toxic units [itu]/mg) against third instars of six common australian mosquito species, aedes aegypti (l.), ochlerotatus vigilax (skuse), ochlerotatus notoscriptus (skuse), culex sitiens wiedemann, culex annulirostris skuse, and culex quinquefasciatus say. the normal model for log-linear mort ...200314977116
toxicity of vectolex (bacillus sphaericus) products to selected australian mosquito and nontarget species.laboratory and field bioassay studies were conducted in southeast queensland, australia, on the efficacy of vectolex control granule (cg; active ingredient [ai]:50 bacillus sphaericus [b.s.] international toxic units [itu]/mg) and vectolex water dispersible granule (wdg) (ai: 650 b.s. itu/mg) formulations against third-instar larvae of culex annulirostris skuse, culex quinquefasciatus say, culex sitiens wiedemann, ochlerotatus rigilax (skuse), ochlerotatus. notoscriptus (skuse), and aedes aegypt ...200414998127
definition of ross river virus vectors at maroochy shire, australia.evidence of ross river (rr) virus infection in field-collected mosquitoes and data from laboratory vector competence experiments incriminated a range of mosquito species as important vectors of rr virus in maroochy shire, queensland, australia. nine rr and 2 barmah forest virus isolates were recovered from 27,529 mosquitoes collected in light traps from maroochy shire during 1996. nine of the 10 most abundant mosquito species collected in light traps were fed on blood containing the b94/20 strai ...200015218919
flavivirus isolations from mosquitoes collected from saibai island in the torres strait, australia, during an incursion of japanese encephalitis mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) were collected in january and february 2000 from saibai island in the torres strait of northern australia, and processed for arbovirus isolation during a period of japanese encephalitis (je) virus activity on nearby badu island. a total of 84 210 mosquitoes were processed for virus isolation, yielding six flavivirus isolates. viruses obtained were single isolates of je and kokobera (kok) and four of kunjin (kun). all virus isolates were from members of the c ...200415347396
the larval habitat of verrallina (verrallina) lugubris and chaetotaxy of field-collected larvae.the larval habitat of verrallina lugubris (barraud) is defined based upon collection of 648 larvae from swamp pools from january to march 1998 in pichavaram mangrove forest, and 125 larvae during september 1997 in maravakadu mangrove forest in the eastern coast of south india. salinity of the larval habitat ranged from 12,150 to 24,500 mg/liter in pichavaram and from 11,600 to 13,000 mg/liter in maravakadu. associated mosquito species were culex sitiens wiedemann, ochlerotatus portonovoensis (te ...200515825769
altered environment and risk of malaria outbreak in south andaman, andaman & nicobar islands, india affected by tsunami disaster.pools of salt water and puddles created by giant waves from the sea due to the tsunami that occurred on 26th december 2004 would facilitate increased breeding of brackish water malaria vector, anopheles sundaicus. land uplifts in north andaman and subsidence in south andaman have been reported and subsidence may lead to environmental disturbances and vector proliferation. this warrants a situation analysis and vector surveillance in the tsunami hit areas endemic for malaria transmitted by bracki ...200516029514
effect of larval crowding on mating competitiveness of anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.the success of sterile or transgenic anopheles for malaria control depends on their mating competitiveness within wild populations. current evidence suggests that transgenic mosquitoes have reduced fitness. one means of compensating for this fitness deficit would be to identify environmental conditions that increase their mating competitiveness, and incorporate them into laboratory rearing regimes.200516197541
monitoring of japanese encephalitis virus infection in mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) at guandu nature park, taipei, 2002-2004.japanese encephalitis virus (jev) infection in mosquitoes was monitored at guandu nature park in taipei city from september 2002 to december 2004. in total, 30,386 female mosquitoes consisting of six genera and 14 species were processed for virus in 1,229 pools by using flavivirus ns5 gene sequences detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and nested pcr assay. overall, 101 pools were positive, including 95, 1, 4, and 1 for culex tritaeniorhynchus giles, culex sitiens wi ...200516465752
does 1-octen-3-ol enhance trap collections of japanese encephalitis virus mosquito vectors in northern australia?the responses of japanese encephalitis virus (jev) mosquito vectors to 1-octen-3-ol (octenol) and co2 were evaluated using centers for disease control (cdc) light traps at 3 sites in northern australia. there was no significant difference between the number of culex sitiens subgroup mosquitoes or cx. gelidus collected in cdc light traps baited with either co2 alone or co2 + octenol on badu island. at both mainland locations, using octenol in combination with co2 significantly increased collectio ...200616646316
