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change in composition of the anopheles gambiae complex and its possible implications for the transmission of malaria and lymphatic filariasis in north-eastern tanzania.a dramatic decline in the incidence of malaria due to plasmodium falciparum infection in coastal east africa has recently been reported to be paralleled (or even preceded) by an equally dramatic decline in malaria vector density, despite absence of organized vector control. as part of investigations into possible causes for the change in vector population density, the present study analysed the anopheles gambiae s.l. sibling species composition in north-eastern tanzania.201222681999
implications of low-density microfilariae carriers in anopheles transmission areas: molecular forms of anopheles gambiae and anopheles funestus populations in perspective.previous studies have shown a general reduction in annual transmission potential (atp) of anopheles species after mass drug administration (mda) in lymphatic filariasis endemic communities. whereas results obtained from a monitoring programme after three years of mda revealed a decrease in atp of anopheles funestus this was not the same for an. gambiae s.s. in ghana. in this study, the ability of these vectors in transmitting wuchereria bancrofti in nine lymphatic filariasis endemic communities ...201424690378
increasing role of anopheles funestus and anopheles arabiensis in malaria transmission in the kilombero valley, tanzania.in order to sustain the gains achieved by current malaria control strategies, robust surveillance systems that monitor dynamics of vectors and their roles in malaria transmission over time are essential. this longitudinal study demonstrates the trends in malaria vector dynamics and their relative contribution to malaria transmission in hyperendemic transmission settings in tanzania.201425150840
the impact of livestock on the abundance, resting behaviour and sporozoite rate of malaria vectors in southern tanzania.increases in the coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets (llins) have significantly reduced the abundance of anopheles gambiae sensu stricto in several african settings, leaving its more zoophagic sibling species anopheles arabiensis as the primary vector. this study investigated the impact of livestock ownership at the household level on the ecology and malaria infection rate of vectors in an area of tanzania where an. arabiensis accounts for most malaria transmission.201525604150
underestimation of foraging behaviour by standard field methods in malaria vector mosquitoes in southern africa.defining the anopheline mosquito vectors and their foraging behaviour in malaria endemic areas is crucial for disease control and surveillance. the standard protocol for molecular identification of host blood meals in mosquitoes is to morphologically identify fed mosquitoes and then perform polymerase chain reaction (pcr), precipitin tests, or elisa assays. the purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the feeding rate and human blood indices (hbis) of malaria vectors were under ...201525927429
sibling species of the anopheles funestus group, and their infection with malaria and lymphatic filarial parasites, in archived and newly collected specimens from northeastern tanzania.studies on the east african coast have shown a recent dramatic decline in malaria vector density and change in composition of sibling species of the anopheles gambiae complex, paralleled by a major decline in malaria incidence. in order to better understand the ongoing changes in vector-parasite dynamics in the area, and to allow for appropriate adjustment of control activities, the present study examined the composition, and malaria and lymphatic filarial infection, of sibling species of the an ...201525885457
specific antibodies to anopheles gsg6-p1 salivary peptide to assess early childhood exposure to malaria vector bites.the estimates of risk of malaria in early childhood are imprecise given the current entomologic and parasitological tools. thus, the utility of anti-anopheles salivary gsg6-p1 peptide antibody responses in measuring exposure to anopheles bites during early infancy has been assessed.201526198354
a review of new challenges and prospects for malaria elimination in mutare and mutasa districts, zimbabwe.this review outlines and discusses the new challenges in malaria control and prospects for its elimination in mutare and mutasa districts, zimbabwe. the burden of malaria has declined significantly over the past 5 years in most regions in zimbabwe, including mutare and mutasa districts. the nationwide malaria reduction has been primarily linked to scaled-up vector control interventions and early diagnosis and treatment with effective anti-malarial medicines. the successes recorded have prompted ...201627411705
a cohort study of the effectiveness of insecticide-treated bed nets to prevent malaria in an area of moderate pyrethroid resistance, malawi.insecticide-treated bed nets (itns) are the cornerstone of malaria control in sub-saharan africa but their effectiveness may be compromised by the spread of pyrethroid resistance among malaria vectors. the objective of this investigation was to assess the effectiveness of itns to prevent malaria in an area of malawi with moderate pyrethroid resistance.201525627987
news from africa: novel anopheline species transmit plasmodium in western kenya. 201626787151
role of anopheles (cellia) rufipes (gough, 1910) and other local anophelines in human malaria transmission in the northern savannah of cameroon: a cross-sectional survey.as part of a study to determine the impact of insecticide resistance on the effectiveness of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (llins) in the north of cameroon, the unexpectedly high density and anthropophilic behaviour of anopheles rufipes lead us to investigate this species bionomics and role in human malaria parasite transmission.201728077167
