Publications

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[comparison of growth functions as exemplified by the southern smooth whale eubalaena australis].6 year's observations of the southern right whale in the san josé golf off argentina by an american research team have yielded graphical growth curves. as the values are in good agreement with older results from 1908 to 1969 mathematical approximations are performed giving interesting results and allowing for a better insight into the properties of the growth functions applied. the different course of 3 functions as gained by nonlinear regressions is demonstrated by a graph. the results for 9 gr ...19846721191
dorsal skin color patterns among southern right whales (eubalaena australis): genetic basis and evolutionary significance.distribution and inheritance of dorsal skin color markings among two populations of southern right whales (eubalaena australis) suggest that two genes influence dorsal skin color. the grey-morph and partial-grey-morph phenotypes (previously known as partial albino and grey-blaze, respectively) appear to be controlled by an x-linked gene, whereas the white blaze appears controlled by an autosomal gene (recessive phenotype). calving intervals, calf size, and length of sighting history data suggest ...199910485135
population histories of right whales (cetacea: eubalaena) inferred from mitochondrial sequence diversities and divergences of their whale lice (amphipoda: cyamus).right whales carry large populations of three 'whale lice' (cyamus ovalis, cyamus gracilis, cyamus erraticus) that have no other hosts. we used sequence variation in the mitochondrial coi gene to ask (i) whether cyamid population structures might reveal associations among right whale individuals and subpopulations, (ii) whether the divergences of the three nominally conspecific cyamid species on north atlantic, north pacific, and southern right whales (eubalaena glacialis, eubalaena japonica, eu ...200516156814
diversity and duplication of dqb and drb-like genes of the mhc in baleen whales (suborder: mysticeti).the molecular diversity and phylogenetic relationships of two class ii genes of the baleen whale major histocompatibility complex were investigated and compared to toothed whales and out-groups. amplification of the dqb exon 2 provided sequences showing high within-species and between-species nucleotide diversity and uninterrupted reading frames consistent with functional class ii loci found in related mammals (e.g., ruminants). cloning of amplified products indicated gene duplication in the hum ...200616568262
yeast infection in a beached southern right whale (eubalaena australis) neonate.a female southern right whale (eubalaena australis) neonate was found stranded on the western cape coast of southern africa. skin samples were taken the same day from three different locations on the animal's body and stored at -20 c. isolation through repetitive culture of these skin sections yielded a single yeast species, candida zeylanoides. total genomic dna also was isolated directly from skin samples. polymerase chain reaction analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of the fung ...200919617479
isolation of a seawater tolerant leptospira spp. from a southern right whale (eubalaena australis).leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonotic disease in the world. it is caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus leptospira spp. and is maintained in nature through chronic renal infection of carrier animals. rodents and other small mammals are the main reservoirs. information on leptospirosis in marine mammals is scarce; however, cases of leptospirosis have been documented in pinniped populations from the pacific coast of north america from southern california to british columbia. we rep ...201526714322
post-mortem findings in southern right whales eubalaena australis at península valdés, argentina, 2003-2012.between 2003 and 2012, 605 southern right whales (srw; eubalaena australis) were found dead along the shores of península valdés (pv), argentina. these deaths included alarmingly high annual losses between 2007 and 2012, a peak number of deaths (116) in 2012, and a significant number of deaths across years in calves-of-the-year (544 of 605 [89.9%]; average = 60.4 yr(-1)). post-mortem examination and pathogen testing were performed on 212 whales; 208 (98.1%) were calves-of-the-year and 48.0% of t ...201627068500
erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae isolated from gull-inflicted wounds in southern right whale calves.southern right whales eubalaena australis from peninsula valdés, argentina, show wounds produced by kelp gulls larus dominicanus that feed on the whales' dorsal skin and blubber. during the 2013 whale season, several calves were reported showing kelp gull injuries with a swollen area surrounded by rhomboid-shaped raised edges. samples from 9 calves were taken in order to establish the etiology of these rhomboid-shaped wounds; 2 calves (one living, one dead) showed gull-inflicted injuries with rh ...201627596861