short report: the first isolation of japanese encephalitis virus from mosquitoes collected from mainland response to an incursion of japanese encephalitis virus (jev) on cape york peninsula, australia, in 2005, 23,144 culex mosquitoes were processed for virus detection. a single isolate of jev was obtained from a pool of culex sitiens subgroup mosquitoes. this is the first reported mosquito isolate of jev from the australian mainland.200616837702
development of lymphatic filarial parasite wuchereria bancrofti (spirurida: onchocercidae) in mosquito species (diptera: culicidae) fed artificially on microfilaremic blood.the efficiency of laboratory colonies of mosquitoes such as anopheles stephensi liston, aedes aegypti (l.) liverpool strain, ae. aegypti wild type, aedes albopictus (skuse), culex tritaeniorhynchus giles, culex sitiens wiedemann, and armigeres subalbatus coquillett in supporting the development of wuchereria bancrofti (cobbold) (spirurida: onchocercidae) microfilariae to infective larvae was investigated. the mosquitoes were fed on heparinized microfilaremic human blood by using a membrane-feedi ...200617162957
insecticide susceptibility of mosquitoes invading tsunami-affected areas of order to control the mosquitoes invading tsunami-affected areas of thailand, the insecticide susceptibility status of field larvae and mosquitoes (anopheles sundaicus and culex sitiens) was tested under laboratory conditions. larval bioassay tests were conducted using the who standard method. three larvicides: temephos, malathion, and plant extract (ethanolic extract of the southeast asian long pepper. piper retrofractum vahl), were used in the experiments. the results revealed that cx. sitie ...200617547065
a curious coincidence: mosquito biodiversity and the limits of the japanese encephalitis virus in australasia.the mosquito culex annulirostris skuse (diptera: culicidae) is the major vector of endemic arboviruses in australia and is also responsible for the establishment of the japanese encephalitis virus (jev) in southern papua new guinea (png) as well as its incursions into northern australia. papua new guinea and mainland australia are separated by a small stretch of water, the torres strait, and its islands. while there has been regular jev activity on these islands, jev has not established on mainl ...200717598922
ecology of invasive mosquitoes: effects on resident species and on human health.investigations of biological invasions focus on patterns and processes that are related to introduction, establishment, spread and impacts of introduced species. this review focuses on the ecological interactions operating during invasions by the most prominent group of insect vectors of disease, mosquitoes. first, we review characteristics of non-native mosquito species that have established viable populations, and those invasive species that have spread widely and had major impacts, testing wh ...200517637849
domestic pigs and japanese encephalitis virus infection, determine whether relocating domestic pigs, the amplifying host of japanese encephalitis virus (jev), decreased the risk for jev transmission to humans in northern australia, we collected mosquitoes for virus detection. detection of jev in mosquitoes after pig relocation indicates that pig relocation did not eliminate jev risk.200818976557
blood feeding patterns of mosquitoes: random or structured?abstract:201020205866
possible impact of rising sea levels on vector-borne infectious diseases.vector-borne infectious diseases are a significant cause of human and animal mortality and morbidity. modeling studies predict that changes in climate that accompany global warming will alter the transmission risk of many vector-borne infectious diseases in different parts of the world. global warming will also raise sea levels, which will lead to an increase in saline and brackish water bodies in coastal areas. the potential impact of rising sea levels, as opposed to climate change, on the prev ...201121241521
haemoproteus iwa in great frigatebirds (fregata minor) in the islands of the western indian ocean.blood parasites of the sub-genus haemoproteus have been reported in seabirds, in particular in species in the suliformes order. these parasites are transmitted by hippoboscid flies of the genus olfersia; strong specificity has been suggested between the vector and its vertebrate host. we investigated the prevalence of haemoproteus infection in suliformes and hippoboscid flies in two oceanic islands of the western indian ocean: europa and tromelin. in total, 209 blood samples were collected from ...201424810172
mosquito communities and disease risk influenced by land use change and seasonality in the australian tropics.anthropogenic land use changes have contributed considerably to the rise of emerging and re-emerging mosquito-borne diseases. these diseases appear to be increasing as a result of the novel juxtapositions of habitats and species that can result in new interchanges of vectors, diseases and hosts. we studied whether the mosquito community structure varied between habitats and seasons and whether known disease vectors displayed habitat preferences in tropical australia.201627388293