a cost-effective, community-based, mosquito-trapping scheme that captures spatial and temporal heterogeneities of malaria transmission in rural zambia.monitoring mosquito population dynamics is essential to guide selection and evaluation of malaria vector control interventions but is typically implemented by mobile, centrally-managed teams who can only visit a limited number of locations frequently enough to capture longitudinal trends. community-based (cb) mosquito trapping schemes for parallel, continuous monitoring of multiple locations are therefore required that are practical, affordable, effective, and reliable.201424906704
simultaneous identification of the anopheles funestus group and anopheles longipalpis type c by pcr-rflp.anopheles longipalpis is morphologically similar to the major african malaria vector anopheles funestus at the adult stage although it is very different at the larval stage. despite the development of the species-specific multiplex pcr assay for the an. funestus group, the genomic dna of anopheles longipalpis type c specimens can be amplified with the anopheles vaneedeni and anopheles parensis primers from this assay. the standard, species-specific an. funestus group pcr, results in the amplific ...201021054905
preliminary survey on anopheles species distribution in botswana shows the presence of anopheles gambiae and anopheles funestus complexes.botswana is one of the four front line malaria elimination countries in southern africa, with malaria control activities that include routine vector control. past and recent studies have shown that anopheles arabiensis is the only known vector of plasmodium parasites in the country. this report presents a preliminary evaluation on anopheles species composition in seven districts of botswana with some inferences on their vectorial role.201728270213
major variations in malaria exposure of travellers in rural areas: an entomological cohort study in western côte d'ivoire.malaria remains a major threat, to both travellers and military personnel deployed to endemic areas. the recommendations for travellers given by the world health organization is based on the incidence of malaria in an area and do not take the degree of exposure into account. the aim of this article is to evaluate the exposure of travellers by entomologic methods, which are the commonly used measures of the intensity of malaria transmission.200919638219
spatial distribution, blood feeding pattern, and role of anopheles funestus complex in malaria transmission in central kenya.studies were conducted to determine the role of sibling species of anopheles funestus complex in malaria transmission in three agro-ecosystems in central kenya. mosquitoes were sampled indoors and outdoors, and rdna pcr was successfully used to identify 340 specimens. anopheles parensis (91.8%), a. funestus (6.8%), and anopheles leesoni (1.5%) were the three sibling species identified. a. parensis was the dominant species at all study sites, while 22 of 23 a. funestus were collected in the non-i ...200919557433
the vector population monitoring tool (vpmt): high-throughput dna-based diagnostics for the monitoring of mosquito vector populations.regular monitoring of mosquito vector populations is an integral component of most vector control programmes. contemporary data on mosquito species composition, infection status, and resistance to insecticides are a prerequisite for effective intervention. for this purpose we, with funding from the innovative vector control consortium (ivcc), have developed a suite of high-throughput assays based on a single "closed-tube" platform that collectively comprise the "vector population monitoring tool ...201022347668
development of multiplex real-time pcr assays for identification of members of the anopheles funestus species group.the malaria vector and non-vector species of the anopheles funestus group are morphologically very similar and accurate identification is required as part of effective control strategies. in the past, this has relied on morphological and cytogenetic methods but these have been largely superseded by a robust allele-specific pcr (as-pcr). one disadvantage of as-pcr is the requirement for post-pcr processing by gel electrophoresis of pcr products. in this study, three new high-throughput 'closed-tu ...200920003184
anopheles parensis: the main member of the anopheles funestus species group found resting inside human dwellings in mwea area of central kenya toward the end of the rainy season.a total of 460 anopheles funestus s.l. was collected inside human dwellings in mwea, central kenya. of the 414 specimens that were positively identified, 1 was anopheles leesoni and the others were anopheles parensis. none of the 373 specimens tested were positive for plasmodium falciparum or plasmodium malariae sporozoites by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). of the 139 elisa blood-meal-positive specimens, 82.01% and 1.44% had fed on cattle and humans, respectively. these results are d ...200312825663
a cocktail polymerase chain reaction assay to identify members of the anopheles funestus (diptera: culicidae) group.anopheles funestus giles is a major malaria vector in africa belonging to a group of species with morphologically similar characteristics. morphological identification of members of the a. funestus group is difficult because of overlap of distinguishing characteristics in adult or immature stages as well as the necessity to rear isofemale lines to examine larval and egg characters. a rapid rdna polymerase chain reaction (pcr) method has been developed to accurately identify five members of the a ...200212224596
transmission indices and microfilariae prevalence in human population prior to mass drug administration with ivermectin and albendazole in the gomoa district of ghana.the lymphatic filariasis elimination programme in ghana involves annual mass drug administration (mda) of ivermectin and albendazole to persons living in endemic areas. this is repeated annually for 4-6 years to span across the reproductive lifespan of adult worms. in order to stimulate participation of community members in the mda programme, this study was carried out to understand local views on transmission, management and prevention of the disease. the study also presents baseline transmissi ...201526503363