first direct evidence for natal wintering ground fidelity and estimate of juvenile survival in the new zealand southern right whale eubalaena australis.juvenile survival and recruitment can be more sensitive to environmental, ecological and anthropogenic factors than adult survival, influencing population-level processes like recruitment and growth rate in long-lived, iteroparous species such as southern right whales. conventionally, southern right whales are individually identified using callosity patterns, which do not stabilise until 6-12 months, by which time the whale has left its natal wintering grounds. here we use dna profiling of skin ...201626751689
cellular and ultrastructural characterization of the grey-morph phenotype in southern right whales (eubalaena australis).southern right whales (srws, eubalena australis) are polymorphic for an x-linked pigmentation pattern known as grey morphism. most srws have completely black skin with white patches on their bellies and occasionally on their backs; these patches remain white as the whale ages. grey morphs (previously referred to as partial albinos) appear mostly white at birth, with a splattering of rounded black marks; but as the whales age, the white skin gradually changes to a brownish grey color. the cellula ...201728170433
vocalizations produced by southern right whale (eubalaena australis) mother-calf pairs in a calving ground off brazil.aiming to gather information on southern right whale (eubalaena australis) mother-calf pairs' vocal behavior, archival acoustic recorders were deployed at a calving area off brazil. manual inspection of spectrograms revealed seven call classes: upcall, downcall, down-upcall, tonal variable, tonal constant, hybrid, and pulsive calls, which are consistent with those previously described for this species in argentina. gunshots and warbles, vocalizations described from other right whale species, wer ...201627914379
quantitative analysis of the acoustic repertoire of southern right whales in new zealand.quantitatively describing the acoustic repertoire of a species is important for establishing effective passive acoustic monitoring programs and developing automated call detectors. this process is particularly important when the study site is remote and visual surveys are not cost effective. little is known about the vocal behavior of southern right whales (eubalaena australis) in new zealand. the aim of this study was to describe and quantify their entire vocal repertoire on calving grounds in ...201627475156
southern right whale (eubalaena australis) reproductive success is influenced by krill (euphausia superba) density and climate.the reproductive success of southern right whale (eubalaena australis) depends on body condition and, therefore, on foraging success. this, in turn, might be affected by climatically driven change in the abundance of the species main prey, krill (euphausia superba), on the feeding grounds. annual data on southern right whale number of calves were obtained from aerial surveys carried out between 1997 and 2013 in southern brazil, where the species concentrate during their breeding season. the numb ...201627306583
humans, fish, and whales: how right whales modify calling behavior in response to shifting background noise conditions.this study investigates the role of behavioral plasticity in the variation of sound production of southern right whales (eubalaena australis) in response to changes in the ambient background noise conditions. data were collected from southern right whales in brazilian waters in october and november 2011. the goal of this study was to quantify differences in right whale vocalizations recorded in low background noise as a control, fish chorus noise, and vessel noise. variation in call parameters w ...201626611036
correction: increased wounding of southern right whale (eubalaena australis) calves by kelp gulls (larus dominicanus) at península valdés, argentina. 201526555432
increased wounding of southern right whale (eubalaena australis) calves by kelp gulls (larus dominicanus) at península valdés, argentina.at least 626 southern right whale (eubalaena australis) calves died at the península valdés calving ground, argentina, between 2003 and 2014. intense gull harassment may have contributed to these deaths. in the 1970s, kelp gulls (larus dominicanus) began feeding on skin and blubber pecked from the backs of living right whales at valdés. the frequency of gull attacks has increased dramatically over the last three decades and mother-calf pairs are the primary targets. pairs attacked by gulls spend ...201526488493
identification, molecular and phylogenetic analysis of poxvirus in skin lesions of southern right whale.poxvirus skin disease has been reported in several species of cetaceans, principally in odontocetes, and a single report in mysticetes. southern right whales eubalaena australis in peninsula valdes, argentina, show a variety of skin lesions of unknown etiology, and the number of these lesions has increased in recent years. samples from dead whales were taken in order to establish the etiology of these lesions. one calf and one adult presented ring-type lesions, characterized by a circumscribed a ...201526480919