development and field evaluation of the sentinel mosquito arbovirus capture kit (smack).although sentinel animals are used successfully throughout the world to monitor arbovirus activity, ethical considerations and cross-reactions in serological assays highlight the importance of developing viable alternatives. here we outline the development of a passive sentinel mosquito arbovirus capture kit (smack) that allows for the detection of arboviruses on honey-baited nucleic acid preservation cards (flinders technology associates; fta®) and has a similar trap efficacy as standard light ...201526444264
enhanced arbovirus surveillance with deep sequencing: identification of novel rhabdoviruses and bunyaviruses in australian mosquitoes.viral metagenomics characterizes known and identifies unknown viruses based on sequence similarities to any previously sequenced viral genomes. a metagenomics approach was used to identify virus sequences in australian mosquitoes causing cytopathic effects in inoculated mammalian cell cultures. sequence comparisons revealed strains of liao ning virus (reovirus, seadornavirus), previously detected only in china, livestock-infecting stretch lagoon virus (reovirus, orbivirus), two novel dimarhabdov ...201324314645
mosquito consumption by insectivorous bats: does size matter?insectivorous bats have often been touted as biological control for mosquito populations. however, mosquitoes generally represent only a small proportion of bat diet. given the small size of mosquitoes, restrictions imposed on prey detectability by low frequency echolocation, and variable field metabolic rates (fmr), mosquitoes may not be available to or profitable for all bats. this study investigated whether consumption of mosquitoes was influenced by bat size, which is negatively correlated w ...201324130851
foraging ranges of insectivorous bats shift relative to changes in mosquito abundance.the need to develop effective management strategies for insectivorous bat populations requires an understanding of factors influencing habitat use. availability of pest prey, such as mosquitoes is likely to be one such factor. to assess whether this is the case, we radio-tracked vespadelus vulturnus thomas (little forest bat), a predator of aedes vigilax skuse (saltmarsh mosquito), in saltmarsh and adjacent coastal swamp forest during periods of high and low ae. vigilax abundance. when mosquito ...201323667699
evolution of mosquito-based arbovirus surveillance systems in australia.control of arboviral disease is dependent on the sensitive and timely detection of elevated virus activity or the identification of emergent or exotic viruses. the emergence of japanese encephalitis virus (jev) in northern australia revealed numerous problems with performing arbovirus surveillance in remote locations. a sentinel pig programme detected jev activity, although there were a number of financial, logistical, diagnostic and ethical limitations. a system was developed which detected vir ...201222505808
oviposition and larval habitat preferences of the saltwater mosquito, aedes vigilax, in a subtropical mangrove forest in queensland, australia.our aim was to investigate the oviposition and larval habitats of the saltwater mosquito aedes vigilax (skuse) (diptera: culicidae) in a mangrove forest system in subtropical queensland, australia. eggshells (indicators of oviposition) and larvae were sampled in three habitat classes that were depicted in a schematic model. two classes were in depressions or basins, either with hummocks or dense pneumatophore substrates, both of which retained water after tidal flooding. the third class was in f ...022938052
global climate change and its potential impact on disease transmission by salinity-tolerant mosquito vectors in coastal climate change can potentially increase the transmission of mosquito vector-borne diseases such as malaria, lymphatic filariasis, and dengue in many parts of the world. these predictions are based on the effects of changing temperature, rainfall, and humidity on mosquito breeding and survival, the more rapid development of ingested pathogens in mosquitoes and the more frequent blood feeds at moderately higher ambient temperatures. an expansion of saline and brackish water bodies (water wi ...201222723781
scoping review of the zika virus literature.the global primary literature on zika virus (zikv) (n = 233 studies and reports, up to march 1, 2016) has been compiled using a scoping review methodology to systematically identify and characterise the literature underpinning this broad topic using methods that are documented, updateable and reproducible. our results indicate that more than half the primary literature on zikv has been published since 2011. the articles mainly covered three topic categories: epidemiology of zikv (surveillance an ...201627244249
vector databank in the indian armed forces.medical intelligence of disease vectors deals with understanding vector distribution and control.201127408077