habitat suitability and ecological niche profile of major malaria vectors in cameroon.suitability of environmental conditions determines a species distribution in space and time. understanding and modelling the ecological niche of mosquito disease vectors can, therefore, be a powerful predictor of the risk of exposure to the pathogens they transmit. in africa, five anophelines are responsible for over 95% of total malaria transmission. however, detailed knowledge of the geographic distribution and ecological requirements of these species is to date still inadequate.200920028559
malaria vectors in lake victoria and adjacent habitats in western kenya.the prevalence of malaria among the residents of the lake victoria basin remains high. the environment associated with the lake may maintain a high number of malaria vectors. lake habitats including water hyacinths have been suspected to be the source of vectors. this study investigated whether malaria vectors breed in the lake habitats and adjacent backwater pools. anopheline larvae were collected within the littoral zone of the lake and adjacent pools located along approximately 24.3 km of the ...201222412913
variations in entomological indices in relation to weather patterns and malaria incidence in east african highlands: implications for epidemic prevention and control.malaria epidemics remain a significant public health issue in the east african highlands. the aim of this study was to monitor temporal variations in vector densities in relation to changes in meteorological factors and malaria incidence at four highland sites in kenya and uganda and to evaluate the implications of these relationships for epidemic prediction and control.200818983649
role of species composition in malaria transmission by the anopheles funestus group (diptera: culicidae) in ghana.malaria remains a public health problem in ghana, with anopheles gambiae and anopheles funestus as the predominant vectors. while much information exists on the species composition of an. gambiae, very little exists for an. funestus. this study was carried out to determine the species composition of an. funestus giles populations from three ecological areas in ghana and investigate their role in malaria transmission. mosquitoes were collected using human landing and pyrethrum spray methods. a to ...201323701614
indoor collections of the anopheles funestus group (diptera: culicidae) in sprayed houses in northern kwazulu-natal, south africa.insecticide resistance in malaria vector mosquitoes presents a serious problem for those involved in control of this disease. south africa experienced a severe malaria epidemic during 1999/2000 due to pyrethroid resistance in the major vector anopheles funestus. subsequent monitoring and surveillance of mosquito populations were conducted as part of the malaria vector control programme.200717359529
indoor and outdoor malaria vector surveillance in western kenya: implications for better understanding of residual transmission.the widespread use of indoor-based malaria vector control interventions has been shown to alter the behaviour of vectors in africa. there is an increasing concern that such changes could sustain residual transmission. this study was conducted to assess vector species composition, feeding behaviour and their contribution to indoor and outdoor malaria transmission in western kenya.201729110670
insights into malaria transmission among anopheles funestus mosquitoes, kenya.most malaria vectors belong to species complexes. sibling species often exhibit divergent behaviors dictating the measures that can be deployed effectively in their control. despite the importance of the anopheles funestus complex in malaria transmission in sub-saharan africa, sibling species have rarely been identified in the past and their vectoring potential remains understudied.201830400976
detection of anopheles rivulorum-like, a member of the anopheles funestus group, in south africa.the anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) and anopheles funestus s.l. species complexes contain the most important malaria vectors in africa. within the an. funestus group of at least 11 african species, the vector status of all but the nominal species an. funestus appears poorly investigated, although evidence exists that anopheles rivulorum and anopheles vaneedeni may play minor roles. a new species, an. rivulorum-like, was described from burkina faso in 2000 and subsequently also found in camer ...201829764433
morphological assessment and molecular phylogenetics of the funestus and minimus groups of anopheles (cellia).a morphological comparison and molecular study of the afrotropical funestus and afro-oriental minimus groups within the myzomyia series of anopheles (cellia) was conducted to determine their phylogenetic affinities. relationships were investigated using morphological characters and ribosomal (d3) and mitochondrial (coii) nucleotide sequences. cross-identification of specimens from one group by using keys for the other group confirmed their morphological similarity, i.e., members of one group sha ...200516119539
anopheles parensis contributes to residual malaria transmission in south africa.understanding the contribution of outdoor-resting anopheles mosquitoes to residual malaria transmission is important in terms of scaling up vector control towards malaria elimination in south africa. the aim of this project was to assess the potential role of anopheles parensis and other anopheles species in residual malaria transmission, using sentinel surveillance sites in the umkhanyakude district of northern kwazulu-natal province.201931358015
dramatic decreases of malaria transmission intensities in ifakara, south-eastern tanzania since early 2000s.ongoing epidemiological transitions across africa are particularly evident in fast-growing towns, such as ifakara in the kilombero valley, south-eastern tanzania. this town and its environs (population ~ 70,000) historically experienced moderate to high malaria transmission, mediated mostly by anopheles gambiae and anopheles funestus. in early 2000s, malaria transmission [plasmodium falciparum entomological inoculation rate (pfeir)] was estimated at ~ 30 infectious bites/person/year (ib/p/yr). t ...201830326881
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