organochlorine pesticides and pcbs in southern right whales (eubalaena australis) breeding at península valdés, argentina.organochlorine pesticides (ocps) and polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) were assessed in blubber from 35 dead southern right whales (srw - eubalaena australis) stranded at península valdés, argentina. the life cycle includes a feeding period in high productivity areas of the south west atlantic and a reproductive period in coastal template waters of argentina. organochlorine pesticides showed higher concentrations (22.6±13.8 ng·g(-1)ww) than pcbs (7.5±10 ng·g(-1)ww). among pesticides, hchs, ddts, ...201525813841
anatomy of nasal complex in the southern right whale, eubalaena australis (cetacea, mysticeti).the nasal region of the skull has undergone dramatic changes during the course of cetacean evolution. in particular, mysticetes (baleen whales) conserve the nasal mammalian pattern associated with the secondary function of olfaction, and lack the sound-producing specializations present in odontocetes (toothed whales, dolphins and porpoises). to improve our understanding of the morphology of the nasal region of mysticetes, we investigate the nasal anatomy, osteology and myology of the southern ri ...201525440939
maximum likelihood estimation for model mt,α for capture-recapture data with misidentification.we investigate model mt,α  for abundance estimation in closed-population capture-recapture studies, where animals are identified from natural marks such as dna profiles or photographs of distinctive individual features. model mt,α  extends the classical model mt  to accommodate errors in identification, by specifying that each sample identification is correct with probability α and false with probability 1-α. information about misidentification is gained from a surplus of capture histories with ...201424942186
stable isotopes indicate population structuring in the southwest atlantic population of right whales (eubalaena australis).from the early 17th century to the 1970s southern right whales, eubalaena australis, were subject to intense exploitation along the atlantic coast of south america. catches along this coast recorded by whalers originally formed a continuum from brazil to tierra del fuego. nevertheless, the recovery of the population has apparently occurred fragmentarily, and with two main areas of concentration, one off southern brazil (santa catarina) and another off central argentina (peninsula valdés). this p ...201424598539
accounting for female reproductive cycles in a superpopulation capture-recapture framework.superpopulation capture-recapture models are useful for estimating the abundance of long-lived, migratory species because they are able to account for the fluid nature of annual residency at migratory destinations. here we extend the superpopulation popan model to explicitly account for heterogeneity in capture probability linked to reproductive cycles (popan-tau). this extension has potential application to a range of species that have temporally variable life stages (e.g., non-annual breeders ...201324261048
severe soft tissue ossification in a southern right whale eubalaena australis.the carcass of a stranded southern right whale eubalaena australis, discovered on the coast of golfo nuevo in península valdés, argentina, exhibited extensive orthotopic and heterotopic ossification, osteochondroma-like lesions, and early degenerative joint disease. extensive soft tissue ossification led to ankylosis of the axial skeleton in a pattern that, in many respects, appeared more similar to a disabling human genetic disorder, fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (fop), than to more com ...201223269389
paternity assignment and demographic closure in the new zealand southern right whale.the identification and characterization of reproductively isolated subpopulations or 'stocks' are essential for effective conservation and management decisions. this can be difficult in vagile marine species like marine mammals. we used paternity assignment and 'gametic recapture' to examine the reproductive autonomy of southern right whales (eubalaena australis) on their new zealand (nz) calving grounds. we derived dna profiles for 34 mother-calf pairs from skin biopsy samples, using sex-specif ...201222726223
trace metal concentrations in southern right whale (eubalaena australis) at península valdés, argentina.the presence of essential (fe, mn, zn, cu, ni and al) and non-essential trace metals (cd and pb) was tested in liver (n=26) and kidney (n=42) from dead southern right whale (srw--eubalaena australis) calves found beached in península valdés, argentina. essential metals were detected in all samples, particularly in hepatic tissue; though ni and al were accumulated mainly in the kidney. cd and pb were not detected in any samples. sex and length of calves did not influence metal levels found, nor d ...201222465055
morphology of the eye of the southern right whales (eubalaena australis).recently, there has been a growing interest in the anatomy and optics of the visual system of cetaceans. however, much of the new information has been focused on odontocetes, and relatively little is known about the visual anatomy of baleen whales. the aim of this study was describe the eye anatomy of the southern right whale (eubalaena australis). eye samples were collected from 26 calves, four adults with known body length, as well as two specimens of unknown body length that had stranded near ...201222213599