salinity-tolerant larvae of mosquito vectors in the tropical coast of jaffna, sri lanka and the effect of salinity on the toxicity of bacillus thuringiensis to aedes aegypti larvae.dengue, chikungunya, malaria, filariasis and japanese encephalitis are common mosquito-borne diseases endemic to sri lanka. aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus, the major vectors of dengue, were recently shown to undergo pre-imaginal development in brackish water bodies in the island. a limited survey of selected coastal localities of the jaffna district in northern sri lanka was carried out to identify mosquito species undergoing pre-imaginal development in brackish and saline waters. the effect ...201223174003
biology of culex sitiens, a predominant mosquito in phang nga, thailand after a tsunami.a tsunami affected area in phang nga province, thailand was explored randomly as some freshwater sites had changed into brackish-water sites. a survey of four areas found culex sitiens to be the most dominant mosquito species.this mosquito prefers to breed in putrefied water with garbage and it was found in almost every stagnant, brackish-water site in full sunlight. the larval density was more than 300 larvae/dip/250 ml water. its biting cycle, determined by human landing catch, was nocturnal, ...022950682
passive prophylaxis with permethrin-treated tents reduces mosquito bites among north american summer campers.over 2 million adolescents participate in summer-camp experiences, placing themselves at risk for mosquito-borne illness. insect repellent is recommended but often not used. it is unknown whether permethrin treatment of a location, such as a campsite, provides passive prophylaxis reducing mosquito bites among all persons in the immediate vicinity.015813141
characterization of viral communities of biting midges and identification of novel thogotovirus species and rhabdovirus genus.more than two thirds of emerging viruses are of zoonotic origin, and among them rna viruses represent the majority. ceratopogonidae (genus culicoides) are well-known vectors of several viruses responsible for epizooties (bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, etc.). they are also vectors of the only known virus infecting humans: the oropouche virus. female midges usually feed on a variety of hosts, leading to possible transmission of emerging viruses from animals to humans. in this context, ...201626978389
aedes hensilli as a potential vector of chikungunya and zika epidemic of zika virus (zikv) illness that occurred in july 2007 on yap island in the federated states of micronesia prompted entomological studies to identify both the primary vector(s) involved in transmission and the ecological parameters contributing to the outbreak. larval and pupal surveys were performed to identify the major containers serving as oviposition habitat for the likely vector(s). adult mosquitoes were also collected by backpack aspiration, light trap, and gravid traps at se ...201425299181
lead levels of culex mosquito larvae inhabiting lead utilizing determine lead level primarily in culex quinquefasciatus (cx. quinquefasciatus), and culex gelidus (cx. gelidus) larvae inhabiting lead consuming factories, and to putatively estimate eco-toxicological impact of effluents from the firms.023569727
colonisation and mass rearing: learning from others.mosquitoes, just as other insects produced for the sterile insect technique (sit), are subjected to several unnatural processes including laboratory colonisation and large-scale factory production. after these processes, sterile male mosquitoes must perform the natural task of locating and mating with wild females. therefore, the colonisation and production processes must preserve characters necessary for these functions. fortunately, in contrast to natural selection which favours a suite of cha ...200919917074
techniques to improve the maintenance of a laboratory colony of nyssomyia neivai (diptera: psychodidae).the most critical phase in sand fly colonization is the high mortality in the larval instars. in this study, we sought out strategies for improving the colonization of nyssomyia neivai, one of the vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis agent in south america.201526276040
application of broad-spectrum resequencing microarray for genotyping rhabdoviruses.the rapid and accurate identification of pathogens is critical in the control of infectious disease. to this end, we analyzed the capacity for viral detection and identification of a newly described high-density resequencing microarray (rma), termed pathogenid, which was designed for multiple pathogen detection using database similarity searching. we focused on one of the largest and most diverse viral families described to date, the family rhabdoviridae. we demonstrate that this approach has th ...201020610710
anncaliia algerae microsporidial myositis.the insect microsporidian anncaliia algerae was first described in 2004 as a cause of fatal myositis in an immunosuppressed person from pennsylvania, usa. two cases were subsequently reported, and we detail 2 additional cases, including the only nonfatal case. we reviewed all 5 case histories with respect to clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and management and summarized organism life cycle and epidemiology. before infection, all case-patients were using immunosuppressive medications for rheu ...024447398
spatial and temporal patterns of dengue transmission along a red sea coastline: a longitudinal entomological and serological survey in port sudan city.dengue is an emerging health problem in several coastlines along the red sea. the objective of the present work is to elucidate spatial and temporal patterns of dengue transmission in port sudan.201223029582
amblyospora indicola sp. n., a microsporidian pathogen of the mosquito culex sitiens.a new microsporidian species amblyospora indicola sp. n., parasite of fat body cells of culex sitiens larvae, is described. separation of diplokaryon nuclei occurs during the early sporulation phase of this microsporidian followed by the appearance of synaptonemal complexes in the nuclei suggesting that the first sporogonial division is meiotic.19846434379
curcuma raktakanda is a potential larvicide for mosquito control.the leaves and tuber of curcuma raktakanda were investigated as a mosquito larvicide against the early fourth instar larvae of four mosquito species, viz., culex quinquefasciatus , culex sitiens , aedes aegypti and anopheles stephensi . the petroleum ether extract of the leaves and tuber exhibited toxicity towards all the test species. the lc 90 values of leaf extract for cx. quinquefasciatus , cx. sitiens , ae. aegypti and an. stephensi were 46.77, 27.45, 58.75 and 45.81 mg/l,respectively. the ...200021214456
[first record of aedes albopictus, vector of arboviruses in the eparse islands of the mozambique channel and updating of the inventory of culicidae].this is the first description of ae. albopictus in grande glorieuse and juan de nova, which are two isolated french islands of the mozambique channel. the recent introduction of this species is underlined by its absence in the inventories realised between 2000 and 2003. the last severe arbovirus epidemic of chikungunya (2005-2006), vectored by ae. albopictus, which occurred in the area of the indian ocean emphasized the epidemiological role of this vector. so that, notifying its presence might h ...200919739418
mosquitoes (diptera:culicidae) breeding in brackish water: female ovipositional preferences or larval survival?four species of mosquitoes were abundant in concrete reservoir tanks containing brackish water that ranged from 16 to 39% sea water. the ability of the larvae to survive in various salinities was compared for each species with the ovipositional preferences of the adult females to determine whether the 2 traits were correlated. southern house mosquito, culex quinquefasciatus say, normally was not present in the tanks but survived well in salinities up to 25% sea water. however, gravid females alm ...19968699444
field comparison of cyclopentanone versus carbon dioxide as an attractant for adult mosquitoes in southeast queensland, australia.cyclopentanone is a saturated monoketone typically used as an intermediate in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, biologicals, insecticides, and rubber chemicals. recently, it has been demonstrated that cyclopentanone activates the cpa co2 receptor neuron on the maxillary palp of mosquitoes, suggesting that it may be a viable alternative to co2 as an attractant for mosquitoes. furthermore, semifield experiments showed that traps baited with cyclopentanone attract culex quinquefasciatus say at a ...201526334825
differential responses of aedes and culex mosquitoes to octenol or light in combination with carbon dioxide in queensland, australia.field studies were conducted with evs (encephalitis vector surveillance) traps in south-eastern queensland, australia, to determine the relative response rates of mosquitoes to three levels (0.1, 4.5 and 30 mg/h) of 1-octen-3-ol (octenol) in combination with a standard bait of 2200 g carbon dioxide (co2), compared with co2 alone or co2 with light from a 6v incandescent bulb. compared to co2 alone, aedes vigilax collections increased significantly when co2 was supplemented by all three octenol em ...19948161847
response of mosquitoes to carbon dioxide and 1-octen-3-ol in southeast queensland, australia.encephalitis vector surveillance (evs) traps were used to study the attractant effect of co2 and 1-octen-3-ol (octenol) on mosquitoes at 2 different locations in southeast queensland. octenol alone was only slightly attractive for aedes vigilax. there was a significant increase in the numbers of ae. vigilax and aedes funereus caught when octenol was added to co2, although catches of culex annulirostris and culex sitiens did not change significantly. the size and age compositions of ae. vigilax a ...19938126478
overcrowding of culex sitiens (diptera: culicidae) larvae: population regulation by chemical factors or mechanical interference.crowding of culex sitiens wiedemann larvae was investigated to determine whether pupation was delayed by the presence of chemical factors in the water or by mechanical interference. as the larval density increased from 0.05 to 1.0 larvae per milliliter of water, the duration of larval development increased from 7.5 to 23.0 d and larvae mortality increased from 1.7 to 99.6%. at high larval densities (2 larvae per milliliter), the larvae did not pupate, but remained alive as 4th instars for at lea ...19989775589