isotopic and genetic evidence for culturally inherited site fidelity to feeding grounds in southern right whales (eubalaena australis).ocean warming will undoubtedly affect the migratory patterns of many marine species, but specific changes can be predicted only where behavioural mechanisms guiding migration are understood. southern right whales show maternally inherited site fidelity to near-shore winter nursery grounds, but exactly where they feed in summer (collectively and individually) remains mysterious. they consume huge quantities of copepods and krill, and their reproductive rates respond to fluctuations in krill abund ...200919207250
short- and long-term changes in right whale calling behavior: the potential effects of noise on acoustic communication.the impact of anthropogenic noise on marine mammals has been an area of increasing concern over the past two decades. most low-frequency anthropogenic noise in the ocean comes from commercial shipping which has contributed to an increase in ocean background noise over the past 150 years. the long-term impacts of these changes on marine mammals are not well understood. this paper describes both short- and long-term behavioral changes in calls produced by the endangered north atlantic right whale ...200718247780
how few whales were there after whaling? inference from contemporary mtdna diversity.reconstructing the history of exploited populations of whales requires fitting a trajectory through at least three points in time: (i) prior to exploitation, when abundance is assumed to be at the maximum allowed by environmental carrying capacity; (ii) the point of minimum abundance or 'bottleneck', usually near the time of protection or the abandonment of the hunt; and (iii) near the present, when protected populations are assumed to have undergone some recovery. as historical abundance is usu ...200817892467
structure of the integument of southern right whales, eubalaena australis.skin (integument) anatomy reflects adaptations to particular environments. it is hypothesized that cetacean (whale) integument will show unique anatomical adaptations to an aquatic environment, particularly regarding differences in temperature, density, and pressure. in this study, the gross and histological structure of the southern right whale integument is described and compared with terrestrial mammals and previous descriptions of mysticete (baleen whale) and odontocete (toothed whale) speci ...200717516424
mitochondrial dna diversity and population structure among southern right whales (eubalaena australis).the population structure and mitochondrial (mt) dna diversity of southern right whales (eubalaena australis) are described from 146 individuals sampled on 4 winter calving grounds (argentina, south africa, western australia, and the new zealand sub-antarctic) and 2 summer feeding grounds (south georgia and south of western australia). based on a consensus region of 275 base pairs of the mtdna control region, 37 variable sites defined 37 unique haplotypes, of which only one was shared between reg ...200817416933
global climate drives southern right whale (eubalaena australis) population dynamics.sea surface temperature (sst) time-series from the southwest atlantic and the el niño 4 region in the western pacific were compared to an index of annual calving success of the southern right whale (eubalaena australis) breeding in argentina. there was a strong relationship between right whale calving output and sst anomalies at south georgia in the autumn of the previous year and also with mean el niño 4 sst anomalies delayed by 6 years. these results extend similar observations from other kril ...200617148385
sound production by north atlantic right whales (eubalaena glacialis) in surface active groups.the surface active group (sag) is the most commonly observed surface social behavior of north atlantic right whales. recordings were made from 52 sags in the bay of fundy, canada between july and september, from 1999 to 2002. the call types recorded from these groups were similar to those described previously for southern right whales (eubalaena australis), with six major call types being termed scream, gunshot, blow, upcall, warble, and downcall. the percentage of total calls of each call type ...200515957796
epidermal ultrastructure of the southern right whale calf (eubalaena australis).an ultrastructural analysis by transmission and scanning electron microscopy was carried out on normal epidermis of six southern right whale (eubalaena australis) calves which stranded over a period of several months at peninsula valdes, argentina. this was undertaken to 1) provide the first normal skin ultrastructural data on this highly endangered species which is known to display skin pathology in some instances, and 2) to elucidate further the integumentary specializations which have develop ...19968964052
sound playback experiments with southern right whales (eubalaena australis).a variety of sound recordings were played to southern right whales. whales approached the loudspeaker and made frequent sounds in response to recordings of other southern right whales, but swam away and made relatively few sounds in response to playbacks of water noise, 200-hertz tones, and humpback whale sounds. thus it appears that southern right whales can differentiate between con-specific sounds and other sounds.198017749328
zygomycosis (phycomycosis) in a right whale (eubalaena australis). 1979528689
<i>cetopirus complanatus</i> (cirripedia: coronulidae) from the late middle pleistocene human settlement of pinnacle point 13b (mossel bay, south africa).the late middle pleistocene cave site of pinnacle point 13b (pp13b, south africa) has provided the archaeologically oldest evidences yet known of human consumption of marine resources. among the marine invertebrates recognised at pp13b, an isolated whale barnacle compartment was tentatively determined as coronula diadema and regarded as indirect evidence of human consumption of a baleen whale (likely megaptera novaeangliae). in this paper we redetermine this coronulid specimen as cetopirus compl ...201728264299
an integrated approach to historical population assessment of the great whales: case of the new zealand southern right whale.accurate estimation of historical abundance provides an essential baseline for judging the recovery of the great whales. this is particularly challenging for whales hunted prior to twentieth century modern whaling, as population-level catch records are often incomplete. assessments of whale recovery using pre-modern exploitation indices are therefore rare, despite the intensive, global nature of nineteenth century whaling. right whales (eubalaena spp.) were particularly exploited: slow swimmers ...201627069657
corrigendum: cultural traditions across a migratory network shape the genetic structure of southern right whales around australia and new zealand. 201626942663
cultural traditions across a migratory network shape the genetic structure of southern right whales around australia and new zealand.fidelity to migratory destinations is an important driver of connectivity in marine and avian species. here we assess the role of maternally directed learning of migratory habitats, or migratory culture, on the population structure of the endangered australian and new zealand southern right whale. using dna profiles, comprising mitochondrial dna (mtdna) haplotypes (500 bp), microsatellite genotypes (17 loci) and sex from 128 individually-identified whales, we find significant differentiation amo ...201526548756
correction: two intense decades of 19th century whaling precipitated rapid decline of right whales around new zealand and east australia.right whales (eubalaena spp.) were the focus of worldwide whaling activities from the 16th to the 20th century. during the first part of the 19th century, the southern right whale (e. australis) was heavily exploited on whaling grounds around new zealand (nz) and east australia (ea). here we build upon previous estimates of the total catch of nz and ea right whales by improving and combining estimates from four different fisheries. two fisheries have previously been considered: shore-based whali ...201424770341
two intense decades of 19th century whaling precipitated rapid decline of right whales around new zealand and east australia.right whales (eubalaena spp.) were the focus of worldwide whaling activities from the 16th to the 20th century. during the first part of the 19th century, the southern right whale (e. australis) was heavily exploited on whaling grounds around new zealand (nz) and east australia (ea). here we build upon previous estimates of the total catch of nz and ea right whales by improving and combining estimates from four different fisheries. two fisheries have previously been considered: shore-based whali ...201424690918
whales from space: counting southern right whales by satellite.we describe a method of identifying and counting whales using very high resolution satellite imagery through the example of southern right whales breeding in part of the golfo nuevo, península valdés in argentina. southern right whales have been extensively hunted over the last 300 years and although numbers have recovered from near extinction in the early 20(th) century, current populations are fragmented and are estimated at only a small fraction of pre-hunting total. recent extreme right whal ...201424533131
a model for energetics and bioaccumulation in marine mammals with applications to the right whale.we present a dynamic energy budget (deb) model for marine mammals, coupled with a pharmacokinetic model of a lipophilic persistent toxicant. inputs to the model are energy availability and lipid-normalized toxicant concentration in the environment. the model predicts individual growth, reproduction, bioaccumulation, and transfer of energy and toxicant from mothers to their young. we estimated all model parameters for the right whale; with these parameters, reduction in energy availability increa ...200718213965
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