light and electron microscope studies on three new species of microsporidia from saltmarsh mosquitoes in australia.descriptions are given of three microsporidians found parasitising larvae of culicine mosquitoes in south-east queensland, australia. two, duboscqia aediphaga n.sp. and microsporidium lotaensis n.sp. were recovered from larvae of aedes (ochlerotatus) vigilax (skuse), and a third, amblyospora pinensis n.sp., from culex sitiens wiedemann. the three species were studied by light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. we believe this to be the first detailed account of the ult ...198823195211
laboratory studies on the biology of culex sitiens wiedemann, 1828. 19817287091
sybr green-based one step quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of zika virus in field-caught mosquitoes.the monitoring of vectors is one of the key surveillance measures to assess the risk of arbovirus transmission and the success of control strategies in endemic regions. the recent re-emergence of zika virus (zikv) in the tropics, including singapore, emphasizes the need to develop cost-effective, rapid and accurate assays to monitor the virus spread by mosquitoes. as zikv infections largely remain asymptomatic, early detection of zikv in the field-caught mosquitoes enables timely implementation ...201728927458
day biting habits of mosquitoes associated with mangrove forests in kedah, malaysia.due to conservation and rehabilitation efforts, mangrove forests represent some of the largest environmental niches in malaysia. however, there is little information on the potential risks posed by mosquitoes that are directly and indirectly associated with mangrove forests. to study the potential health risk to humans active within and in close vicinity of mangrove forests, this research focused on the day biting habits of mosquitoes in mangrove forests of kedah, malaysia. the bare leg catch (b ...201830274473
gender beyond male and female: occurrence of a gynandromorph in the japanese encephalitis vector culex sitiens (diptera: culicidae).a gynandromorph of culex sitiens wiedemann (diptera: culicidae) was attracted to a human during a mosquito surveillance programme conducted in kuala lipis, pahang, malaysia on july 20, 2019. gynandromorphism was observed in antennae, maxillary palps, legs and wings of the specimen, with distinct male characters on the left and female characters on the right, though the left maxillary palp is slightly shorter than the proboscis of a typical male. the abdomen, however, displays well-developed male ...202031586449
the recently identified flavivirus bamaga virus is transmitted horizontally by culex mosquitoes and interferes with west nile virus replication in vitro and transmission in vivo.arthropod-borne flaviviruses such as yellow fever (yfv), zika and dengue viruses continue to cause significant human disease globally. these viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes when a female imbibes an infected blood-meal from a viremic vertebrate host and expectorates the virus into a subsequent host. bamaga virus (bgv) is a flavivirus recently discovered in culex sitiens subgroup mosquitoes collected from cape york peninsula, australia. this virus phylogenetically clusters with the yfv group ...201830356234
effectiveness of landmark- and semi-landmark-based geometric morphometric to identify four species of culex mosquitoes in thailand.this research aims to study the effectiveness of landmark- and semi-landmark-based geometric morphometric (lmsl) in the identification of four culex vectors, namely, c. quinquefasciatus, c. visnui, c. sitiens, and c. whitmorei in thailand and also compared the potential between lmsl and the landmark-based geometric morphometric method (lm).201931583223
annual variability of wing morphology in culex sitiens wiedemann (diptera, culicidae) mosquito vectors from the coastal area of samut songkhram province, thailand.culex sitiens wiedemann (diptera, culicidae) is a mosquito vector that is found in coastal areas. effective control of mosquitoes requires knowledge of the biology, ecology, and behavior of the vector as well as of various other aspects, including its morphology. currently, variations in the wing size and shape of coastal cx. sitiens have not been described. here, morphological changes were studied in the wings of cx. sitiens from a coastal area of samut songkhram province, thailand. samples wer ...201930941205
diversity, distribution, abundance, and feeding pattern of tropical ornithophilic mosquitoes.bird-biting mosquitoes act as bridge vectors of diverse pathogens of emerging infectious diseases. in this study, we report for the first time the abundance, diversity, distribution, and feeding pattern of bird-biting mosquitoes on an island where avifaunal diversity is rich. monthly mosquito collections were done at six different habitats in three different climatic zones using bird-baited traps over a year. collected mosquitoes were identified using morphological and molecular tools. a total o ...201829757505
Displaying items 1 - 79 of 79